Elsinore

 

 

Elsinore is a city on the coast of northeastern North Zealand and the gateway to the rest of Scandinavia. Helsingør is the center of North Zealand's largest municipality and the fourth largest urban area on Zealand after Copenhagen, Roskilde and Hørsholm, located at the narrowest part of the Sound. Just on the other side (5 km.) Of the Sound is Helsingborg (approx. 130,000 people, many of whom go to Elsinore to shop and experience the culture). Helsingør is a port and ferry town with frequent departures via car ferry and passenger ferry to Helsingborg in Scania. Elsinore is world famous due to Kronborg and Hamlet. Elsinore has also become world famous for the M / S Museum of Maritime Affairs. Elsinore is a regional trading area for North Zealand within a number of product areas, including the Swedish side of the Sound; Elsinore with approx. 500 stores have a retail catchment area of over 500,000 customers within approximately 30 minutes drive.

 

Destinations

Kronborg

 

History

Elsinore was originally located on the extreme tip of Northeast Zealand on a strip of gravel shoreline.

According to Arild Huitfeldt, there must have been a town and a castle as early as 1288, as it is reported that the Norwegian king Erik Præstehader, who had sided with Erik Klipping's murderers, the fifth day after St. Peder's day lay with a fleet for "Elsinore", and "the next day the king went ashore and burned Elsinore in ashes." The people fled to "Flynderborg".

A royal letter of 1308 has been issued from Elsinore ("Helsingora"), and not from Flynderborg. Three years later, the fleet of the Hanseatic cities destroyed the city, this was repeated in 1372, and Flynderborg is not even mentioned at that time as a refuge. The first known document in which Elsinore is mentioned as a city is from July 22, 1389.

Sundtoldbyen
In the time of Erik of Pomerania (about 1423) the old castle was demolished and a new one was built, Krogen or Ørekrog, and at the same time this king gave the city great favors and privileges, which is undoubtedly explained by the introduction of the sound customs, which happened around the year 1425. Until now, the town had probably not been very significant, as until that time there was still a market town near Søborg, and when Dragør, Malmö, Skanør and Falsterbo were important marketplaces and fishing villages by the Sound; moreover, the area was almost entirely overgrown with forest. But with the privileges of Erik of Pomerania and the introduction of the Sundtold, it picked up strongly. By privilege of 1416, the king granted 10 years of tax exemption to those who built stone houses; likewise, the citizens got free firewood from all kinds of trees, except oak and beech, "so that our new market town on Ørekrog must be built and suitcases the better and faster". On June 2, 1426, the king again granted privileges to "the new town on the hook", which at that time already had a mayor and councilor, and on March 13, 1441, Christoffer of Bavaria renewed these privileges for Elsinore. On July 3, 1456, Christian I granted confirmation and improvement of the privileges, from which document it is seen that the herring fishery in the autumn was still at that time important to the town, and that it was common for the citizens to have pigs on the olden in the surrounding great forests; on the whole, Elsinore's unusually large herd of pigs was probably its main occupation prior to the introduction of the sound tariff. The privileges of the city were reaffirmed on March 7, 1516, June 16, 1540, and May 10, 1561.

It is probably from this flowering period of Elsinore in the first half of the 15th century that its two churches date, just as its three monasteries date from this time. Outside the City, where later Marienlyst Castle came to be located, was the Gray Brothers Monastery St. Anne Kloster, founded in 1420 by Erik of Pomerania, who dedicated St. Anne Kapel. The monastery church was consecrated on January 27, 1427. In 1496, the monks were brought to observants by the gray brother Anders Glob. At the Reformation the monastery of the Gray Brothers was abolished; the building was probably demolished by the middle of the 16th century, and on its grounds, Frederik II built the pleasure castle "Lundehave" in the 1580s.

 

On the opposite outskirts of the city, close to the southern gate, Svingelport, and in the neighborhood intersected by Munkegade, Sortebrødrestræde (for many years incorrectly named Gråbrødrestræde) and Klostergade, was the Sortebrødreklosteret, founded by Christoffer of Bavaria by gift certificate of 3 March 1441 and was consecrated to the usual Dominican patron saint, Saint Nicholas. After, as it seems to have led a little prominent life, the monastery was donated in 1536 by Christian III to the town of Elsinore to an ordinary hospital, and by letter of 3 February 1541, the House of St. James, a small hospital east of St. Olai, was united Church. However, the members were transferred to Our Lady's Monastery in 1541, and St. Nicolai Monastery was then relocated to this. The monastery appears to have been demolished in the 17th century. While St. Anne and St. Nicolai Monasteries thus did not play any major role, this does not apply to the third, the Carmelite Monastery or Our Lady's Monastery, which was founded in 1430 by Erik of Pomerania. This monastery seems to have occupied the highest rank among the Danish Carmelite houses. The provincial priority of the order seems to have had its seat here. It was also a rich foundation, which in addition to Elsinore and the immediate vicinity also had more remote properties, such as in Copenhagen and Assens (Helligåndshospitalet). In 1517, Christian II donated the monastery Sankt Jørgens Gård near Copenhagen so that its funds would be used for the newly established Carmelite college in Sankt Pederstræde, but already in 1522 the monastery again lost this possession. During the Reformation, Our Lady's Monastery played a certain role: dr. Andreas Christensen was prior here, and 2 of the most outstanding men of the time, Povl Helgesen and Frants Vormordsen, left here. In 1541 it was converted into a hospital and as such it was often called (and still in the latter part of the 17th century) Holy House. A Sankt Jørgenshus for lepers, located outside the city, is mentioned in Elsinore's city court of 1443. Elsinore had a Sankt Gertrudsgilde, which by royal privilege of 20 January 1514 got the right to the money and other property that was on corpses, which drove in. on the beach between Nivå and Hornbæk, as it had undertaken the duty to bury the recovered bodies.

Documents concerning Elsinore from the first half of the 16th century also mention King Hans' letter of 29 December 1508 to the authorities and citizens of Elsinore about surrounding the city with tombs and fortifications due to the war conditions, a plan which was not carried out . Frederik I’s letter of 15 July 1532 that the sound duty was still to be collected in Elsinore, when Christian II had postponed its collection to Copenhagen. Judgment of the King's Court of Appeal of 5 May 1541 concerning the relationship between Elsinore and Helsingborg, according to which the citizens of Elsinore, who "do not have in their town a square like other market towns, then they are free to buy grain and edible goods for their needs in other towns and countries without Customs except at Fiskerlejerne ", and they therefore also had to shop at Helsingborg in the same way, whereas the citizens of Helsingborg are also allowed to shop at Helsingør. A royal letter of 11 December 1547 stipulated that every Saturday there should be a market day in Elsinore and that the latter parishes should supply grain and other goods, namely: Karlebo, Lynge, Grønholt, Asminderød, Lillerød, Tikjøb, Nøddebo, Blovstrød, Herlev , Frerslev and Tjæreby, ie the whole area down to Sjælsø and southeast of Arresø.

The Renaissance
The 16th century brought many accidents over Elsinore, because in addition to the city being destroyed by fire in 1500, it was burned by the Lübeckers in 1523, taken during the Count's Feud in 1535, but recaptured in 1536 together with the castle Krogen, and haunted by plague in 1536 and 1583 (in this last year, no less than 1,200 people should have died). An epidemic disease, "sweat-sickness", also plagued Elsinore in 1529. Despite all this, however, the city regained some strength. In addition to the fact that the sound toll increased in importance with the ever-increasing number of ships, the Swedish war had learned that "Krogen" was not a sufficient defense to secure the collection of sound customs, in the years 1574-83 had the considerable renaissance castle Kronborg built, which not only became a fortress, but also a regularly visited royal residence, if even Many foreigners also took up residence in the city, which among some Calvinists fled from the Netherlands, several of whom must have been wealthy people. numbers, was probably not without significance either.But with the increase of prosperity and with the ever-increasing visit of strangers, morality seems to have diminished, as can be seen by Frederik II s letter of 13 July 1574 "on loose women in Elsinore". A royal letter of 28 August 1566 allowed the citizens of Elsinore to buy grain and other things in the Isefjord and by Sundby Færge (later Frederikssund).

 

A royal letter of 13 July 1574 forbade the Dutch Calvinists who had fled to Elsinore during the service to make feasts, stroll the streets and the like. New privileges were granted to Elsinore on 13 January 1577 on the occasion of Kronborg's construction, confirming the old privileges and granting citizens tax exemption for 20 years in exchange for "hosting our Hofsinder" and leading them and others who come with pass, over to Helsingborg. On 10 July 1570, a power of attorney was given for Henrik Mogensen to negotiate with the king about the introduction of water to Elsinore. By grant of July 16, 1581, Peither Pester was allowed to establish a pharmacy. By royal letter of 6 January 1582, the bishop of Zealand and the mayor of Elsinore were ordered that the German weekday service, which had been introduced in St. Mary's Church for Dutch and Germans some years before, should be held according to the church ordinance on the same days as in the Danish churches. and Friday.

A model register of June 3, 1583 on the citizens' census indicated that in the city's 4 districts there were 137 chinsmen, 63 double soldiers with armor, swords and spears, 14 with short guard, a total of 214 armed, in addition to the mayor and council, a total of 9 men in armor with swords and spears; 200 unarmed by artisans and aging men. Although the majority of these 414 people were fathers, the census implies that the population of the entire city has hardly exceeded 2–3,000. A royal letter of 25 October 1616 ordered the construction of a ring wall. By royal letter of 4 March 1631 about Elsinore's trade in the Limfjord, the citizens' right to trade is claimed, "because they have no Axeltorv". In the years 1607–1614, coins were minted in Elsinore.

From the beginning of Frederik III's time, the Swedish resident Magnus Durell's relationship to Queen Christina originates, in which he informs about Elsinore:

"The town has no great trade, but its flora consists mostly of the customs shed, which consists of 2 customs officers, 6 customs clerks, a visitor and a customs officer. fish, which can be lost in storms and storms in the Kattegat or between Skagen and Elsinore. than Danes, namely Dutch, Officials and Hamburgers ”.
In 1618 and again in 1654, the city was hit by disease epidemics, which reduced the number of inhabitants. According to the church register for Sankt Mariæ parish (the only one preserved from the market town at this time) 221 people were buried, but a record mentions that a total of 2,168 people died in the year 1654, corresponding to about a third of the town's inhabitants.

The Karl Gustav Wars (1658-1660) involved Kronborg's occupation of the Swedish troops, during whose bombardment the eastern part of the city suffered greatly, and the discharges in Elsinore, which were connected with it, brought great burdens and inconveniences to the city.

Under the dictatorship
Some compensation for the losses the city had suffered before and during the Swedish wars, it received after the peace in the form of the immigration of Scanians, who would not enter into subordinate relations with Sweden. In 1672 the population was calculated at 4,033.

In the year 1682, it was decided that Elsinore should be among the market towns that had to trade in foreign lands. The magistrate was expanded at the same time to 2 mayors and 5 councilors. On May 12, 1685, the ferry company received its first lichen articles. The number of ferrymen consisted of approx. 100. It was not until 1691 that the town, which had so often previously complained about the lack of an axel square, was remedied, as the space for a burnt-out farm in the middle of the town was laid out for market purposes. Although Elsinore was among the market towns entitled to shipping abroad, it is seen from a report from the magistrate of 2 April 1704 that the city did not own any ship to travel with abroad and only 12 vessels for domestic shipping, from 1 to 8 loads of pregnancy.

In 1710–11, Elsinore was haunted by the great contagion, which seems to have been brought there by ships from Danzig, and during which 1,800 or about a third of all the inhabitants died. At the same time and later, the war with Sweden brought great difficulties for the city in the form of troop transports and accommodation.

 

On September 26, 1717, the magistrate gave a view of the town's constitution to the diocesan official, stating that the town had 399 farms and houses, which were inhabited, of which among 27 foundation-walled farms, 76 farms and houses in fair condition, however uninhabited, and 226 dilapidated houses and desolate squares. The wall arranged by Christian IV was probably long ago fallen down or closed down, but a fencing of ditches and fences for the sake of consumption was still maintained in 1722. It is strange that in this century, after the city had been haunted by the plague repeatedly , proved a great mortality among the city population, thus in 1727: 170 deaths against 121 births, in 1741: 220 deaths against 136 births. On January 8, 1750, it was announced to the entire bourgeoisie that the king had left the customs of the place in lease (for a sum of 5,400 rigsdaler annually) from the new year on to some of the merchants, and the citizens were urged to show "the same respect and "Obedience" to the customs officers and their officers as hitherto to the majesty's own officers.

From the year 1751 there is a very interesting "demonstration" on the part of the magistrate. After this the number of the real citizens was 315 and the number of the bourgeoisie; of the former 304 and of the latter 24 bourgeois sustenance; in the lava there were 18 merchants, 80 ferrymen, 5 hauliers, 7 bakers, 11 butchers, 7 blacksmiths, 6 carpenters, 6 tailors, 15 shoemakers and 7 glove makers. The demonstration states that trade and conduct with the ships sailing through the Sound was the city's most important means of livelihood "besides the little it could have of the garrison and The peasant ". Of peculiar glories and privileges, the town had only free peat cuttings of 500 loads and freedom of storage for 3 years for French wines and spirits for shipment, and finally there were for the town 486 barrels of land sown of 123 tdr. Hartkorn, which belonged partly to the bourgeoisie partly the poor.

By the middle of the 18th century there was not much trade and industry: in 1756 Commerce Councilor Classen is mentioned as the only one who had his own ships in Elsinore, "with which he uses Trafique to and from foreign Places", in 1761 Adam Späth was privileged to to build a sugar refinery. The town did not yet have a proper harbor, although the construction of one had already been mentioned several times in the 17th century. The ships had to dock at bridges and bulwarks, several of which were paid for privately by the landowners, and the large ship or customs bridge was found in 1721 so dilapidated that its repair was ordered. It was not until 1764 that the construction of a port on the north side of the customs bridge was seriously tackled, extending a little over 200 feet in such a direction that ships which, however, could not go deeper than 8 feet, could be safe for , and in 1766 the plant was completed. The means of transport were not good either: in 1763 the number of hauliers had decreased from 8 to 5 and their horses from 12 to 5 pairs, because the road between Elsinore and Copenhagen was so poor: "Sanden ved Lokkerup og Webek" and especially the stone bridge through Humlebæk. Forest destroyed both horses and carriages, and a few years seldom passed without them on "this Long and arduous Distance added by both", and trips to Frederiksborg and elsewhere were rare. It was at that time that the construction of the chausseen (royal road) from Copenhagen to Frederiksborg began, and around the year 1790 it was taken to Elsinore.

In 1769, according to the census (without garrison) there were 3,669 inhabitants, and in 1787 the town had 4,829 inhabitants.

In the first half of the 19th century, the Øresund customs contributed to the city growing and prospering. The city had a large number of ship clearers and supplied ships anchored for customs clearance with necessities. In the year 1840 over 15,000 ships were cleared and in 1856 (the last year of the Sundtold) over 20,000. The largest number of ships in one day was 353 and in the middle of the century Elsinore was the most visited port in the Nordic countries. The city grew rapidly: in 1801 the city had 5,282 inhabitants, in 1834 7,122 inhabitants, in 1840 7,645 inhabitants, in 1845 7,995 inhabitants, in 1850 8,111 inhabitants and in 1855 9,097 inhabitants. The abolition of the Øresund customs duty in 1857 put the city in deep economic crisis, as the ships no longer had to anchor to pay customs duties, and the city had a declining population for a period: in 1860 the city had only 8,442 inhabitants, corresponding to a decrease of 7.2% .

 

The former industrialization
However, the stagnation that hit Elsinore after the abolition of the sound tariff lasted only a short time. Improved transport conditions, tourism and an incipient industrialization soon reversed the trend. Of great importance to the city was also that it became a transfer city to Helsingborg, including for trains. On the other hand, Elsinore never got any upland trade of significance, as Hornbæk and Espergærde already from the turn of the century (1900) seized the upland trade that was.

Technical improvements
Gradually, several improvements were implemented in the technical installations in the city. A gasworks was built in 1854. It was owned by a consortium, "Det danske Gaskompagni", an English company that ran it at its own expense, concluding an agreement with the municipal council, after which the company was given the exclusive right to supply the city with gas. .

With regard to the town's water supply, which had previously taken place from the ponds to the south of the town, the waterworks underwent a significant improvement in 1866 with the installation of filter devices and with the use of iron pipes instead of wooden pipes for the pipes. it could be carried up to the floors, but it only provided water to the stakeholders, the other landowners had to build wells themselves, and a new waterworks was therefore built by Grønnehave by the municipality, which bought the old waterworks.

In the years 1867–94, sewer lines were passed through all streets.

The railway is being built
In 1864, a railway was built, the Nordbanen, which ran from Copenhagen over Hillerød and Fredensborg to Elsinore.

The port is being expanded
Despite several expansions, the port soon proved to be too small. On 15 February 1866, a concession was granted to build a large port north of Kronborg, which was to be connected to the then port by a 110-foot-wide canal, and which was to be both a pillar for trade between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea and a safe port of refuge, where the ships, instead of anchoring on the nest, could search in and await favorable winds, and where large machine shops should be able to take up competition with the rest of the world. The project was never carried out, however. that the harbor now had a surface content of just over 11 tdr. of land, of which about 8½ td. ld. had a depth of 22 English feet, the rest 20 feet. The inlet width was 126 feet with a depth of 22 feet. The total length of the quays was about 5,000 feet, of which about half, commonly used for unloading and loading, was provided with railway tracks. Particular importance was given to the harbor during severe ice winters, when sailing on Copenhagen was stopped, as it was then used extensively as a port of refuge. On the head of the south pier was erected a solid, red harbor lighthouse, 21 feet above sea level, of the 6th order. In addition, a lighthouse was set up at Kronborg.

By law of 30/3 1889, the construction of a steam ferry berth for the ferry to Helsingborg was approved, which was carried out in 1890-91 in the southern corner of the harbor. The steam ferry was taken into use in the spring of 1892 with 5 daily connections between Elsinore and Helsingborg. The old Færgelav was abolished in 1882, and the ferry service was released. At the abolition in 1882, the ferry crew numbered only 25 ferrymen with 12 men.

The early industrialization
From the middle of the 19th century, Elsinore experienced an incipient industrialization. Among companies in and around the town around 1855 were Godthåb Glasværk with 51 employees, 6 brickworks (also 4 in Tikøb Parish) with a total of 126 employees, 1 iron foundry, 1 wool spinning mill, dyeing and printing plant, 1 cotton weaving mill, 2 tobacco factories with a total of 17 employees , 1 machine shop for agricultural implements, 2 pottery with 7 employees, 4 tanneries with 13 employees. In addition, the city had 2 shipyards (boat buildings) with 55 employees and especially engaged in ship repairs, 2 steam flour mills.

 

In 1882, a new chapter in the history of Elsinore began when Helsingør Shipyard and Maskinbyggeri A / S opened. It was also important that Wiibroes Brewery (founded 1840) in 1896 began selling bottled beer.

Elsinore became first and foremost an industrial city. At the turn of the century, the city had factories and industrial plants: the glassworks "Godthaab", which made bottles in 2 ovens; 2 brickworks ("Nøjsomhed" and "Klostermosegaard"); 1 garment factory, with which woolen spinning, dyeing and printing were associated; 1 white goods spinning mill (approx. 40 looms); 1 machine-wallpaper factory; 2 tobacco factories; 1 larger tannery; 1 lime distillery; 1 mineral water bottling plant; 1 vinegar brewery; 1 Bavarian and 3 white beer breweries; 1 distillery with yeast factory; several major steam bakeries; 3 wind turbines and 2 steam turbines (one of which, however, in the summer of 1895 was not in operation); 1 larger slaughterhouse, "Frederiksborg Amts Kreatur- og Andels-Slagteri" (built in 1894 at Grønnehave); 1 fishing net factory (built in 1892 at Grønnehave); 1 wooden shipbuilding belonging to a partnership (the main company was repairs). What, however, particularly contributed to giving the city an industrial character, was the joint stock company "Helsingørs Jærnskibs- og Maskinbyggeri" (on Grønnehave, where the formerly beautiful Kronborg Allé was located), established under the concession of 29 November 1881, with 7- 800 workers; in connection with it stood a dry dock (between the shipyard and Kronborg) .Then the joint stock company "Helsingørs Patent-Ophalingsbedings Interessantskab", established in 1878; it had "not insignificant importance and is used heavily". Other major companies include: the joint stock company "Helsingørs Dampskibsselskab ", established in 1881 by merging several companies, and a partnership that ran Marienlyst Søbadeanstalt (the limited company, which was established on December 20, 1885 and bought the sea bath hotel, which was built 1860-61 after drawings by Chr. Holsøe, just as it rented Marienlyst Castle with park, abolished 1888; the castle with the park belonged (and belongs) to the municipality).

On February 1, 1890, the city had 11,076 inhabitants (at a census conducted by the city council on February 1, 1895, the population was 11,553). By industry, the population was divided in 1890 into the following groups, comprising both breadwinners and dependents: 1,604 lived by intangible business, 4,718 by industry, 1,452 by trade and turnover, 474 by shipping, 271 by agriculture, 58 by horticulture, 108 by fishing, while 1,729 were distributed on other livelihoods, 544 lived by their means, 104 enjoyed alms and 14 were imprisoned. According to a 1906 census, the population was 14,534, of which 1,645 subsisted on intangible activities, 396 on agriculture, forestry and dairy farming, 116 on fishing, 8,141 on crafts and industry, 1,720 on trade and more, 1,356 on transport, 560 were retired, 306 lived by public support and 294 by other or unspecified business. It was thus around the turn of the century that more than half were employed in handicrafts and industry.