Litovel (German Littau) is a town in the Olomouc District in the Olomouc Region, 18 km northwest of Olomouc on the Morava River, whose six branches give Litovel a specific character. The city is therefore also called Haná Venice. One of the branches, Nečíz, flows directly under the town hall tower and the whole square. Approximately 9,700 inhabitants live here, the cadastral area is 46.39 km². It is located at an altitude of 233 m above sea level at the foot of the Drahanská Highlands.
According to dendrochronological research, the time of
the town's origin dates back to the years 1252–1256. The city was
founded by Přemysl Otakar II. The first written mention of Litovel
comes from the years 1270–1272, when the name Luthowl appears in the
documents of the Hradisko monastery, but the first authentic written
mention of the founding of the town dates back to 1287, it is a
document stored in the town archives.
In 1291 King Wenceslas II. granted Litovel the right to brew and the right to go, and Litovel was promoted to a market village. In 1327, King John of Luxembourg allowed the city to build walls. Nineteen years later, the town joined the trio with the towns of Uničov and Olomouc, and a year later, on November 1, 1437, Litovel was attacked by Hussite troops.
In 1572, a typical town hall tower was built. In 1724, a Marian plague column by the sculptor Václav Render (also the author of the Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc) was built on the square to commemorate the plague epidemic.
In connection with the municipal reform, in 1850 Litovel became a district town, in 1869 a peasant bank was established here, and in 1899 the Czechs won the municipal elections, which brought Litovel under Czech administration. Four years later, the Rolnický Brewery in Litovel was founded. In 1901, the pride of the Czech city administration became a real school, whose Neo-Renaissance building rises above the surface of the pond in Smetanovy sady (today the Jan Opletal Grammar School).
On July 7, 1997, a thousand-year-old water came, the city was hit by a catastrophic flood and was practically completely under water, many houses were destroyed (immediately or due to broken statics). In 2017, the mayor Zdeněk Potužák stated that due to the problem with the purchase of land, flood control measures will be completed in 10 years at the earliest. On June 9, 2004, the city was destroyed by a tornado (grade F3).
During construction work in the summer of 2014, archaeologists uncovered the oldest preserved functional stone bridge in Moravia on Přemysl Otakar Square. The bridge stands above Nečíz, one of the branches of the Morava River, which flows below the square. The original paving on it has also been preserved. It is 8.5 meters long and 7 meters wide. Archaeologists date the origin of the bridge to the turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
In March 2020, Litovel was closed due to the high number of people infected during the covid-19 pandemic.