Stubbekøbing is a former market town on northern Falster with
2,223 inhabitants (2020), located 11 km east of Nørre Alslev, 26 km
southeast of Vordingborg, 40 km north of Gedser and 20 km northeast
of the municipal seat Nykøbing Falster. The city belongs to
Guldborgsund Municipality and is located in Region Zealand.
Stubbekøbing belongs to Stubbekøbing Parish, and Stubbekøbing Church is located in the middle of the city. 1 km southeast of the city is the manor Karlsfelt.
The Middle Ages
Stubbekøbing is located on the south side of Grønsund. The city originated at a natural harbor, as an angular fjord east of the city cut into the country to the south and then to the west. South of the city center, excavations have found old stone bridges and masonry remains, where the oldest harbor has been located. The fjord has gradually been sanded and overgrown, so that only Fribrødre Å now reminds of it. On the measuring table leaves from the 19th and 20th centuries, water is still seen in the outer part of the fjord, while the inner part had become a meadow.
Stubbekøbing is first mentioned in 1288, when it was burned down by Marsk Stig's supporters. May 1, 1354, it received its oldest known privileges. In 1386, King Oluf gave his townspeople a letter of freedom on a fishing village on "Munkholm", which they had then had for 40 years. In 1464 Our Lady's Church and St. Peder's Guild are mentioned, which had an altar in the church; there has also been a Sankt Gertruds Gilde, whose seal stamp from the 14th century is kept in the National Museum. The town has also had a Sankt Jørgensgård for lepers. Christine of Saxony, Prince Hans ’bride and later queen, landed in Stubbekøbing on her journey to Denmark in 1478. By letter of 19 March 1517, Christian 2. Stubbekøbing placed under his casket.
In the 16th century, the town was larger than Nykøbing, which when charged for a warship in 1557 was to provide less than half of what was imposed on Stubbekøbing. In 1559, the city had a mayor, councilors and town bailiff, which is known because the city arbitrarily relinquished its authority, so more people were convicted as rebels. Stubbekøbing had a large trade in England and Holland, but it was surpassed by Nykøbing after this in 1594 became Queen Sophie's widow's seat. However, Arent Berntsen could still write in 1656 about Stubbekøbing, "that it has convenient sailing, so that with the largest ships to the town can be built, over which also a fair trade to the lake from there continues". The town suffered greatly from fires, but it was especially Karl Gustav the wars of 1658-59 and the sanding of the harbor, which caused its decline.
Under the dictatorship
In 1672, Stubbekøbing had 511 inhabitants. In the Ordinance of January 28, 1682, it is mentioned among the market towns that were not allowed to conduct foreign trade, and it was no longer to have a mayor and council, but only a town bailiff. The town had a Latin school, which was closed in 1740. In 1769 the town had 484 inhabitants.
In a report from 1771 it is stated that there is only a little fishing from the town and that there are no fishermen. On rare occasions, however, perch, flounder, pike and eel come from Bogø.
In the 18th century, the natural harbor could no longer be used, so the ships had to dock in Grønsund itself, and the goods had to be brought out to them on wagons and in boats. Around 1840, a jetty with a bridgehead was built, where ships could dock. Later in the 1840s, an actual harbor was built, and in the late 1870s, it was significantly expanded.
A market with horses and cattle was held in June and October. Of factories and industrial plants, the town in the 1890s had a distillery, white beer brewery, iron foundry and machine factory, sawmill, gas meter factory and printing house. "Stubbekjøbing Avis" was published in the city.
Distribution of the population by occupation in 1890: 186 lived by intangible activity, 601 by trade and industry, 385 by trade and turnover, 49 by shipping, 16 by fishing, 61 by agriculture, 10 by horticulture, 162 by other occupations, 49 by their means , 24 of alms, and 3 were in prison. In 1906, 136 subsisted on intangible activities, 75 on agriculture, forestry and dairy farming, 29 on fishing, 885 on crafts and industry, 367 on trade and more, 129 on transportation, 45 were retired, 54 lived on public support and 7 on other or unspecified business.
The railway on Falster came from Orehoved to Nykøbing in 1872 and on to Gedser in 1886. It did not affect Stubbekøbing, which only later got a terminus on the Stubbekøbing-Nykøbing-Nysted line Nykøbing-Stubbekøbing (25 May 1911–31 March 1966) . But that alignment only confirmed that Nykøbing was the island's capital. A proposal for a North Falster railway Stubbekøbing-Nørre Alslev-Guldborg was contained in the great railway law from 1918, but was not realized.
As a terminus, Stubbekøbing Station had 4 tracks, of which 2 with a platform. They were assembled in a turntable just east of the station building. In addition, there were siding for the coal yard and depots, pigfold and department store as well as side and end ramps. A short harbor lane led down to the harbor track along the quay. A large part of the station terrain was laid out on a filled area in Grønsund.
The station building, designed by architect H.C. Glahn, is preserved on Havneplads 2. North of the station building, the rails of the harbor railway are still between the cobblestones. At the eastern end of the former station grounds is a dilapidated wooden depot. From here, just over ½ km of the course's route has been preserved as a path to Stubbekøbing Skytteforening's clubhouse.