Skanderborg is a market town and station town in East Jutland. It
is located in Skanderup Parish, 25 km southwest of Aarhus city
center. Skanderborg is the capital and administrative center of
Skanderborg Municipality in the Central Jutland Region, and has
19,525 inhabitants (2020): The city is a small railway junction
between the north-south east coast stretch towards Aarhus and
Horsens and the east-west railway towards Silkeborg.
Although Skanderborg is an independent city, it is closely connected to Aarhus, about half of all newcomers come from Aarhus, and the other way, half of all newcomers choose to move to Aarhus. Skanderborg must be seen in close connection with the East Jutland city, and the proximity to the many workplaces in Aarhus is reflected in low unemployment in Skanderborg. The many educational institutions in Aarhus affect the level of education in Skanderborg. The city and the municipality are also an important player in the collaboration, called Business Region Aarhus, which is an inter-municipal collaboration with a view to strengthening the Aarhus area.
Skanderborg is located in a hilly landscape by Skanderborg Lake a few kilometers from Ejer Bavnehøj. The second weekend in August visits up to 40,000 Skanderborg Festival by the beech forest and the lake. In northern Skanderborg is the part of the Danish Road Directorate that is responsible for Denmark's road projects.
Origin and Middle Ages
The castle, which was built in the vicinity of the town, was named Skanthorpburg, Skanderborg, after it, and the name also passed on to the town, which gradually grew up under the shelter of the castle. But the names Skanderup and Skanderborg were used extensively even in the middle of the 17th century, and the village, which in its time was partly on the lands of Skanderborg city, and the market town was probably also quite one, as Skanderborg's inhabitants continued to search Skanderup Church (already in 1547 Skanderup Church was called Schandelborg Parish Church), until they were referred to the castle church by rescript of 14 October 1699.
Frederik II, who spent a lot of time at Skanderborg Castle, gave the town its first privileges by letter of 28 October 1583, in which it is stated, "that, in order that the subjects who now live or come to live at Sk. Castle, the better close and save themselves, and the peasants around them must be able to get what they need for their household, those who live by the castle, or who would go there and live and build within the wooden fence that is now set up, are allowed to use Purchase and Sale and Merchant Trade in Hops, Steel, Salt, Cloth and whatever other Goods the Peasants might need; likewise it shall be Blacksmiths, Shoemakers and other Craftsmen who are skilled in their Craft and would move there, permitted to do so ; those who wished to build should build a market-town building with good stables, lodgings, and rooms, so that others, as it happens to come there, might have with them convenient refuge and maintenance; furthermore, those who now live there or would build there, Exemption from Tax and all other royal burdens and Difficulty ".
In 1584, Frederik II established the royal inn in Skanderborg, which closed in 1620.
During the Imperial War, Christian IV must have had it fortified, and in 1768 traces of a fortification were still seen north of the city.
The town's privileges were affirmed in 1600 and 1648, but the town was still long after not considered a complete market town, just as it remained under the castle clerks (county administrators). During the war with the Swedes, it was for a time occupied by the Poles, who badly housed here and set fire to the city.
A Latin school established by Frederik III in 1651 was closed down as early as 1658.
In 1720, Skanderborg became the home of an actual equestrian district, and in 1720-1722 barracks and stables were built for crew and horses for a regiment.
In a fire in 1746, 17 farms were reduced to ashes.
The town first gained its own authority when Frederik V appointed a town bailiff on 20 June 1760. It has always been a small town (in 1769 it had 514 inhabitants), as its catchment area is very small.
In May 1849, General Olaf Rye occupied the area.
The early industrialization
Skanderborg's population was increasing in the late 1800s and early 1900s: 1,042 in 1850, 1,271 in 1855, 1,423 in 1860, 1,707 in 1870, 1,792 in 1880, 2,354 in 1890, 2,721 in 1901, 3,146 in 1906 and 3,403 in 1911.
Of factories and industrial plants, the town had around the year 1900: Skanderborg Ironworks and Machine Factory (A. Blom & Søn), Skanderborg Wool and Cloth Factory (a joint stock company), Skanderborg Steam distillery (N. Christensen & Co.) and a cooperative pig slaughterhouse (established 1890) .
In Skanderborg, 3 newspapers were published: "Skanderborg Amts Avis", "Skanderborg Amtstidende" and "Skanderborg Socialdemokrat".
The following markets were held in Skanderborg: 1st Friday of each month and every Friday during Lent and from 1 November to Christmas with live cattle, also 1 in January, 3 in February and 3 in March with horses, and 1 in May, 1 in June, 1 in July, 1 in September and 1 in October with horses and cattle. Market day was every Friday.
The distribution by industry was in 1890: 383 lived by intangible business, 108 by agriculture, 5 by horticulture, 5 by fishing, 3 by shipping, 873 by craft and industry, 440 by trade and turnover, 413 by various day-care business, 112 by their means , 10 enjoyed alms, and 2 were in prison. According to a 1906 census, the population was 3,146, of which 280 subsisted on intangible activities, 101 on agriculture, forestry and dairy farming, 13 on fishing, 1,421 on crafts and industry, 553 on trade and more, 433 on transport, 120 were retired people, 70 lived by public support and 155 by other or unspecified business.