Mikulov (German Nikolsburg, Yiddish ניקאלשבורג Niklšburg, Hebrew מיקולוב) is a town in the district of Břeclav in the South Moravian Region, 18 km west of Břeclav on the border with Austria. Approximately 7,500 inhabitants live here. The historic core is a city monument reserve. The Mikulov wine-growing sub-region is named after the town.



The origin of Mikulov usually dates back to the beginning of the 12th century, when a market settlement was founded here, which was promoted to a town in 1279 and to a town in 1410. A chateau was built on the site of a Romanesque and later Gothic castle in the 17th century. Mikulov was in the possession of the Liechtensteins from the end of the 13th to the end of the 16th century, then it belonged to the Dietrichsteins until the 19th century, who owned the chateau and the manor until 1945, when the chateau also burned down.

After the battle of Austerlitz, preliminary conditions of peace between France and Austria were agreed in the local chateau (December 2, 1805). And 61 years later, after the defeat of the Austrian troops at the Battle of Sadová, on July 26, 1866, they signed an armistice between Austria and Prussia, the so-called Mikulov armistice.

From the middle of the 19th century, Mikulov stagnated due to its location outside the main railway and began to lose influence in favor of the nearby and more advantageous Břeclav. After World War II, the German city was largely displaced and the population reached pre-war levels during the 1970s.

Until 1960, Mikulov was a district town, then due to the new division of the state, the Mikulov district became part of the Břeclav district. In the years 1980–1990, the independent villages of Bavory and Klentnice were part of the town today. After the abolition of district offices, on 1 January 2003 Mikulov acquired the status of a municipality with extended powers, whose municipal office took over some tasks of the abolished district office for municipalities in the vicinity.