Kolding is a fjord town in South Jutland and with its 61,121 inhabitants (2020) is Denmark's 7th largest town. Kolding is the capital of Kolding Municipality and is located in the Region of Southern Denmark.

The city probably originated in the latter half of the 12th century. In the Middle Ages, the city was hit by several wars and plagues, which caused a decline in population and trade, but since the end of the 19th century, the city has consistently prospered and is today an enterprising trading and business city in the Triangle area.

Due to the city's central location in Denmark, trade and exports have always been of great importance for the city's development, and Kolding Å was for many years the customs border between the Kingdom and the Duchies to the south. The trade took place first by road and ship and later also by rail.

North of Kolding Å is Slotsbanken with the city's landmark, the royal castle Koldinghus, which was built as the kingdom's protection of the southern border. The royal residence at the castle has been significant to the city as it shed light on the city and provided work for the inhabitants. The most significant royals were probably King Christian III and his wife Queen Dorothea in the 16th century, King Christian IV in the early 17th century and King Frederik IV in the early 18th century.

The landscape itself originated and formed at the end of the last ice age, also called the Weichsel Ice Age. During this period, the area was completely covered by ice several times, and the ice, glaciers and meltwater have created Kolding's landscape features with tunnel valleys, fjords and lakes, as well as Kolding Å, which meanders through Kolding and the surrounding area.

The center and the oldest part of the city are located at the bottom of an east-west valley, and the city spreads up the sides of the valley and further out into the countryside. The development of the town has meant that the suburbs, Vonsild, Tved, Bramdrupdam, Seest, Strandhuse and Harte have become part of the town.