Most (German Brüx, Latin Pons) is a statutory town in northwestern Bohemia (Ústí nad Labem Region). Approximately 66,000 people live here. The historic city was almost completely demolished in the 1970s and 1980s due to coal mining. The most valuable building and tourist attraction is the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, moved to its current location in 1975, and Hněvín Castle on the hill above the town. The bridge is the second largest city in the Ústí Region.



The first historical mentions of the settlement of the place where the town of Most stands today come from the Latin Kosma Chronicle of the Czech Republic from the 11th century, when a path led over wooden bridges through the local swampy landscape. Hence the name of the city. The trail was used mainly by buyers traveling between Prague and Freiberg in Saxony and back. On this trade route, Hněva of the Hrabišice family founded a fortress and an adjoining settlement called Pons Gnevin in Latin.

This family controlled the settlement until 1228, when its last owner from the Hrabišice family, Kojata IV, died. Hrabišic. According to the will of the childless Kojata, written in 1227, it became the property of the Monastery of the Crusaders of the Holy Sepulcher in Zderaz near Prague. However, records from 1238 show that at that time the settlement was already the property of the Přemyslids. During their reign, Most became a city (city privileges were granted to it gradually by Přemysl Otakar II., John of Luxembourg and Charles IV.), Which became rich not only through trade, but also by growing vines in vineyards established around the city in the early 13th century. The oldest town seal dating from 1257 has also been preserved from the reign of the Přemyslids.

After a wave of devastating fires between 1455 and 1515, the city center was rebuilt and modernized. The Renaissance town hall or the late Gothic dean's church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, whose architect was Jakub Heilmann from Schweinfurt, dates from this period.

During the Thirty Years' War, the town and castle of Hněvín were conquered by the Swedes. The castle was then besieged by the imperial troops for a year and a half, but it was not possible to reconquer it. This event evoked in the locals the feeling that the castle, which by its significance has always attracted the attention of the enemy, is the source of all their suffering. At their request, therefore, in 1651, Emperor Ferdinand III. allowed the castle to be demolished. The city, damaged by the Thirty Years' War and its own inhabitants, lost its economic and political significance in the second half of the 17th century.

It was not until two hundred years later that a new stage in the city's development began when huge coal reserves were discovered in its vicinity. Since 1850, Most has been the seat of the regional court. In 1870, a railway was brought to the town, a sugar factory, a porcelain factory, a steelworks, a brewery and a town museum were built. The population has risen sharply. In 1895, the city was hit by a natural disaster - smoking (liquid sands). Several houses and their inhabitants fell underground. However, this disaster did not seriously disrupt the development of the city. In 1901, an electric street railway was put into operation, which connected the town of Most with Kopisty, Litvínov and Janov. In 1911, the town theater was opened. Between 1911 and 1913, a dam was built at Křížatky, which provided Most with drinking water. According to the 1921 census, the city had 27,402 inhabitants in 1,402 houses, of which 17,014 (62.5%) declared German nationality and 8,802 (32.3%) declared Czechoslovak nationality.

During World War II, the city was severely damaged by air raids by American bombers during their inaccurate attacks on the refinery in Záluží near Litvínov. After the war, most of the original inhabitants were displaced.

1954–1965, expansion of coal mining
The year 1954 brought the first elections to national committees and the first chairman of the local national committee became a postal employee and member of the Communist Party Václav Vágner. In the same year, Kopisty and Souš also separated from Most. The argument was the poor connection with Most and the size of the municipalities, which at that time was 5,200 inhabitants. Václav Vágner was re-elected in 1957, when there was an idealistic crisis and great unrest in Poland and Hungary. New elections and pressure on the growth of coal mining had an impact on the overall further development of the city. Over the last 12 years, mining has increased fivefold to 50 million tons of coal per year, and soil extraction has risen even more from 10 million to 120 million cubic meters of soil. It was thus decided to build new modern housing for workers and miners, as the city allegedly did not keep pace with economic development. At this time, it was not yet a question of liquidating the old town, only the construction of new housing estates.

A new housing estate began to emerge between today's Československé armády Street, Budovatelů Street and Josef Skupa Street. The architectural competition announced in 1959 by the council of the Regional National Committee in Ústí nad Labem already provided for the construction of the city center at the intersection of Budovatelů Street and Skupovy Street. The main material became cast concrete and panels, which were produced directly in the Most panel plant on the site of today's Tesco hypermarket. The first house was completed in November 1959.


March 1961 was marked by a district-wide asset of miners, which took place in Most, and which was also attended by President Antonín Novotný. In the same month, a tram line to a new part of the city was also put into operation. In July, the rough construction of the tallest building in the district at that time was completed - a fifteen-storey dormitory (now the Domino Hotel). At the end of 1962, the city already had six ten-storey prefabricated houses, each with more than seventy apartments. The forestry-technical land reclamation plant in Teplice started afforestation of the Šibeník hill and planted 80,000 seedlings. Afforestation was a necessity as the surrounding settlement was without greenery and the population began to complain.

In August 1963, fateful negotiations on the liquidation of the city took place, which came into force by Government Resolution No. 180 of 26 March 1964. With the demolition and liquidation of the city over coal deposits, the state demolition of the old profit of over one billion crowns. The first stage included the demolition of buildings at the foot of Hněvín Hill, which was to continue to Šmeral Square. The second stage was to be led from the outskirts with a gradual continuation to the city center.

In 1964, after another election, Miroslav Fleišer, director of the Transport Company of the Cities of Most and Litvínov, became the new chairman of the MNV, and together with his team he was to make the biggest changes in the city's history. The plan was the reconstruction of Hněvín Castle, the construction of a cable car (eventually not carried out), as well as the construction of a corridor into which the Bílina River, a railway, a tram line to Litvínov and an expressway were led. The specific form of liquidation of the old town and division of the new one was solved. The steelworks, the brewery and the North Bohemian Ceramic Works ceased to exist. The construction of the corridor also included the construction of a new railway station (August 1977). In addition to the central park Šibeník, recreation was also provided by Lajsník and Velebudická výsypka. The then Benedikt quarry was to become a recreational flood zone.

1965–1987, demolition of the historic Bridge and construction of a new town
In 1965, the demolition of the old Bridge began, and the city, which today could boldly compete with any monument reserve in the country, was gradually demolished for more than two decades by explosives. The oldest parts of the city were destroyed during the first ten years of demolition. In the old town, many valuable houses have been preserved until its demolition, including more than twenty Gothic buildings, while more of them were in such a small space only in Prague.

The first inhabitants moved to the new Most from January 1965 to Podžatecká Street. In the same year, the Department of the Chief Architect was established, which had the task of coordinating the construction of the now new city in the style of modernist architecture. In the same year, it was decided to move the Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary along an artificial track (plans were completed in early 1967) and construction of the hospital began (opened on March 1, 1975, cost 677 million crowns). In February 1967, the first North Bohemian youth event was opened in Most, the "Neprakta Club", which still operates today. Later, this club became a place of anti-communist activists, where concerts and performances took place outside the concept of the socialist regime.

The total investment in buildings in 1967 amounted to 344 million crowns so far. The largest construction companies included Building Constructions Ústí nad Labem - Most Construction Administration, Road and Railway Construction Prague, Ústí nad Labem Construction Administration and Konstruktiva Prague.

With 1968 came the liberation and in the town of Most more than anywhere else, as the population was based on miners and workers, the whole region had significant revolutionary traditions and the position of the Communist Party was also very strong. Nevertheless, the August occupation did not bring any significant incidents. The protests were substantial, but were limited to posters, signs and organized protests. The ONV Council and the MNV in Most finally negotiated with the commanders of foreign troops to place combat equipment outside the city, and the liaison officers were offered the area of ​​the exit center down on Široký vrch. Requirements were also introduced not to interfere in the internal affairs of the city and not to restrict the personal freedom of citizens. The military headquarters in Most was finally abolished on October 21.


The Roma issue began to be solved after 1969, when it was necessary to relocate 200 families (approximately 1,100 individuals) to municipalities outside the old Most. First, the overall relocation was considered, then the dispersion, in order to avoid their high concentration and possible problems. However, many citizens opposed this. The last solution was to build a new housing estate on the outskirts of the city and isolate the problem population from the rest of the city.

In 1970, the chief architect Václav Krejčí submitted a plan for the completion of the center and the appearance of new housing estates. The cultural house and the large SHD headquarters were planned. The first cinema (Kosmos cinema) was opened in 1971, in the same year the villages of Velebudice and Souš were connected to the town. A year later, the construction of the Prior department store began, which was to take three years. In 1973, the flooding of the former Benedikt surface mine was completed, and in 1976 the first swimming pool (now Aquadrom) opened. In 1973, the first May Day parade took place and the concrete area (formerly called "Plecháč") on today's First Square suddenly acquired its inseparable character.

On July 19, 1974 at 20:09 there was an explosion in the premises of the Chemical Plant in Záluží, which claimed 15 victims and 112 injured, a large part of the victims were also in a tram car, which was just passing near the accident. In the end, the whole event was disguised for a long time and the public still does not know exactly what happened.

In 1975, the chairman of the MNV, Miroslav Fleišer, died, and František Lorenz did not become the new chairman until September. On September 30, at 11:50, the relocation of the Dean's Church started and ended on October 27 at 8:52 am. The same year meant the end of the villages for Skyřice and a year later for the Čepirohy, both villages belonged to the administration of Most.

In the next elections in 1976, Karel Šindelář was elected, who settled in the completed building of the seat of the municipal and district national committee in December 1977 (costs amounted to approximately 82 million crowns). That same year, the building of the secondary medical school was opened for 420 pupils with a boarding school with a capacity of 180 seats and an indoor swimming pool. On October 28, the fourteen-storey building (then the tallest building in the region) of the National Security and Military Administration (now the seat of the state police, cost 48 million crowns) was opened. In December, a sports hall with a hostel (capacity 56 beds) and a restaurant (total costs 44 million) was opened to the public. A year later, it was decided to build a car circuit (now Autodrom). In 1978, the construction of a cultural house in the city center with a planetarium and a district library (capacity 450,000 volumes) began, and a new city district was created - Most 15 Rudolice-Chanov, where the Roma population from the old Bridge, but the buildings were constantly devastated by the inhabitants (one building even had to be demolished), so over time it was decided to gradually disperse Roma families.

At the end of 1979, the theater ended its activities in the old part (the last play Fox and Grapes, December) and the ensemble moved to the May cultural center, but these spaces were only temporary and were to serve only as a temporary refuge for the new theater building.

Rudolf Mooz was elected the new chairman in 1981, a secondary industrial school for 650 full-time and 300 evening students was completed, and the old building belonged to the University of Mining in Ostrava, which set up its own consultation center. Today the seat of the Regional Museum in Most. In April 1983, the largest hotel in the district was opened, the Murom Hotel (cost 110 million) for 486 guests (now the Cascade Hotel). At the end of June, the race circuit was christened and the premiere race took place on 14 August. In 1984 the district archive moved to the new building (the first purpose-built archive building after 1945 in the Czech Republic), in May the Regional House of Culture of Miners and Power Engineers (now the Repre House of Culture) with a planetarium opened, and in August another cinema, the Mír cinema. , in the library (opened in March 1985) with a capacity of 182 seats. The Workers' Theater opened on November 8, 1985 and has become perhaps the only commendable building in the new city. Another cultural stand opened to the public on November 4, the then named Cultural Monument Most and today the Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Most still had considerable reconstruction work ahead of it.

The demolitions in Most ended on April 1, 1987, when nothing remained of the original town, with the exception of the moved church and the original Zahražany district.

The November revolutionary period of 1989 did not have a significant effect on Most. In the end, the supportive ambitions of the Prague revolutionaries began to emerge. The forthcoming changes were confirmed by the visit of President Václav Havel in February 1990.