Třeboň (Wittingau in German, Trebonis in Latin) is a town in the Jindřichův Hradec district in the South Bohemian Region, 22 km east of České Budějovice, in the Třeboň Basin on the Zlatá stoka between the Svět and Rožmberk ponds. Approximately 8,200 inhabitants live here. It is a spa and recreational town, a town monument reserve and the center of the Třeboňsko Protected Landscape Area.
The name Třeboň most likely comes from the word refine
or need, which means to breed, improve or perfect (see the meaning
of the word refined). The soil was sown here through felled trees.
Almost the entire Třeboň region was originally forested and
waterlogged (floodplain forests), and trees have been mined and
processed here since the beginning of settlement; country resp. the
soil was sifted / needed for economic use. Similarly, it got the
names of the village Třebonín, Třebíč, Třebenice, Třebová,
Třebichovice, Třebechovice, Třebušín, etc. (some sources state the
meaning of the word Třebíč as felling or destroying the forest).
The beginnings of the town date back to the middle of the 12th century, when a court and then a settlement were established on the site. Around 1280, the parish church in Třeboň (Witingenowe) is mentioned. The status of the town of Třeboň was granted in 1341 and in 1376 and 1378 the so-called right of royal towns and the privilege of importing salt. It was originally owned by the Vítkovci family (Vítek z Prčic), in 1366 it passed under the auspices of the brothers from Rožmberk and got its Czech name. In 1367, the four Rosenberg brothers founded an Augustinian monastery in Třeboň, which became the center of education of the whole area (it was abolished by Emperor Joseph II in 1785, the monastery premises then belonged to the Třeboň vicariate). The Prince's Brewery in Třeboň was founded in 1379. Towards the end of the 14th century, fortifications were built around the town with walls and a moat, which proved successful in the Hussite wars, and transformed Třeboň into an impregnable fortress capable of resisting many attacks.
The first ponds were founded at the end of the 15th century by Štěpánek Netolický. His work in the 16th century was followed by pond fishermen Mikuláš Ruthard from Malešov and Jakub Krčín. In the 1680s (under the owner Vilém of Rožmberk), Edward Kelley had an alchemical workshop at Třeboň Castle. After the death of his brother Vilém, the Rosenberg ruler Petr Vok of Rožmberk moved his seat to Třeboň, who died here in 1611 without heirs. The manor belonged to the Švamberks and after the battle on Bílá hora to the emperor. In 1660, the Eggenberg estate of Třeboň became the property of the Schwarzenberg princely family, who administered it until the first land reform of 1919 (the chateau until 1940 and 1948, respectively). In 1779, a Catholic vicariate was established here, which existed until 1952. In the middle of the 19th century, teacher Václav Hucek and his daughter Berta founded the first peat spa near the peat bog in the immediate vicinity of Zlatá stoka. The President of the Republic T.G. Masaryk officially visited the city twice, in 1919 and 1925.
During World War II, over 80 citizens of Třeboň laid down their lives. On June 26, 1942, the Gestapo executed the pre-war mayor, František Adam. The names of the victims are listed on a plaque in the park in front of the primary school building. Třeboň was liberated on May 9, 1945 by the troops of the 9th Guards Army of the 2nd Ukrainian Front of the Soviet Army.
From the middle of the 19th century, Třeboň developed as a full-fledged district town, ie the seat of a political and judicial district. In 1960, however, during the nationwide reorganization of the state administration, the Třeboň district was abolished and the town was granted spa status. The Na Sadech primary school was established in the building of the former district office with a turret. In 1960, the Třeboň Department of the Institute of Microbiology of the ASCR was established. On Wednesday, August 21, 1968, the Main (Masaryk) Square was occupied by Soviet occupation tanks.