Fredericia (formerly also Frederiksodde) by the Little Belt is a
larger city in South Jutland with 40,981 inhabitants (2020). It is
the capital of Fredericia Municipality and is located in the Region
of Southern Denmark. Fredericia was founded as a fortress. It can be
seen today: the streets are perpendicular to each other (north-south
and east-west), and the center of Fredericia is surrounded by one of
Northern Europe's best-preserved ramparts from the 17th century,
which can only be compared to Fredrikstad in Norway.
The city is one of Denmark's most important traffic hubs, where railways and the E45 and E20 motorways meet. The city's deepwater port is Denmark's largest in terms of freight volume (2014), and Fredericia station is one of the country's largest. Taulov railway station has an important function for freight transport.
Fredericia is centrally located in the Triangle area and has a strong business community with some of Denmark's largest companies. The Fredericia area houses headquarters for e.g. Ørsted, Energinet.dk and Monjasa. Fredericia also stands out in the food area with a large Carlsberg brewery, and Arla operates one of Europe's largest cheese dairies in Taulov.
The fortress in Fredericia has had great significance in Danish history. The most famous is the outcome from Fredericia in 1849, which was a great military victory for Denmark. Every year, July 6 is celebrated to commemorate the victory. The military is still connected to the city, as the Telegraph Regiment is based in Fredericia. Fredericia's city coat of arms shows a crowned lion holding a sword in one forepaw and a palm branch in the other.
On December 15, 1650, the king put his signature on the document that gave the city its first privileges. In 1651, the new fortress town of Frederiksodde was named after the king, and on 22 April 1664, it received its current Latinized name, Fredericia.
Fredericia is one of the country's younger cities. Its
plan alone and its location in a place where no city would have
grown by itself show that it arose from a language of power: the
king, taught by previous wars, would secure North Jutland by a
fortress of hostile invasion and tie the connection between the
peninsula and Funen. Christian IV had already thought of such a
fortification, but further south at Snoghøj.
It was Frederik III who immediately at his accession to the throne chose the place on Bersodde, which from that time was called Frederiksodde (the outermost tip of the headland was called Skanseodde). The construction of the fortress and the associated town probably began in 1649 at the earliest. and 10. money and for 10 years for all taxes, duties and excise as well as for the next 20 years for half of duties and excise. To make room for the town, the former Ullerup Parish was closed, its church as well as the towns Ullerup, Hyby and Hannerup demolished and the fields added to the town, and the residents were forced to move within the ramparts (letters of 13 April and 17 April 1662), and their parish priest became the first parish priest in the new town. In order to strengthen the fortification and completely block the belt, the king also began to fortify it just opposite Stribs Odde, which after the queen was to be named Sophieodde (the fortress: Amaliaborg), but the plan was soon abandoned.
Fredericia fortress has begun at the same time as the city's construction and probably to about the same extent as it later got, but it was not completed when it already in the Swedish War came to stand its first test; however, it was so strong that the Swedish king would not storm it when he arrived in front of it on 23 August 1657, to which Marshal Anders Bille had withdrawn with 6,000 men. Wrangel began to fire at the town, but only after Erik Dahlbergh had personally spied out how weak the fortress was, did the Swedes dare to storm on October 24, as Dalberg with the cavalry from the north penetrated along the beach and took it after a hard fight with the Jutlanders dragons; during the battle a total of about 1,500 Danes fell, while 3,000, including the mortally wounded Anders Bille, were taken prisoner; a large booty fell into the hands of the enemy, including much that had been brought there from the surrounding area in confidence in the strength of the fortress. The Swedes remained in the partially burnt city when the war began again shortly after the peace in Roskilde, but as they were not strong enough to keep the large fortification occupied, they demolished some of the works and confined themselves to the outer tip of the headland, where they fortified themselves until they were expelled from here in May 1659 by the Danes' allies: the Brandenburgs and the Poles. On June 29, it was occupied by the Danes. The city was a bit awful, and you could start all over again, so to speak.
Under the dictatorship
The fortifications were repaired and more or less completed,
among other things by the construction of the castle on the
decoration in the year 1664, when the city by royal command got its
current name. But the city lay there with its great frame, laid out
as it was, to become a great city, yes perhaps the king has even
dreamed that it should be the new capital and royal residence, now
that the place after the loss of the Scanian provinces saw that say
had come to lie in the middle of the kingdom. But the state was
impoverished and could only do little for the city, although the
government sought to help it by large favors on paper. Frederik III
gave it new privileges on November 9, 1661 and made it a stacking
town, but what could it help, it had no port and got none until the
19th century. Nor did the great favors granted to it to provide that
approach by the people benefit much. In 1672 it had 1,591
inhabitants. On March 11, 1682, the free religious exercise for all
sects, which, however, far from brought the approach that had been
expected, yes even jus asyli, that is, all the fallen and all
foreign murderers could seek refuge here for 10 years when they paid
1 rigsdaler annually to the magistrate; in particular, the last
provision, which was first repealed in 1821, did not help to bring
it into good standing. In short, the city would not take to, just as
the fortress never got the meaning intended for it. Only in the
Great Nordic War was it put in a fairly good defensive position in
the years 1709-10, when 5,000 men and a number of peasants from
Koldinghus County worked on it, but after the war it fell into
disrepair more and more. For its maintenance, only the convicts in
the present Stockholm were used, and when it was closed down in the
18th century, nothing was done at all.
The provisions on religious freedom attracted Jews and later French Huguenots and a number of Mennonites. The Huguenots, who were called Reformed here, were specialists in the cultivation of tobacco, and in general agriculture was the most important occupation in Fredericia well into the 1800s. Most houses and buildings were located around the current Danmarksgade and Gothersgade, whereas the areas east of Købmagergade and south of Sjællandsgade well into the 1800s were largely undeveloped and were used for agricultural purposes.
The efforts of Frederik IV to help the city also ran aground in part, with the exception that in 1719 he convened a number of reformers. By a plan of 1728, a whole network of canals was set aside to serve as a port and extend far up into the city, yes, there was even space set aside for a castle, but neither one nor the other came to fruition. After the middle of the 18th century, the condition of both the city and the fortress is portrayed as deplorable as possible: the city is poor, the high taxes are far from sufficient to keep the city, especially the garrison and the large office, trade and crafts lie down: "here is of all Estates, though far more of Tære- than of Nærestanden ". It is said of the fortress, "that it can serve nothing but retreat in a few days, in case an entire army should be defeated in the open field," "it is, however, shown that such a large fortress needed a crew of 15,000 men. , if it should be able to defend itself ", and that" an enemy, in case he fell into the country, would appreciate more at Fr. Fæstning than ourselves; for when it was taken, the whole of Jutland, Schleswig and Funen was soon taken. with". In 1769 the town had 2,528 inhabitants, with the garrison.
Only in the Schleswig war was the city and fortress to attract
the attention of the whole country. At the outbreak of war in 1848,
the fortress was in such poor condition that no thought was given to
defending it, and the enemy occupied it without resistance in early
May. In the following days, the castle and the fortress were shelled
by the Danes, causing damage to the clothing house, among other
things, and when the enemy was soon forced to flee North Jutland by
Russia's threats, Fredericia was again occupied by the Danes. During
the Armistice, however, the dilapidated fortress was restored. Work
began in February 1849, and Colonel Lunding became its commander. On
14 April the fortress was declared a state of siege, and after the
encounter at Gudsø on 7 May, General Bülow withdrew with the main
army back to Fredericia and from there over to Funen, and the
fortress was enclosed by the Schleswig-Holsteins under General
Bonin, who bombed the 16th. to 19 May, without, however, adding the
great damage, and also sought to shell the ship's bridge, which was
built on the eastern front, and by which the Danes were connected
with Funen, as the crew, which consisted of 5 battalions, was at
certain times replaced from the headquarters in Funen. However, the
enemy's plan to destroy the bridge was thwarted by an energetic
outburst made by Lunding on June 30, and finally Bülow found the
opportune moment to have come to make a major attack on the enemy.
Part of the Mezas from Als and Olaf Ryes from Nørrejylland joined
Schleppegrell's and Moltke's brigades, which were on Funen, and in
the first days of July all the troops were shipped to Fredericia
(the last ones arrived on the evening of 5 July), viz. 3rd, 4th, 5th
and 6th Brigade, a total of 19,000 men and 48 guns, in addition to
4,000 man occupation troops. Friday morning at On July 6, the battle
began, with the avant-garde under the Meza moving out of the King's
Gate and an exit gate close to the west of it, followed by
Schleppegrell's brigade, while the right wing under Rye and Moltke
also moved out of the King's Gate, but walked along the beach. Bülow
led the entire battle as chief general. After a few hours of fierce
fighting, during which the position of the avant-garde was at first
very critical, the enemies were driven out from all their
strongholds, and at. 3 1/2 gave Bonin, who had tried in vain a
counterattack, order to retreat. The battle continued, however, for
a few more hours with the pursuit of the enemy. In addition to some
guns and ammunition, the Danes had taken about 1,600 prisoners, but
the victory was also costly: 33 officers, including Rye, and 479 men
were killed, and 42 officers and 1,302 men wounded, a loss that was
no less than the enemies.
After the war there was often talk of renovating the fortress, but only from 1861 was anything done, especially began on the construction of a so-called fortified camp to the north, but the workers were of no further importance, and when Fredericia was ordered in defense 23 December 1863, again under NC Lunding as commander, its condition was very poor. On March 8, it was captured by the Prussians, to which a few days later the Austrians joined. They bombed the city on 19-21. March, in which some were killed and wounded, while 35 houses burned down and 93 were damaged. Following the Ministry of War's order of 25 April, the fortress was evacuated, where after 29 April it was occupied by the Austrians. Since that time, Fredericia as a fortress must be considered disused, although it still consisted of name.
A ceasefire was concluded in July, and after the peace negotiations were over in October 1864, the border with Germany was now immediately south of Kolding, just 50 km from Fredericia.
The early industrialization
Although the fortress of Fredericia gradually lost its defensive significance, it was not officially closed until 1909 as part of a new defense law. This meant i.a. also that one could now build outside the ramparts, which the city desperately needed. It had gradually become crowded in Fredericia. Especially the area north of the ramparts up to the current Indre Ringvej was quickly built up, just as the harbor was greatly expanded. Large industrial companies such as a sulfuric acid and superphosphate factory as well as unloading facilities for oil companies were built at the port, which over the years gave the city the unfortunate predicate of being Denmark's most polluted city.
The railway had come to the city in 1866 with the opening of the
Fredericia-Vamdrup line, and two years later the railway connection
came to Aarhus. The first railway station in the city was a
so-called refurbishment station, ie where the trains did not run
through, but in and out from the same side. Incidentally, it still
exists today furnished with offices on Oldenborggade 1. From the
station there was a short walk to DSB's ferries with a crossing to
Strib, from where you could continue by train across Funen.
Fredericia's population was growing until World War I: the city had 4,141 inhabitants in 1834, 4,433 in 1840, 4,615 in 1845, 4,326 in 1850, 5,579 in 1855, 6,261 in 1860, 7,186 in 1870, 8,275 in 1880, 10,042 in 1890, 12,714 in 1901, 1,451 in 1906, 14228 in 1911 and 15,206 inhabitants in 1916 (of which 377 under non-urban conditions). By population, it was then the 12th largest city in the kingdom.
The interwar period
During the interwar period, Fredericia's population was growing: in 1916 15,206, in 1921 17,240, in 1925 18,454, in 1930 19,389, in 1935 21,463, in 1940 21,871 inhabitants.
At the census in 1930, Fredericia had 19,389 inhabitants, of which 1,254 subsisted on intangible activities, 8,210 on crafts and industry, 2,076 on trade etc., 3,891 on transport, 717 on agriculture, forestry and fishing, 1,356 on handicrafts, 1,702 were out of business and 183 had not stated source of income.
As a result of growing train traffic and not least freight traffic, the state decided to build the Little Belt Bridge, which opened in 1935 together with new track areas and a new railway station in Jernbanegade.
Fredericia, as well as the rest of the country, was occupied by the German occupation troops on April 9, 1940. There were few exchanges of fire before the government announced the surrender of the country. Until November 1942, there were still a few Danish soldiers left in Fredericia.
The post-war period
After World War II, Fredericia's population growth continued. In 1945 there were 22,963 people living in the market town, in 1950 25,981, in 1955 27,910, in 1960 29,870 and in 1965 31,955 inhabitants. Gradually, a suburban settlement of Sanddal and Erritsø town developed in Erritsø Municipality.
The city quickly came over the occupation, and there was progress in all areas. The large number of public employees within DSB, the postal service and the army left their mark on the city, which is believed to have been without a local dialect for this very reason, as many were newcomers. The town grew both to the north and west and gradually grew together with Erritsø and Snoghøj, which was also merged with the market town during the municipal reform in 1970.
Shell opened a large refinery north of the city in the mid-1960s, and in 1984 the new pipeline that carries crude oil from the North Sea oil fields to the refinery was inaugurated. In addition, in the 1980s, the City Council became more focused on the problem of pollution, and many new initiatives were launched. In 1996, the city was widely recognized for its significant efforts in the field of the environment.
In 2004, Kemira (formerly Superfos) closed its production at the port, which also meant a closure of the ammonia port near the New Little Belt Bridge. In the following years, the large buildings collapsed. In order for it to be possible to utilize the land for e.g. business, housing and cultural purposes, Fredericia Shipyard was terminated by a unanimous city council in 2008 from its lease on the harbor, and in early 2011 the yard moved its activities to the Lindø shipyard on Funen. The case of moving the shipyard and its workplaces created a great deal of debate in Fredericia, and in the local elections in 2009 the former Social Democratic stronghold fell, after which the city got a new, young mayor from the Liberal Party. In the local elections in 2013, the mayoral post went back to the Social Democrats.
The former industrial area at the harbor is today part of a large urban development project called FredericiaC, which is marketed as "The Channel City by the Little Belt". The first canal is being established and will open in the summer of 2015, and the first residential and commercial buildings in the area have been decided.
A.P. In 2013, Møller and his wife Chastine Mc-Kinney Møller's Foundation for General Purposes donated DKK 50 million. DKK for the renovation of building facades worthy of preservation within the ramparts. The funds, which are administered by Fredericia Municipality, are paid out over a number of years and are expected to benefit more than 500 buildings in the city center. In connection with the administration of the funds, the buildings worthy of preservation in Fredericia were reassessed, which resulted in 43% of the properties in the city center now being classified as worthy of preservation. Previously, this applied to only 27% of the properties.
Fredericia has one of Denmark's most urban beaches in Østerstrand. The beach has changing facilities and a café and has had the blue flag for a number of years.