Teplice (German Teplitz, formerly Teplitz-Schönau, in 1945–1946 Teplice-Šanov) is a statutory spa town in the Ústí Region. It lies 15 km west of Ústí nad Labem in a wide valley between the Ore Mountains and the Bohemian Central Mountains. The dominant feature of the town visible from afar is Doubravská hora. Teplice has approximately 50,000 inhabitants and is known as a spa town and its football club FK Teplice. Until the Second World War, the city was nicknamed Little Paris for its high cultural level and classical architecture.



Archaeological excavations testify that prehistoric hunters lived in the town 10–40 thousand years ago. In the 4th century BC, the Celts lived here, followed by the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi.

According to Hájek's chronicle, thermal springs were discovered here in 762, but the first credible mention of a part of the town of Trnovany comes from 1057, and another from the end of the 12th century. Near the older Slavic village, around 1160, Queen Judith, the wife of Vladislav II, founded a Benedictine monastery. After about a hundred years, a fortified Gothic town was built on a rectangular floor plan. An important trade route to Saxony passed through Teplice. The monastery disappeared at the end or soon after the end of the Hussite wars, after the battle of Ústí nad Labem in 1426 and before 1436, when the monastery buildings became the property of Jakoubek of Vřesovice.

The lords often changed in Teplice, a Renaissance chateau was built on the site of the monastery and spas continued to develop. The last Czech owner of Teplice, Vilém Kinský of Vchynice and Tetovo, was assassinated together with Albrecht of Wallenstein in February 1634 in Cheb. The estate was confiscated by the emperor and dedicated to John of Aldringen. He died under mysterious circumstances the same year before he saw the manor. The estate was inherited by Jan's sister, who brought it as a dowry to Jerome Clary.

After the Thirty Years' War, the depopulated population of Teplice was supplemented by the supply of German colonists, whose descendants inhabited Teplice until its expulsion in 1945. The first lists of spa guests, the oldest in our country, date from 1680. The Clary family rebuilt the chateau in the Baroque style, and in 1718 a Baroque column of the Holy Trinity (plague column) was built from the workshop of Matyáš Bernard Braun, still standing on Zámecké náměstí.

Industry developed in the 18th century. After 1742, the first lignite mines were established in the vicinity of Teplice, and the production of stockings also flourished. Mostly wooden Teplice succumbed to most of the fire in 1793, it was restored in the Classicist style.

Teplice was the place where in 1813 the rulers of Austria, Prussia and Russia signed an agreement against Napoleon.

In 1938, Teplice was annexed as part of the Sudetenland to the Third Reich.

Spas and their visitors
The healing properties of the Teplice springs were already known in the High Middle Ages. Already in Vincent's report on the founding of the local monastery, it is stated that it was founded ad aquas calidas, ie by warm waters. The choice of consecrating the monastery to St. John the Baptist was also given by the fact that this saint is the patron saint of water. Endowment documents from the beginning of the 15th century document the existence of a spa near the monastery church.

In the 16th century, the Teplice spa gradually became known outside Bohemia. For example, Paracelsus ranked them among the ten most important spas in Europe. Their prosperity occurred after 1543, when the estate of Teplice was bought by Volf of Vřesovice from the Třeštík family from Hyršov and began their fundamental reconstruction. The main spring, today called Pravřídlo, was then called Aukrop and was located in the suburbs near the Spa Gate. The appearance of the spa was captured in the middle of the 16th century by the humanist poet Tomáš Mitis from Nymburk. In 1579, the Saxon Elector August visited the spa in Teplice for the first time.

The devastating fire of the town on June 1, 1793 was also a disaster for the spa. Except for Krupská, Dlouhá and Židovská streets, all spa buildings in the city and in the suburbs burned down. In about an hour and a half, about two hundred buildings lay in ashes. For the spa, this meant their complete new construction, whether it was Pravřídlo, Dámské lázně, Knížecí lázně, Štěpánovy lázně, Chrámové lázně and Písečné lázně.

In the second half of the 19th century, the operation of the spa came into some conflict with the growing industrialization of the city. The spa zone began to be surrounded by industrial enterprises. Nevertheless, the number of visitors to the spa was still rising. In 1878 they were visited by 10,736 people. A year later, however, the spa was hit by a catastrophe when the Döllinger shaft was flooded. The Pravřídlo and the springs in the immediate vicinity stopped gushing, only the Šanov springs remained undamaged.


In the past, the Teplice Spa hosted a number of personalities who entered both Czech and European history. One of the first known visitors in the 17th century was Vilém Slavata of Chlum and Košumberk, one of the actors of the defenestration of May 23, 1618. Another important figure who visited Teplice in the 17th century was the learned Jesuit Bohuslav Balbín. Saxon electors were regular spa guests in the 17th - 19th centuries. Among the European rulers who were treated in Teplice is, among others, Tsar Peter the Great (1712). In 1764, the future emperors Joseph II lived here. and Leopold II., King Frederick William III of Prussia visited here regularly in 1812–1839. In 1804, King Gustav IV of Sweden underwent treatment here. In 1812, Ludwig van Beethoven first met Johann Wolfgang Goethe during a spa stay in Teplice.

As for the arrivals of important personalities of cultural life, the Teplice spa experienced its heyday in the first half of the 19th century. Among the musicians - in addition to the aforementioned Beethoven - the spa was visited by, among others, Fryderik Chopin, Robert Schumann, Franz Schubert, Richard Wagner, Carl Maria von Weber, Josef Slavík, Václav Jan Tomášek, Vojtěch Jírovec and František Škroup. Many representatives of the national revival also stayed here: Josef Dobrovský, Josef Jungmann, Václav Hanka, Josef Kajetán Tyl, František Palacký, Karel Havlíček Borovský, František Ladislav Čelakovský, Pavel Josef Šafařík and others. Important guests came to Teplice in the second half of the 19th century. Thanks to that, the name Little Paris was adopted for them.