Denmark

Denmark Destinations Travel Guide

 

Language: Danish
Currency: Danish krone (DKK)
Calling Code: 45

 

Description of Denmark

Denmark is a sovereign country member of the European Union located in northern Europe. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries and also the smallest. Officially, the Kingdom of Denmark - in Danish: Kongeriget Danmark or Danmarks Rige - is a community made up of three autonomous parts, Denmark itself and its two overseas territories or dependent territories, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Its capital and most populous city is Copenhagen, which is located on the island of Selandia. Denmark is the least corrupt country in the world (2010) and, according to studies, the country where the inhabitants are happiest and one of the best in the world to live.

Denmark is part of Scandinavia and only has a land border with Germany, although since 1999 it has been linked to Sweden by road and rail, via the Øresund bridge. The Danish territory consists of the Jutland peninsula (Jylland) and 407 islands, of which 79 are inhabited (2009), Denmark has 7314 km of coastline and is completely surrounded by the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, except for Jutland, which links it to the European continent. The main Danish islands are Zealand (Sjælland), Fyn (Fyn), Vendsyssel-Thy, Lolandia and Bornholm, the furthest from the Danish archipelago. This position has given Denmark, historically, control over access to the Baltic Sea.

Since 1849, the year in which the absolute monarchy that had ruled the country since 1660 was abolished, it became a parliamentary monarchy in 1901. In terms of permanence, the Danish monarchy can be considered the oldest monarchy in the world, having existed for at least one millennium. Denmark is part of the European Union (but does not use the euro). When the country joined the EEC in 1973 it did so without the Faroe Islands, while Greenland chose to separate from the EEC in 1985. It also became a founding member of NATO in 1949, ending the traditional policy of neutrality that I had held until then.

Due to its poor nature in geological resources, Denmark sustained its economy in agricultural activity, thanks to its farms, fishing exploitation and the naval industry. In the last century, the Danes have promoted the industrialization of their country and have favored the establishment of a welfare state, guaranteeing access to public services since the signing of the Kanslergade agreement in 1933. Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II.

 

Travel Destinations in Denmark

Copenhagen

 

Frilandsmuseet

Jægerspris Slot

 

Jutland

East Jutland

Aarhus
Billund
Ebeltoft
Fredericia
Grenaa

Horsens
Jelling
Randers
Silkeborg
Skanderborg
Vejle
Viborg

Mols Bjerg National Park

 

North Jutland
Aalborg
Aars
Blokhus
Dronninglund
Fjerritslev
Frederikshavn
Hanstholm
Hirtshals
Hjallerup
Hjørring
Hobro
Hadsund
Løkken
Mariager
Skagen
Sæby
Thisted
Thy National Park
Voergård Castle

 

South Jutland
Esbjerg
Christiansfeld
Haderslev
Højer
Kolding
Ribe
Sønderborg
Tønder
Åbenrå
Vejen

 

West Jutland
Herning
Holstebro
Lemvig
Ringkøbing
Hvide Sande
Skive
Skjern
Struer
Ulfborg
Varde
Videbæk
Hjerl Hede Frilandsmuseum

 

Funen (Fyn)

 

Odense
Assens
Bogense
Faaborg
Kerteminde
Middelfart
Nyborg
Otterup
Ringe
Svendborg

 

Sydfynske Øhav (South Funen Archipelago)

 Langeland

Rudkøbing
Spodsbjerg
Lohals
Bagenkop

 

Ærø

 

Zealand (Sjælland)

  North Zealand

Elsinore
Fredensborg
Frederikssund

Frederiksværk
Hillerød
Hundested

Frederiksborg Castle

 

West Zealand

Holbæk
Høng
Jyderup
Kalundborg
Korsør

Ringsted
Roskilde
Skælskør
Slagelse
Sorø

 

South Zealand

Faxe
Glumsø
Haslev
Køge

Næstved
Præstø
Store Heddinge
Vordingborg

 

Lolland-Falster

Lolland

Bandholm
Guldborg
Kragenæs
Maribo

Nakskov
Nysted
Rødby
Sakskøbing

 

Falster

Gedser
Marielyst

Nykøbing Falster
Stubbekøbing

 

Møn

Stege

 

Smålandsfarvandet

Fejø

Femø

 

Bornholm

Hammershus Castle

Østerlars Church

 

Getting there

By plane
By far the largest airport in Denmark is the international airport Copenhagen-Kastrup (CPH), which is a hub of the Scandinavian airline SAS and has numerous direct connections from the German-speaking area. There is a second, much smaller airport near the capital: Copenhagen-Roskilde (RKE) is only used for short-haul flights within Denmark.

Other larger international airports are Billund (BLL) in South Jutland and Aalborg (AAL) in North Jutland.

There are smaller airports with only regional importance in Aarhus (AAR) in Central Jutland, Rønne (RNN) on Bornholm, Karup (KRP) in Central, Esbjerg (EBJ) and Sønderborg (SGD) in South Jutland - they are only from German-speaking countries accessible with transfer connections.

By train
There are two international rail lines from Germany to Denmark: every four hours an EC runs from Hamburg via Kolding and Odense to Copenhagen. The journey from Hamburg to Copenhagen takes 4:40 hours. An Intercity also runs every two hours from Flensburg to Fredericia (individual trains come directly from Hamburg or continue to Aarhus). Until 2019, the trains went to Copenhagen via Lübeck and were loaded between Puttgarden and Rødby via ferry across Fehmarnsund; Due to the construction work on the Fehmarnbelt tunnel, this type of loading is history after 56 years.

Regional trains run every 20 minutes across the Öresund Bridge between Malmö (Sweden) and Copenhagen, some from Kalmar or Växjö, some from Karlskrona and some from Mölndal near Göteborg. There is also the X2000 high-speed train, which runs every two hours, from Stockholm via Linköping to Copenhagen - the journey from Stockholm to Copenhagen takes just over five hours. An X2000 also drives every two hours from Varberg on the west coast of Sweden via Helsingborg to Copenhagen (total travel time 2:20 hours).

By bus
From Flensburg there are buses to Aarhus, Kolding and Vejle.

By street
The alcohol limit in Denmark is 0.5. The penalties for non-compliance are based on income and can be up to one month's earnings.

A mainland connection to Denmark is only available via Germany. There is a bridge from Sweden. Other countries are connected to the kingdom via ferry connections.

North Sea
The following connection is available to get to the Danish North Sea coast:
On the A7 E45 to Handewitt. Continue on the B199 and B5 to the Danish border. The P11 then continues along the southern coast.
If you want to go further north, for example near Esbjerg, follow the E 45 to Motorvejskryds Kolding Vest (Kolding Vest motorway junction; also Kolding V).

 

Baltic Sea
Travelers on the way to the Danish Baltic coast follow the A7 E45 motorway to the border near Flensburg, which then continues north as the E45.

Travelers in the direction of Sønderborg and Als follow the P8 and the signs from Motorvejskryds Kliplev near the border.
If you want to go a little further, for example to Odense or the state capital Copenhagen, follow the E20 and signs from Motorvejskryds Kolding.
Aalborg, Aarhus and Randers are on the E 45.
From Sweden you can get to Denmark on the E20, which crosses the Öresund Bridge (toll!) And connects Malmö with Copenhagen.

By boat
Scandlines operates ferries from Puttgarden to Rødby on Lolland and from Rostock-Warnemünde to Gedser on Falster. BornholmerFærgen operates the ferry routes from Sassnitz, from Køge on Zealand (near Copenhagen) and from Ystad in Sweden to Rønne on Bornholm.

There are also ferry connections to North Jutland from Norway and Sweden:

to Frederikshavn from Gothenburg and Oslo (Stenaline)
to Hirtshals from Kristiansand, Larvik (Colorline) and Bergen (Norway) (Fjordline), also from Iceland via the Faroe Islands (Smyrilline)
As a passenger on a freighter voyage, you can go ashore in Aalborg, Aarhus, Fredericia and Copenhagen.

By bicycle
Cyclists from Germany can cycle to Jutland on the North Sea Cycle Path or on the Ochsenweg from Hamburg via Flensburg, which is well signposted. The long-distance cycle route Berlin - Copenhagen, including the Rostock-Gedser ferry, leads cyclists across the islands of Falster and Zealand.

 

Around the country

By plane
There are domestic flights, especially between Copenhagen and Jutland (especially Aalborg) and from these two to the smaller and more remote islands (e.g. Bornholm). The most important providers are SAS, Danish Air Tranport (DAT) and Norwegian Air Shuttle.

By train
Long-distance rail transport is operated by the Danske Statsbaner (DSB). The highest and fastest train class in domestic traffic is the Lyntog (LYN; "Blitzzug"), followed by the InterCity (IC). Jutland and the larger islands of Funen, Zealand, Falster and Lolland are interconnected by bridges, so that you can travel from one to the other by train without any difficulties. On the most important route Copenhagen – Odense – Fredericia – Aarhus – Aalborg, the Lyntoge run every hour, supplemented by ICs that are also hourly. There is also an hourly IC connection between Copenhagen and South Jutland (Kolding, Esbjerg).

The regional traffic is partially outsourced to private railway companies. In Jutland z. B. Arriva Danmark local trains, which offer free wireless internet access in their carriages.

The DSB connection information takes into account both its own trains and those of private providers as well as buses.

By bus
Important providers on the long-distance bus market are Abildskou and Rødbillet. Both mainly offer connections between Copenhagen and different cities in Jutland, with Abildskou usually having more journeys while Rødbillet tends to have the lower prices.

In the street
A special feature of the country, which consists of many islands, are the numerous road bridges, especially the large bridges with which straits are bridged, such as the Storebæltsbron, the bridge over the Great Belt between Funen and Zealand, and the Øresundsbroen, the bridge over the Øresund between the Danish Zealand and the Swedish mainland near Malmö.

By bicycle
The bicycle is an everyday means of transport in Denmark, and the capital Copenhagen in particular is known for its bicycle-friendly policy. Denmark also offers good conditions for cyclists to be mobile with their own bikes. A total of 11 national cycle routes run through the country (the numbering is slightly misleading, number 11 is currently not assigned).

DK-1: The North Sea Cycle Route Denmark (Vestkystruten) (West Coast Route) as a national section of the North Sea Cycle Route leads around (almost) all of Jutland, from Rudbøl on the German-Danish border via Esbjerg, Søndervig, Thyborøn on the west coast to Hanstholm and finally on the north coast to Hirtshals and Skagen. The North Sea Cycle Route then continues over the DK-5.
DK-2: Hanstholm - Copenhagen
DK-3: Hærvejsruten (Heerwegroute) (Skiveren - Padborg)
DK-4: Søndervig - Aarhus - Copenhagen
DK-5: The North Sea Cycle Route Denmark (Østkystruten) (Baltic Sea Route) from Hulsig to Sønderborg forms the second national section of the North Sea Cycle Route. This begins in Hulsig, about halfway the Hirtshals - Skagen route, and leads along the east coast of Jutland via Frederikshavn to Grenaa, where the North Sea Cycle Route leaves Denmark for Sweden. We continue along the eastern and southern coastal areas to Sønderborg, which is back on Jutland.
DK-6: Esbjerg - Odense - Copenhagen
DK-7: Sjællands Odde - Rødby
DK-8: Sydhavsruten (South Sea Route) Rudbøl - ​​Møn
DK-9: Helsingør - Gedser
DK-10: The Bornholm Rundt leads once "Around Bornholm" in a little more than 100 km and offers a leisurely, but not always strenuous tour, which is particularly suitable for families.
DK-12: Limfjordsruten (Around the Limfjord)

By boat
Even if bridges are increasingly connecting the many islands with each other and with the mainland, ferries are still the main means of transport. Some islands can only be reached by ship, others can also be reached via bridges.

Bornholm, connections from Køge on Zealand, from Ystad in Sweden and seasonally from Sassnitz on Rügen
Fanø, connection from Esbjerg
Langeland, connection from Tårs on Lolland to Spodsbjerg, in addition to the bridge system to Fyn
Samsø, connection from Kalundborg on Zealand to Kolby Kås and from Hov (Hou) on Zealand to Sælvig
Ærø, connection from Fynshav to Als, which in turn can be reached via bridges from Sønderborg

 

 

language
In addition to the national language Danish, English is the main language spoken and understood. In the regions close to the border with Germany, especially in North Schleswig, German is also spoken, although the German language is no longer so widespread among the younger population. Norwegian and Swedish are also usually understood without any problems because they belong to the same language family.

shopping
Supermarkets are usually also open on Sundays, restrictions are possible outside of the summer season. In the tourist centers, the opening times are often the same on all days (often until 8/21 p.m.), but the supermarkets in smaller towns often close earlier on Saturday and Sunday (5/6 p.m.). Often campsites have a small "købmand" attached.

When using credit cards, fees may be added. It's only about 50 ore per process, but it may be worth paying in cash.

kitchen
Eating out in restaurants is relatively expensive; However, in all regions of Denmark there is the possibility of getting something of the same quality at lower prices in cafeterias. Local specialties are often offered (relatively) cheaply, especially in the cafeterias of museums and other sights.

Traditional Danish cuisine is based on different types of fish such as herring. In many coastal towns there are small smokehouses or fish snack bars at the harbor, in which you can get a cheap range of different smoked fish specialties during the day, as well as fried fish fillets which are now widely available. In the upscale restaurants in particular, there are also hearty meat dishes such as "dansk bøf" or "stegt flæsk og persillesovs", thick slices of pork with a cream sauce.

As in Germany, Martin's goose Mortensgås is traditionally eaten on Saint Martin's Day.

Beer is a very popular drink with meals, wine is drunk less often. An Akvavit is often drunk at the end of a meal. In contrast, self-caterers receive e.g. to the neighboring country Norway in Denmark alcoholic beverages also problem-free in the supermarket.

The warm meal of the day is called middag and is taken in the evening at 5 or 6 p.m., after 8 p.m. or 9 p.m. at the latest, most Danish restaurants will not get a hot meal. Frokost, on the other hand, is eaten at lunchtime, while breakfast is called Morgenmad.

The smørrebrød is considered the typical Danish dish. It literally means "bread and butter", but has nothing to do with a simple bread and butter, but is mostly an artfully arranged bread. Another typical dessert is "rød grød med fløde", red fruit jelly with cream.

In the Danish kitchen there is a multitude of desserts such as pies and cakes kager, cinnamon rolls Kanelsnegl, Krapfen Æbleskiver or the sweet buns Boller.

Nightlife
In Denmark people go out less often and festivals are celebrated on a grand scale at home.

Discos are considered to be something particularly noble and are not visited as often by young people as in other European countries, but then with sophisticated clothing styles. In return, the Danes like to celebrate festivals all the time - every region has its own music, culture, children and harbor festivals, which are strung together over the summer and are by no means only attended by locals.

In rural areas in particular, there is often the local "kro", where you can eat and drink in the evening - but with the restriction that the nightlife in Denmark as well as going out for dinner is much earlier than what you are used to in Germany is limited. If you don't want to drink your beer until 10 p.m., you'd better buy it in the supermarket beforehand ...

Accommodation
The value added tax on overnight stays is a record 25%, which inevitably drives up prices. A tourism tax may also be charged.

Hotels and B&B
Simple hotels are rather rare, but the offer is normal in the higher-priced segment. In rural areas it is often the local Kro who also runs a small hotel. In addition, the number of B&B offers in Denmark is increasing. Those who are still spontaneously looking for a room in the afternoon or evening should pay attention to the "rom single" notices on the roadside.

 

 

camping
The Danish campsites are usually characterized by a very high standard, especially the offers for families are often very well developed: Large playgrounds, the "hoppepude" (jumping pillows) that are almost standard, and separate family washrooms. But the needs of contemporaries looking for peace and quiet are also taken into account, many campsites have different areas for different target groups. A characteristic feature of Danish campsites (mostly!) Is that it suddenly becomes quiet on the site after sunset, noisy hustle and bustle until well after midnight is completely atypical and is rigorously prevented on most sites. Overall, the supply buildings are often generous, self-catering kitchens - but at least good washing-up facilities - of course, washing machine and dryer as well, and there is usually a small shop selling at least dairy products and bread.

Overall, the capacities on the Danish campsites are mostly above average, but during the Danish summer vacation time the supply in particularly popular regions can become scarce. As the owner of a caravan and looking for a place to stand for several days or weeks, it can make sense to book it in advance at your favorite campsite.

Special regulations generally apply to all travelers who are traveling on their own (cyclists, hikers, canoeists) at commercial campsites; they get a space for one night at all campsites in Denmark, even if the space is officially booked out.

Overnatning i det fri
Another peculiarity in Denmark, in which the "Allemannsretten", the everyone's right, does not apply in the same form as in the other Scandinavian countries, are the campsites for non-motorized travelers, often located on hiking and biking trails in very lonely regions, but sometimes also present in the places. A distinction is made between the places Overnatning i det fri, simple camp or shelter places, which are mostly privately owned and for which you pay a small amount to the owner (usually around 30 DKK per person / night), and the public camp places, lejrplads, teltplads or primitive camping, which are managed by the "Naturstyrelsen" department of the Danish Ministry of the Environment and can be used free of charge. Some campsites offer no infrastructure at all, just a (mowed) place to pitch your own tent, on others there are one or more low shelters where you can sleep with your own mat and sleeping bag, some only have running water, others even have a shower Installed. You can research these places either in the printed directory "Overnatning i det fri" (link above) or on various websites, e.g. udinaturen.dk.

Some rules apply to all shelter or storage spaces:

Max. two overnight stays
only for hikers or cyclists, canoeists, sailors on the banks), some places also allow riders
Individual travelers or small groups, large groups are not allowed
Fire only when there is no risk of forest fire, only in prepared areas
Rubbish usually has to be taken back with you

Hostels
Accommodation in a hostel / youth hostel is a completely normal thing in Denmark, even for adults, especially in large cities or the regions that are particularly popular with tourists, if you are not flexible in terms of time and want more comfort than a dormitory bed, you should also book here during the holiday season. A hallmark of Danish - like most Scandinavian hostels, especially those affiliated with hihostels.com (the international youth hostel association) - is a good infrastructure for self-catering: self-catering kitchens, washing machines, etc. are usually a matter of course.

Vacation homes

The most common type of accommodation for vacationers, however, are the numerous holiday homes. These houses are mostly privately owned and rented out through various agencies. The price depends on the location, facilities and season. Most of the houses are comfortably furnished, and many also have extras such as a whirlpool, sauna, swimming pool (indoor) or winter garden. Almost all of the rental agencies have an internet presence, some are nationwide, others only rent houses in a certain area. The latter are often not commercially active but part of the local tourist office. The rental period is usually one or more weeks, with the traditional arrival and departure day being Saturday. Few agencies offer more flexible appointments. In addition to the rental prices stated in the catalog or on the homepage, electricity consumption and often water consumption must always be paid. Houses with a pool or sauna have a very high power consumption. This applies in particular to pool houses, as the heating takes place by warming the room air and usually cannot be changed by the tenant. In addition to normal consumption, additional costs of 100 to 150 euros per week are to be expected for a pool house. The final cleaning can be carried out by the tenant, but is also organized by the agency for an appropriate fee. When bringing pets, booking the final cleaning is usually mandatory.


security
The emergency call center is contacted via emergency number 112 (Danish: Alarm 112) for accidents, serious crimes or fire. Situations that pose a threat to life, health, property or the environment. Emergency number 114 (Danish: Service 114) is for inquiries to the police (Politi) that are not urgent.

Entry with a pet
Denmark is one of the most dog-friendly countries in Europe. Nevertheless, there are some important rules to be observed. The following applies to the importation of dogs, cats and ferrets: Identifiability is important. The following requirements must be met:

Chip or tattoo
EU pet passport
Valid rabies vaccination
When introducing a dog, cat or ferret from an EU country to Denmark, it is very important that the animal can be identified, either by means of a chip or a clearly legible tattoo (e.g. an ear tattoo). The microchip is compulsory for animals that are marked for the first time from July 3rd 2011 If the pet is not accompanied by the owner or by someone who is responsible for the pet on behalf of the owner, the import will be considered a commercial import.

EU pet passport and rabies vaccination In addition, the animal must have an EU pet passport issued by a veterinarian in which the veterinarian confirms that a vaccination or re-vaccination against rabies has been carried out. It is important that the last vaccination or re-vaccination is not older than the tattoo or the insertion of the chip. A new vaccination must have been carried out at least 3 weeks before entry. The duration of vaccination protection is based on the instructions of the vaccine manufacturer.

Dogs must be kept on a leash throughout Denmark. Exceptions are specially marked open-air areas ("Hundeskov") and the beach in winter. Any fines are - as always in Denmark - considerable.

The law prohibits the keeping, breeding and importation of the following 13 dog breeds in Denmark if the animals were purchased after March 17th, 2010. Offenses are punished with a fine or a prison sentence for the dog owner as well as with the dog being put to sleep. There are also hybrids of the above 13 dog breeds affected.

1) Pitbull Terrier 2) Tosa Inu 3) American Staffordshire Terrier 4) Fila Brasileiro 5) Dogo Argentino 6) American Bulldog 7) Boerboel 8) Kangal 9) Central Asian Shepherd 10) Caucasian Shepherd 11) South Russian Shepherd 12) Tornjak 13) Sarplaninac

 

Post and Telecommunications
If you traditionally send postcards from your vacation, you should think twice about it in Denmark, or reduce it significantly. The postcards cost the same as in other countries (between 40 and 80 ct), but the postage! A postage stamp for a postcard from Denmark to Germany costs 27 crowns in 2018, i.e. around € 3.60. If you still want to take the risk: There are stamps almost everywhere where you can buy postcards.

 

Etymology

The etymology of the toponym "Denmark" has not yet been precisely clarified and remains the subject of scientific disputes; in the sources of the 5th-6th centuries. the ancient Germanic tribe Dana is mentioned, who lived on the Jutland Peninsula. In the ninth century during the administrative structure of the border lands of the empire of Charlemagne, Danmark was formed - the “Danish mark” (brand - other Upper German “border, border lands”), which became in the 11th century as the state of Denmark.

 

Geography

Denmark is located on the Jutland Peninsula and the islands of Funen, Zeeland, Falster, Lolland, Bornholm, parts of the North Frisian and others. In the south of the Jutland Peninsula, Denmark borders on Germany and is washed by the North and Baltic Seas; the Skagerrak separates Denmark from Norway, and the Kattegat and Øresund straits from Sweden. Formally, Denmark includes the world's largest island - Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, but these territories enjoy self-government, making them almost independent.

The area occupied by land is 42,394 km²; water - 700 km². The highest point is Yding Skovhoy (173 m), the lowest is Lammefjord (−7 m). The length of the borders with Germany is 67 km. The length of the coastline is 7314 km.

The landscape of the country is low. The relief is flat with traces of glaciation. In the west of Jutland there are sandy and moraine plains, in the north and east there is a hilly terrain with ridges of moraines up to 173 m high and numerous lakes. Small rivers predominate, the most significant of them is Gudeno. Numerous small flowing lakes of glacial origin are located on the plain.

The climate is temperate, maritime, with mild, unstable winters, cool summers, and extended transitional seasons. The average temperature in February is −1…0 °C, in July — +15…+17 °C.

Danish landscapes fall into one of three types: agricultural land, treeless communities (meadows, marshes, moorlands) and forest plantations. Forests, as of 2005, occupy about 13% of the country's territory. Indigenous broad-leaved (beech and oak) forests were destroyed during the development of the territory; currently about 3,000 ha of forests are planted annually. Cultivated oak forests predominate on the islands, while coniferous forests (common spruce, pines) predominate on the Jutland Peninsula.

There are 49 species of mammals on the territory of Denmark, of which 19 are included in the Red Book of Denmark. Most of them are rodents and insectivores. In the forests, roe deer and red deer have been preserved, in the waters of the North Sea - Baltic seals, common seals, long-snouted seals. Since 1850, about 350 native species[en] of animals and plants have been lost.

Population
Since 1900, the population of Denmark in million people, natural increase per 1000 people, migration gain (per 1000 people) and total fertility rate (2.1 population replacement level).

The population for the second quarter of 2021 is 5,843,347 people. The largest cities are Copenhagen (1,096,187 people), Aarhus (219,003 people), Odense (145,300 people), Aalborg (120,059 people). The average life expectancy is 79.52 years for men, 83.51 for women (2021). Age composition: up to 14 years old - 16.42%; from 15 to 64 years old - 63.67%; 65 years and older - 19.91% (2020). The average age of the population: the population as a whole - 42 years; men - 40.9 years; women - 43.1 years (2020). 1 million students. More than 2 million families. Out of 100 families, 55 own their own houses.

Most of the population is of Scandinavian origin, small groups are Inuit (or Eskimo, from Greenland), Faroese, Germans, Frisians and immigrants. According to official statistics, in 2003 immigrants accounted for 6.2% of the population. Danish is spoken throughout the country, although a small part of the population living on the German border also speaks German. Many Danes also speak English well, especially those living in large cities and young people who study English in schools.

 

Religion

According to official statistics as of January 1, 2020, 74.4% of the population of Denmark were members of the state-run Danish Folk Church (Den Danske Folkekirke), also known as the Church of Denmark and belonging to Lutheranism. But according to the results of the Eurobarometer survey from 2005, it is shown that Denmark is fourth from the bottom (% of believers are less only in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Sweden) in the list of believing countries in the EU: only 31% of Danes believe in God, 49% believe in some kind of spirit or force of life, 19% do not believe in a god or any spirit or force of life.

The composition of the population by religion as of 2019: 74.7% - Protestants, 5.5% - Muslims, 19.8% - profess other religions / irreligious / no data.

As of January 1, 2020, 74.4% of the Danish population were members of the Danish People's Church, a decrease of 0.4% compared to 2019 and 1% compared to 2018. Despite the large membership, only 3% of the population regularly attend Sunday services and only 19% of the Danish population consider religion to be an important part of their lives. As of January 1, 2020, the membership of the Danish People's Church in Copenhagen was 56.4%.

 

Migration policy
From 2001 to 2011, a minority coalition of Venstre and the Conservative People's Party was in power. In exchange for support for the third largest far-right Danish People's Party, the government consistently tightened immigration laws.

Anti-immigration measures have significantly reduced the influx of certain categories of migrants to Denmark. In particular, in 2006, 4,198 entry permits for family reunification were issued, which is 70% less than in 2001, and political asylum was granted to 1,098 people (82.5% less). At the same time, over the period 2001-2006, the number of those who received a study visa increased from 10 to 28.4 thousand people (an increase of 2.8 times), and those who entered on a work visa - from 5.9 to 12.8 thousand people (an increase by 100%). In 2011, the measures were further tightened - in particular, a points system was introduced for the spouses of immigrants who wish to enter the country. These measures are criticized by European and international organizations as being inconsistent with European human rights law.

As of 2021, 86% of the total population of Denmark is ethnic Danes, while the remaining 14% or more of 817,438 people are immigrants and their descendants (199,668 people are second-generation immigrants born in Denmark).

 

History

Early history
The first human traces on the territory of Denmark are dated to the Riess-Wurm interglacial (about 100-70 thousand years ago). The first settlements belong to the Bromme culture (the end of the Upper Paleolithic). The Mesolithic period is represented by archaeological finds of the Maglemose and Ertebölle cultures. Approximately 3900 years BC. e. agriculture appeared on the territory of Denmark.

The Scandinavian Bronze Age is marked by a number of archaeological finds, the most famous of which is the so-called sun wagon from Trundholm. At the end of the first millennium BC. e. Cimbri and Teutons lived on the territory of the Jutland Peninsula.

In the IV century. Jutes and Angles arrived in Denmark, during the Great Migration of Nations they migrated to Britain, and the Jutland Peninsula was settled by Danes who came from the south of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The first information about them appears in the sources of the 6th-7th centuries. The Danes were united in tribal unions, by the beginning of the 9th century they began to develop an early feudal structure of society, headed by leaders (konungs), below - tribal nobility and free communal peasants (bonds), who had the right to bear arms.

Viking Age
The Danes were active participants in the Viking campaigns that took place from the end of the 8th to the 11th centuries. During this period, Iceland was mastered, and settlements were created in Greenland and North America (Vinland). The Hedeby settlement in southern Jutland became an important trading hub.

The main direction of Danish campaigns was Great Britain and France. The Danish ruler Gudfred fought with Charlemagne. King Rorik of Jutland is identified by some historians with Rurik, the founder of the dynasty of Russian princes. King Ragnar Lodbrok is credited with the capture of Paris, another Viking Rollon, as a result of a successful campaign, received land in the north of France in a fief and became the first duke of Normandy. At the end of the 9th century, the Danes invaded England and conquered vast areas of Northeast England. King Canute the Great by 1028 united Denmark, Norway and England under his rule, but his power fell apart within a few years after his death in 1035. In 1086 Canute IV the Holy, grandson of Canute the Great, was killed. In Denmark, strife began, which continued until the middle of the 12th century.

The Christianization of Denmark began in the 8th century and is associated with the activities of the missionaries Willibrord and Ansgar. In the 960s, King Harald I Blue-tooth was baptized himself and made Christianity the state religion. In 1104 an archbishopric was created in Lund. Starting from the 11th century, feudal relations developed in Denmark: the place of the clan nobility was taken by the close kings, who received land for service.

Middle Ages and Reformation
In 1157, Valdemar I the Great became king and the period of strife ended. He, his son Knud VI and grandson Valdemar II conquered Pomerania, Mecklenburg and Holstein, expanding the country's territory at the expense of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. In 1241, under Valdemar II, Danish law (the so-called Jutland Law) was codified.

Beginning in the middle of the 13th century, the monarch was often forced to confront the nobility, who sought to limit the power of the king. Eric V signed a charter in 1282 that limited royal power, but was assassinated four years later. Under Eric VI, who pursued an active expansionist policy, the royal treasury was so depleted that his brother and heir Christopher II was forced to mortgage most of the land to the German and Swedish feudal lords. After his death, the Danish monarchy was abolished within 8 years. It was restored by the son of Christopher II Valdemar IV Atterdag. The new king convened a danehof (representative body) and adopted the so-called "Zemsky peace" - an agreement between the king and the estates, according to which the estates pledged to obey the king, and the king - to rule the country, observing the law.

Valdemar IV's daughter Margrethe married the Norwegian king Haakon VI. After his death in 1380, the two monarchies became united. In 1397, Margrethe was also elected to the Swedish throne. The union was called the Kalmar Union, led by Denmark, as a result of which the whole of Scandinavia was under the dominion of the Danish crown. At the same time, the union was fragile and there were military conflicts between the states that were part of it. Since 1433, Copenhagen has become the residence of the king.

In the XV-XVI centuries, power belonged to the Rigsrod (Royal Council). Rigsrod elected a king, who from 1448 became one of the representatives of the Oldenburg dynasty. Since 1468, the Estates-Representative Assembly - Rigsdag - was elected, which included representatives of the nobility, clergy, townspeople and free peasants. However, it did not have significant powers. In 1523, King Christian II was deposed and expelled, and his uncle Frederick I ascended the throne. The Troubles coincided with an uprising in Sweden against the Kalmar Union. In 1523, Gustav Eriksson Vasa took Stockholm and was crowned as Gustav I. The Kalmar Union ceased to exist.

 

In the spread of Lutheranism in Denmark, the decisive role was played by Luther's associate Hans Tausen, who was patronized by Frederick I, who himself probably sympathized with Lutheranism. Lutheranism gained popularity among the lower classes, who paid more taxes in favor of the Catholic Church, and caused unrest in several areas of Denmark. The Rigsdag accused the king of not being diligent in putting down the riots. In response, Frederick I issued a statement in which he left the choice of religion to the discretion of each subject until the issue was considered by the council, which was planned to convene in the future. In a public debate held in 1530, Tausen won a landslide victory over the Catholic clergy. After the death of Frederick I in 1533, the pro-Catholic rigsrod did not elect a new king and established oligarchic rule. In Malmö and Copenhagen, the rebellious citizens seized power. The next three years are known in historiography as the "Count's strife". The rebels called on the exiled Christian II, so the nobility and clergy were forced to elect Frederick's son Christian III as king, who made vague statements about future religious policy. On August 6, 1536, Christian III took Copenhagen. Having established himself as king, Christian III secularized church lands and arrested Catholic bishops, who were declared guilty of starting a civil war. On October 30, a law was passed that formalized the Reformation in Denmark.

New time
In 1563, the Danish king Frederick II launched the so-called Northern Seven Years' War against Sweden. Until the 19th century, several more wars for hegemony in the region took place between countries. In subsequent years, Frederick II gained fame as a patron of sciences and arts, in 1576 he granted the island of Ven to the astronomer Tycho Brahe and allocated funds for the construction of the Uraniborg observatory. Under Frederick III, Denmark became an absolute monarchy: the rigsrod and rigsdag were liquidated, the monarchy was declared hereditary, and not only nobles, but also people from the urban class began to be accepted to public office. A military reform was carried out, recruitment was introduced, and spending on the army in 1662 increased 40 times compared to 1602. But since the peasants evaded recruiting, in 1680 there was a restored mercenary army. In 1671, the "Table of Ranks" was introduced, on the basis of which Peter I later created a similar document in Russia. Under Frederick's successor, Christian V, Danish law was codified. At the end of the 17th century, the first royal and private manufactories appeared in Denmark.

Christian VII, who ruled in the 18th century, is considered an imbecile king. Under him, the queen recruits Johann Struenze, who seeks power, becomes a minister (it is claimed that he was also the queen's lover), carries out positive reforms, improves the life of the people, but limits the rights of the nobles. As a result of a conspiracy of disgruntled aristocrats, he was executed, the reforms were partially canceled. In 1788, the remnants of serfdom were finally abolished in Denmark.

At the end of the XVIII - beginning of the XIX century, Denmark was part of the armed neutrality initiated by the Russian Empire. The union broke up in 1801 after being defeated in a naval battle with the English fleet. In 1807, Denmark joined the continental blockade, which triggered the Anglo-Danish War. King Frederick VI participated in the Napoleonic Wars on the side of France. During the military campaign of 1813-1814, Swedish troops invaded Denmark from the south and defeated the Danish army. As a result of the Kiel peace treaties and the Congress of Vienna, Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden and the island of Heligoland to Great Britain. At the same time, Denmark retained Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein.

In the first half of the 19th century, the monarchs carried out a series of liberal reforms. In 1848, Frederick VII convened a constituent assembly that drafted a constitution for Denmark. It provided for a bicameral parliament (rigsdag) and a government responsible to the king. The lower house of parliament - the Folketing - was formed by direct elections, in which all men over 30 years old could participate, the elections to the upper house - the Landsting - were multi-stage. The first half of the 19th century is also called the "golden age" of Denmark, since during this period a number of prominent figures of culture and science worked in the country, including the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, the artists Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg and Christen Koebke, the physicist Hans Christian Oersted, the philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, writer Hans Christian Andersen.

 

As a result of the war with Prussia, Denmark lost Schleswig, Holstein and Saxe-Lauenburg.

In the 2nd half of the 19th century, a multi-party system developed in Denmark, in which the liberal Venstre and the conservative Höyre were the most influential parties. In 1871, the Social Democratic Party of Denmark was formed.

XX and XXI centuries
. Since 1901, a system of parliamentarism began to take shape in Denmark: the king appointed a prime minister and several key ministers, and the rest of the government was formed by the deputies of Venstra, who won the election.

Denmark became one of the founding states of the UN (October 24, 1945) and NATO (April 4, 1949). An important role in the post-war reconstruction of the country was played by US financial assistance in the amount of $350 million. In 1953, the current constitution was adopted, replacing the bicameral parliament with a unicameral one and allowing women to succeed to the throne.

In 1948, self-government was introduced in the Faroe Islands, and in 1979 in Greenland. In 1961, negotiations began on Denmark's accession to the European Economic Community. They were interrupted in 1963, resumed in 1969 and ended in 1972 with the signing of the treaty. In a referendum, the country's population approved the entry, and on January 1, 1973, Denmark became a member of the EEC. The oil crisis of 1973 hit the Danish economy, resulting in internal political instability: over the next decade, no party managed to form a long-term government coalition. The populist anti-tax Progress Party, led by lawyer Mogens Glistrup, played a significant role in politics. In 1982, Poul Schlüter of the Conservative People's Party became prime minister. He served as prime minister until 1993, having carried out a series of reforms aimed at eliminating the consequences of the crisis. However, economic growth resumed only in the early 1990s, when Denmark began oil production in the North Sea. Schlüter was a supporter of Denmark joining the Single European Act. After the parliament refused to ratify the act, a referendum was held in Denmark, in which the majority supported ratification. In 1989, Denmark became the first country in the world to recognize the right of homosexual couples to enter into an alliance (in 2012, the marriage equality law came into force).

In 2019, the leader of the Social Democratic Party, Mette Frederiksen, won the next parliamentary elections and became the Prime Minister of Denmark.

In June 2022, the Hans Island dispute between Denmark and Canada was resolved. The parties came to an agreement according to which the island will be divided along a natural ravine, stretching across the entire island from north to south. Denmark gets about 60% of the island (eastern part), Canada - 40% (western part). The bay on the north coast remains in common use, the only landing site on the island.

 

State-political structure

The state system of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy. According to the constitution of June 5, 1953, the head of state is the king, since January 1972 - Queen Margrethe of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg dynasty. The Queen exercises legislative power in conjunction with the unicameral parliament, the Folketing.

head of state
The head of state is the king (queen), exercising supreme power through the appointed government: on the proposal of the prime minister, on the proposal of the chairman of parliament or the leaders of parliamentary factions, he appoints and dismisses the prime minister and ministers, has the right to dissolve parliament.

The King (Queen) is the supreme commander of the Danish armed forces and the head of the official state church.

Parliament
The highest body of legislative power is the unicameral parliament (Folketing), elected by the citizens of the country for 4 years. Parliament consists of 179 members, of which 135 are elected by proportional representation on the basis of universal suffrage in 23 constituencies; 40 seats (so-called additional) are distributed among candidates who did not receive a sufficient number of votes in the constituencies; 2 members of the Folketing are elected from the Faroe Islands and 2 from Greenland.

executive branch
The king exercises executive power through the government (regering) (council of ministers (ministerråd)), consisting (since 1971) of 19 members and headed by the prime minister. The government is responsible to the Folketing. The meeting of all ministers forms the Council of State (Statsrådet), in which the king and heir to the throne sit and where the most important bills and government measures are discussed. At the head of each amt (a territorial unit of Denmark) is an amtmann, appointed by the king, there is also an elected council. In rural communes, councils are elected, headed by an elected chairman; in the cities - city councils headed by the burgomaster.

Judicial system
The judicial system includes the Supreme Court (Supreme Court of Denmark; until 1661 - Retterting (Dan. rettertinget), the appellate instance (for Jutland and for the islands) - 2 land courts (landsreta; until 1919 - zemstvo higher courts landsoverret; until 1805 - Landstings) and local courts, the Burets (until the 19th century - Butings) and Geredstings. The highest level of the judicial system is the Supreme Court (Copenhagen), established back in 1661. It consists of 15 judges, headed by the chairman. of courts in one of two panels of not less than five judges.In exceptional cases, a plenum of the Supreme Court meets.To try the crimes of officials, the judges of the Supreme Court, together with 15 members appointed by the Folketing, form the Supreme Court (Dan. Rigsret). of justice - the Maritime and Commercial Court (Dan. Sø- og Handelsretten) The prosecution authorities - the imperial lawyer (Dan. Rigsadvokaten) and state lawyers ( dates Statsadvocat).

The oldest members of the Supreme Court and judges specially elected by the Folketing for 6 years form the Supreme Court, which hears cases on charges of treason against ministers.

Political parties
Rights
Danish People's Party (Dansk Folkeparti) - national conservative
Progress Party (Fremskridtspartiet) - right-wing populist

centre-right
Christian Democrats (Kristendemokraterne) - Christian Democrats
Conservative People's Party (Det Konservative Folkeparti) - conservative
Venstre - liberal

centrist
Radical Venstre (Det Radikale Venstre) - social liberal

Center-left
Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne) - social democratic

Left
Socialist People's Party (Socialistisk Folkeparti) - left-wing socialist

ultra-left
Red-Green Coalition (Enhedslisten - de rød-grønne) - communist, originally a coalition of the Left Socialists, the Communist Party of Denmark, the Trotskyist Socialist Workers' Party and the Maoist Communist Workers' Party

Unions
The largest trade union center is the Central Organization of Trade Unions of Denmark (Landsorganisationen i Danmark).

 

Administrative division

Until January 1, 2007, the territory of Denmark was divided into 14 administrative units - amts, which corresponded to the communes of amts (Dan. amtskommune), communes of amts were divided into commercial city communes (Dan. købstadskommune) and parish communes (Dan. sognekommune). According to the municipal reform of 2007, the amts were reorganized into 5 large administrative regions: Hovedstaden, Zeeland (or Seland), North Jutland, Central Jutland and South Denmark. Each region, in turn, consists of cities and communes (Dan. Kommune), cities can be divided into urban districts (Dan. bydel).

The representative bodies of the regions are the regional councils (Dan. regionsråd), elected by the population, the executive power in the regions is the chairmen of the regional councils (Dan. regionsrådsformand), elected by the regional councils.

The representative body of the capital is the civil representation (Dan. borgerrepræsentation) elected by the population, the executive power in the capital is exercised by the mayor elected by the civil representation.

The representative bodies of cities are city councils (Dan. byråd), elected by the population, executive power in cities is exercised by burgomasters (in some cities, magistrates (Dan. magistrat)) consisting of a burgomaster and ratmans (Dan. rådmand), elected by city councils.

The representative bodies of the communes are communal boards (Dan. kommunalbestyrelse), until 1970 - parish councils (Dan. sogneråd) elected by the population, the executive power in the communes is exercised by burgomasters elected by the communal boards.

The representative bodies of urban districts are city district councils (Dan. bydelsråd)).

Until 2006, there was a division into amts, representative bodies of amts - councils of amts (amtsråd), elected by the population, executive bodies of amts - burgomasters of amts (amtsborgmester), elected by councils of amts, the central government in the amt was represented by amtmans (amtmand).

Until 2007, there were 270 municipalities in the country, as a result of the reform, the municipalities were enlarged, and their number was reduced to 98, with an average population of the municipality of 55,000 people. The Ertholmen archipelago has a special status; it is not included in any of the regions or in any of the municipalities, but is controlled by the Danish Ministry of Defense.

The Faroe Islands and Greenland enjoy autonomy and have their own legislative bodies - the Løgting and the Landsting, respectively. In the Faroe Islands, the central authorities regulate foreign policy, defense, monetary policy, police activities and the judiciary. Greenland's autonomy was similar for a long time, but in a referendum in 2008 it was further extended.

 

Armed forces

Defense spending in 2005 amounted to 3% of the Danish budget. The Danish Armed Forces (Forsvaret) consist of the ground forces (Hæren), the Danish Navy (Danske Marine) and the air force (Danske Flyvevåben), as well as the paramilitary voluntary organization Hemvern (Hjemmeværnet), whose strength in 2006 was about 59,000 people . The monarch is the supreme commander in chief, and the minister of defense exercises direct command of the armed forces. There is conscription in Denmark; service life is 4-10 months. But since the vast majority of slots are occupied by volunteers (96.9% in 2015), in fact those who serve are determined by lottery.

Foreign policy
Denmark's foreign policy is based on four pillars: the UN, NATO, the EU and cooperation with the Nordic states. Denmark is a member of many international organizations, including the OSCE, OECD, Council of Europe, WTO, Nordic Council.

Denmark has a reputation for being reluctant to participate in European unification processes. Thus, accession to the Maastricht Treaty was approved in a referendum on the second attempt only after other EU members agreed to release Denmark from a number of obligations, including the introduction of a single currency and single citizenship and participation in a common security system. At the same time, during its presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2002, Denmark played an important role in the EU enlargement negotiations, which culminated in the admission of ten new members in 2004.

In 2014, Denmark joined the EU sanctions against Russia. Danish Foreign Minister Martin Lidegaard said: "We will fight to ensure that occupations are not legalized." Later, the Danish Ambassador to Ukraine, Merete Juhl, added: “Now sanctions are the only tool to influence Russia. Therefore, they will be removed after the Russian Federation behaves accordingly.”

In March 2015, a loud political scandal erupted between the Russian Federation and Denmark. The Russian ambassador to Denmark, Mikhail Vanin, warned in an interview with the Jyllands Posten newspaper that Copenhagen's accession to the NATO missile defense system would be perceived by Moscow as a threat, and "if this happens, Danish warships will become a target for Russian nuclear missiles."

In early 2016, the tone of Danish comments on Russia changed a lot. Thus, Danish Foreign Minister Christian Jensen explained how the lack of reforms in Ukraine is connected with the lifting of sanctions against Russia. According to him, Western sanctions against Russia could be lifted if Ukraine continues to slow down reforms. “If Ukraine does not carry out reforms related to the Minsk process, then it will be very difficult for Europe to be united on the issue of sanctions against Russia.”

In March 2016, Danish Ambassador to Russia Thomas Winkler, in an interview with BusinessLife.Today, described the current relations between the two countries as follows: “If we talk about everyday diplomatic relations, we carry out and conduct our activities in a professional manner, observing all political nuances. According to my foreign minister, we are pursuing a bilateral policy in relations with Russia: on the one hand, we are reacting to the actions of the Russian Federation, which, from our point of view, it should not have taken, on the other hand, we are engaged in a dialogue to find common ground in our relationships." Further in the conversation, the ambassador defined the main areas for cooperation with the Russian Federation: “I would note three areas in which we plan to work. The first is the continuation of dialogue at the political and diplomatic level, which includes the crises in Ukraine and Syria. The second is the area where Denmark and Russia take a common position: it is the fight against terrorism. The third is the promotion of Danish business in Russia, as well as other activities, in particular in the field of culture, where we have vast experience.”

 

Economy
general characteristics
As of 2017, the average wage in Denmark is 38,596 kr[50] (€5,169.86; gross) and 24,315 kr (€3,256.87; net) per month.

Advantages: low inflation (2.4%) and unemployment (5%). Large surplus in the balance of payments ($4.14 billion in 2004). Gas and oil reserves. Strong and profitable high-tech production. Highly skilled workforce.

Weaknesses: high taxes. Decreasing competitiveness due to high salaries and a strong crown.

Denmark is an industrial-agrarian country with a high level of development. The share of industry in the national income is more than 40%. The country ranks first in the world in terms of foreign trade turnover per capita.

Main export commodities: engineering products, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, medicines, furniture.

Leading industries: metalworking, mechanical engineering (especially electrical and radio-electronic), food, chemical, pulp and paper, textile. In agriculture, the leading role belongs to meat and dairy farming. Denmark ranks 7th in the world in terms of the number of pigs - 25 million, of which 87% is exported.

In a report for 2009, analysts from the European statistical agency Eurostat called Denmark the most expensive country, where life was 41% more expensive than the European average.

Currency
Denmark is not part of the Eurozone and has its own currency - the Danish krone. In 2000, a referendum was held in Denmark on the issue of switching to the euro, but the majority of the population, 53%, was against, 47% in favor. At the same time, Denmark follows the recommendations of the European Monetary Union and ensures that the national economy meets the Maastricht criteria. The Danish National Bank maintains a fixed exchange rate of the Danish krone against the euro.

In addition to the Danish krone, the Faroe Islands also have their own currency, the Faroese krone, in circulation. In Greenland, the introduction of the Greenlandic krone was planned, but this proposal was rejected.

Industry and Energy
Most of the production facilities, previously located in the capital region, are located in the west of the country - in the western part of Jutland and on the island of Funen. In 2005, 58% of the manufactured products were exported.

Since 1972, Denmark has been developing oil and gas fields in the North Sea (19 fields in total). Part of the production is exported. The main buyers of oil were Sweden and the Netherlands, gas - Germany and the Netherlands. Coal is not mined in Denmark and is imported from abroad. The main exporters are South Africa, Colombia, Russia, Poland.

Denmark is one of the world leaders in the use of renewable energy sources, in particular wind energy. In 2011, it ranked first in terms of the share of income from the use of renewable energy sources in the country's GDP. It was 3.1% or 6.5 billion euros.

A quarter of the volume of sales of industrial products is mechanical engineering. Vestas Wind Systems A/S accounted for about 12.5% ​​of global wind turbine production in 2009. Major manufacturers of refrigeration equipment are Danfoss A/S and Vestfrost A/S. The GN Store Nord group of companies is a major manufacturer of electronic products, GN Mobile A/S and GN Netkom A/S are the leading developers of wireless telecommunications, and GN ReSound is one of the world leaders in the field of development of hearing aids. For a long time, shipbuilding was one of the leading industries in Denmark, but recently the share of Denmark in world production has decreased (from 3% in 1980 to 0.8% in 2004). The A.P. Moller-Maersk Group owns shipbuilding facilities and is the world's largest container shipping operator and the third largest port operator. At the shipyard "A.P. Moller-Maersk Group" in Odense in 2006, the largest container ship in the world at that time "Emma Mærsk" was built. In addition to Odense, Copenhagen and Aalborg are also shipbuilding centers.

 

Transport

Denmark is a strategic transport hub. In 2000, the Øresund Bridge was opened, connecting Copenhagen and the Swedish city of Malmö, thanks to which road and rail links operate between Scandinavia and central Europe. Denmark is connected with Germany, Sweden and Norway by regular ferry lines.

As of early 2011, Denmark has 74,171 km of motorways, including 1,130 expressways. Bridges across the Great Belt and Little Belt straits connect mainland Denmark with the islands of Funen and Zealand, respectively.

Most of the country's rail network is operated by the state-owned Danske Statsbaner, and there are also private rail carriers. In Copenhagen and its suburbs, the S-tog commuter-urban train system operates, and the only subway in the country also operates in the capital.

There are 28 airports in Denmark, 10 of which provide regular passenger traffic. The largest airport is Kastrup (Copenhagen); in 2010, its passenger turnover amounted to 21.5 million people. SAS is the largest air carrier.

 

Social sphere

healthcare
In 2005, health spending accounted for 13.6% of all Danish government spending. In 1973, the health insurance system was destroyed, and hospital care and general medical practice are now free. The main source of funding for the healthcare sector is state and local taxes. Paid medical services in 1999 provided 16.2% of cash receipts, voluntary medical insurance - 1.4% (about 30% of the population uses its services). Hospitals, as well as nursing homes, are mostly municipally owned and operated by municipalities (private hospitals account for about 1% of beds). The role of the government is reduced to the development of the main directions of state policy and legislative regulation.

Education
In 2005, spending on education amounted to 14.8% of the total Danish budget. The current education system is established by the 2003 Education Law. It includes preschool institutions (nurseries and kindergartens), general secondary schools, gymnasiums, folk schools for adults and institutions of higher learning.

Compulsory school education consists of three levels: a preparatory class (one year), a basic school (nine years) and an additional class for those planning to continue their studies at a gymnasium or at preparatory courses for university applicants. There are public, private and partially publicly funded schools in Denmark. As of 2005, 88% of children studied in public schools.

Higher education institutions are universities, specialized higher schools and colleges, and technical institutes. The University of Copenhagen was founded in 1479, the Technical University of Denmark at Lyngby Torbek in 1829. Since 1916, the Department of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen was headed by one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century, Niels Bohr, in 1920 he founded the Institute for Theoretical Physics, later named after Bohr. Before World War II, Denmark was one of the world's centers for the study of atomic physics.

 

Culture

Attractions
Monuments remained from the Viking era - the fortresses of Trelleborg (Dan. Trelleborg), Aggersborg (Dan. Aggersborg), Furkat (Dan. Fyrkat) and Linnholm-Hoye (Dan. Lindholm Høje).

Wooden basilicas were built from the 10th century, and stone basilicas from the 11th century. The most famous cathedrals are in Viborg and Riba, the church in Kalunborg and the castles of Seborg and Vordinborg are in the Romanesque style, the cathedrals in Roskilde and Odense are in the Gothic style.

The castles of Frederiksborg near the town of Hillerød and Kronborg in Helsingor (Elsinore) are known, where Shakespeare placed the action of the play Hamlet.

The most beautiful buildings appear under Christian IV (1588-1648). These are houses in the Baroque style, and built a little later - in the Rococo style. The king admired and imitated the architecture of Amsterdam.

In Copenhagen, the Academy of Arts (1745), Christiansborg Palace, Citadel Fortress, Rosenborg Hunting Palace (XVII), etc. are declared cultural monuments. The statue of the Little Mermaid in the port of Copenhagen, the character of Andersen's fairy tale, which, like the Parisian Eiffel Tower, has become a symbol of the country, is also world famous.

Literature
The first monuments of Danish literature were created in Latin. Among them, a special place is occupied by the "Acts of the Danes" by Saxo Grammaticus - a chronicle describing the history of Denmark and ancient sagas.

The Reformation had a great influence on the development of literature in Danish. In 1550 Christjern Pedersen translated the Bible into Danish. Peru of his associate Lutheran Bishop Peder Palladius owns the Book of Visitations, which describes the cultural life of the Danish province. School drama also became widespread during this period. The 17th century was marked by the spread of Baroque poetry, often based on religious subjects. Its representatives were Thomas Kingo, Anders Bording and Anders Arrebo. Classical literature dominated Denmark in the 18th century. Ludwig Holberg is considered to be the founder of the Danish theatre, his comedies earned him the nickname "Danish Molière". The poet and playwright Johan Wessel was the author of a large number of satirical works, his comedy Love Without Stockings is famous, parodying the clichés of French classic tragedies.

The beginning of Danish romanticism is considered to be the work of the poet Johannes Ewald, who was influenced by the German literature "Sturm und Drang". Many Romantic writers drew on subjects from Norse mythology and Danish history, among them Bernhard Ingemann and Adam Oehlenschläger. Hans Christian Andersen was the greatest figure of this period and of all Danish literature. Of his works, the most famous are fairy tales filled with Christian morality and deep philosophical content. In the second half of the century, realism became the dominant trend in Danish literature. An important role in its development was played by literary critic and public figure Georg Brandes, among the prominent writers of this period are Jens Peter Jacobsen, Nobel Prize winner Karl Adolf Gjellerup and Jakob Knudsen.

In the middle of the 20th century, the psychological prose of Hans Christian Brunner and the fantastic novels of Karen Blixen received worldwide recognition. At the turn of the century, Peter Hoeg combines the legacy of the realistic tradition with stylistic experiments. In the spirit of revealing the existential aspects of human existence, Stig Dalager uses the genre richness of modern literature.

Music
In the Middle Ages, skaldic songs were popular in Denmark; later, with the Christianization of the country, Gregorian chants became widespread.

In the 16th century, classical music in Denmark developed under the influence of the Dutch school. At the same time, the first court chapels were created. Until the end of the 18th century, foreigners occupied a leading position in Danish music: Dietrich Buxtehude was a major baroque composer, Giuseppe Sarti composed the first operas in Danish. In the 19th century, Danish musical romanticism developed, a trend whose hallmark was reliance on national culture. Its prominent representatives were Niels Gade and Johann Hartmann. In 1867 the Royal Danish Conservatory was founded. Carl Nielsen is considered a classic of Danish music and the founder of the Danish school of composers of the 20th century.

At the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, the most successful Danish musicians were the pop groups Aqua and Alphabeat, the rock bands Mew, Kashmir and Michael Learns to Rock, and the heavy metal artist King Diamond. Denmark has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since 1956 and won three times: in 1963, the duet of Greta and Jørgen Ingmann won the first place, in 2000, the duet of the Olsen Brothers, and in 2013, Emmylie de Forest.

Now one of the most famous and successful singers in Denmark is Aura Dion (Aura Dione).

Cinema

At the beginning of the 20th century, Denmark was one of the flagships of world cinema. In 1906, the Nordisk Film Company was founded, which still exists today. In 1919, Carl Theodor Dreyer, one of the brightest European directors of the first half of the 20th century, made his debut as a director. The silent film star was actress Asta Nielsen. In 1920, the first Danish cartoon "Three Men" was created. In the 1930s, film production declined as it could not compete with Hollywood production.

After the Second World War, a large number of films appeared, the main theme of which was the occupation of Denmark by the Nazis. "Red Meadows" by Bodil Ipsen and Lau Lauritzen Jr. received a prize at the Cannes Film Festival. In the late 1970s, a law on state support for cinema was passed, which gave an impetus to film production in the country, and the films Pelle the Conqueror and Babette's Feast made in the late 1980s received numerous awards around the world. Danish directors Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg, creators of the Dogme 95 manifesto, have taken low-budget cinema to a new level.

Sport
The most popular sports in Denmark are football, badminton, handball, athletics, sailing, and cycling. The highest achievement of the Danish national football team was the victory at the 1992 European Football Championship. The most popular clubs are Brøndby and Copenhagen. Independently performs in UEFA competitions (since 1990) and the FIFA team of the Faroe Islands. The Danish women's handball team won the Olympic Games in 1996 and 2004. The men's national team won the 2008 European Championship and was runner-up at the 1967 and 2011 World Championships.

The Danish National Olympic Committee was formed in 1905. The Danish team has competed at every Summer Olympics except for the 1904 Games and every Winter Olympics since 1948. The national team has won a total of 171 Summer Olympic medals, including 42 gold and one silver medal from the Winter Olympics. Yachtsman Paul Elvström participated in eight Olympic Games and won them four times.

A native of Kenya, an athlete Wilson Kipketer, who took Danish citizenship, won the world championship in the 800 meters three times in the 1990s. Among the world's strongest chess players of their time were Aron Nimzowitsch and Bent Larsen. Tennis player Caroline Wozniacki in 2010 and 2011 ranked first in the WTA rankings.

In Denmark, at different times, world championships in cycling, rowing and canoeing, equestrianism, sailing, artistic gymnastics were held, annual tennis and chess tournaments were organized. Copenhagen's Parken stadium hosted the finals of the Cup Winners' Cup and the UEFA Cup.

In 2018, Denmark hosted the Ice Hockey World Championship for the first time in history.

Danish race car driver Tom Christensen is the most decorated driver in the history of the 24 Hours of Le Mans, winning it 9 times. Also the winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans is the Danish racing driver John Nielsen. Several Danish racing drivers have taken part in the Formula One World Championship. The most successful among them is the current series driver Kevin Magnussen, who took 2nd place in his debut race, the 2014 Australian Grand Prix.

 

Mass media

Television and radio broadcasting is divided into public and commercial. Public broadcaster - DR ("Danmarks Radio" - "Radio of Denmark"), which includes TV channels DR1 (in the whole country) and DR2 (in the Capital Region) and radio stations DR P1, DR P2, DR P3, DR P4, and TV 2 , which includes the TV channel of the same name (in Central Jutland), commercial TV channels - Kanal København (in the Capital Region) and 6'eren (in the Capital Region and Central Jutland), commercial radio stations - Nova fm (throughout the country), Radio24syv (in the Capital Region) region, Central Jutland and Funen), The Voice (in Central Jutland and Funen), Radio 100 (in Funen), Radio Update and Pop FM (in the Capital Region).