Silkeborg

 

 

Silkeborg is a city in Central Jutland with 46,923 inhabitants (2020). A large number of inhabitants from Virklund, Gjessø, Sejs-Svejbæk, Grauballe, Skægkær, Sinding and Sejling work in Silkeborg. The town is the capital of Silkeborg Municipality and is located in very hilly terrain in the Central Jutland highlands with forested hills and with the river Gudenåen close to the inner city. There are scheduled boats to Silkeborgsøerne and Himmelbjerget from the town's small harbor, and the old steamship Hjejlen is the most famous.

Silkeborg is a station town on the railway line Skanderborg and Herning. The city is located in the Central Jutland Region.

 

History

Many signs have been found that people lived before BC. in the Silkeborg area. The most obvious signs have been the bog elves Ellingpigen, Tollundmanden and Grauballemanden, all of which are dated to the years 200-400 BC.

The Middle Ages
The name, 1470: Sillkæborgh, 1488: Silkijborgh - and the castle that lay there, is first mentioned in the beginning of the 15th century, when Silkeborg was owned by Hr. Laur. Hvas to Ormstrup, who had got it with his 2nd wife Thore, daughter of Erik Mus, who had owned the estate and apparently built the castle on a plot which, strangely enough, did not belong to him, or which at least Alling Kloster claimed . Mrs. Thore, however, already in 1414 transferred Silkeborg to the cathedral in Aarhus (the same year she also donated to the bishop's chair her and her children's estates in Vester- and Øster-Kejlstrup in Hids Herred), but as the gift did not rely on any deed or formal gift certificate, and the transfer had taken place without the will of the husband or relatives, the bishop of Aarhus Bo had to make do with the promise for the time being. As early as 1418, however, the bishop, in order to secure possession, got a gastric exchange with Alling Kloster, who, as mentioned, thought he was the owner of the land; at the change of stomach, the bishop's chair, in addition to Remstrup and Remstrup Fang, also got "the place that Silkeborg stands on". After Laur. Hvas' death, the bishop of Aarhus Ulrik Stygge began new negotiations with Mrs. Thore, who in 1433 exchanged estates and sold to the bishop her and the family's estate in Linaa Parish, and in 1436 she and her second husband Ove Ovesen (Kaas) confirmed to Lerbæk, whom she had married meanwhile, the gift of Silkeborg to the church. In order for the church to come into quiet possession of the estate, however, the relationship had to be arranged partly to Alling Kloster, who made difficulties with regard to the change of stomach of 1418, and partly to Laur. Hvas ’children, which, however, only ended when Erik Hvas, with the consent of sisters Kirsten and Birgitte, deeded their share in Silkeborg Estate to the episcopal see, a property right confirmed in 1489 by King Hans; with Alling Kloster, the matter was not settled until 1532, when a "final end and decision" was made about Remstrup and Remstrup Fang with more land. The bishops of Aarhus greatly appreciated the possession. Right from 1436 they had appointed an official or commander (the first was the above-mentioned Ove Ovesen; however, already in 1433 a nobleman Arild Svendsen is mentioned at Silkeborg; in 1464 Erik Christiernsen (Fasti) was chief, 1488 Joach. Lykke, 1490 Oluf Munk); the original castle they probably immediately demolished and replaced with a far more substantial castle; they collected a lot of goods for it and probably stayed there often; the two penultimate Catholic bishops Ejler Madsen Bølle and Niels Clausen both died there in 1501 and 1531 after some years before having resigned their offices and reserved Silkeborg Castle for life.

The Renaissance
When Johan Rantzau was sent out in 1536 to take possession of the episcopate for the Crown, the episcopal commander at Silkeborg Hans Stygge resisted and refused to surrender the castle without a command from Bishop Ove Bille, and when he refused, he was imprisoned like the other bishops. . Silkeborg now became a royal county and seat of a sheriff until 1660.

Under the dictatorship
After 1660, Silkeborg County was formed. The farm and the estate itself were deeded by the king in 1664 to the wine bar in Glückstadt Christian Fischer for the fortification he had made to the government in 1658 and the following years in the war, subject to redemption. Later the property passed to his brother Daniel Fischer and his son Christian Fischer to Allinggård, Gravballegård and Vinderslevgård, from whom Frederik IV redeemed it in 1720 and laid it out as an equestrian district, while the farm was interrupted; the king must have donated the materials from the castle to Count Friis (Frijsenborg) in order to "build up" Favrskov. But then the castle had already been ruined for some time.

After the estate had been transferred to the equestrian district, the other buildings were so dilapidated that it was decided to demolish them in 1726; at an auction this year, the remaining masonry was sold along with "a large and high piece of stone wall or tower... now called the stone house," and everything was leveled with the ground. However, the ground of the main building remained until Hoff erected the later "main building" west of the river at Østergade (a storey with two low, angular towers at the corners and a frontispiece in the middle of the facade) partly of stone from there, just as the paper mill's foundations were laid. material from the castle plot.

Silkeborg County was abolished in 1793.

 

At the sale of the equestrian estate in 1767, rhythm master Hans Hoff bought Silkeborg with an adjoining 24½ barrel hartkorn main farm rate, 212 td. htk peasant estate, 22 td. forest debt and 17 td. mill debt for 38,000 rd. D. C. and erected the main building (the half-timbered barns burned in 1777 and were rebuilt of foundation wall); 1790 the property went for 60,000 rd. over to the son county judge Henr. Muhle Hoff, who immediately began selling the estate; finally he sold in 1804 the main farm with 10 farms and some houses and forests (about 5000 acres of land) as well as the royal and church tithes of Linaa and Them Parishes for 200,000 rd. D. C. to Rhythm Master H. Halling and War Commissioner H.P. Ingerslev, which in 1805 became the sole owner. He sold Silkeborg in 1814 to war councilor Aastrup in Randers for 300,000 rd. silver and 300,000 rd. banknotes, but the trade went back in 1817, and Ingerslev kept Silkeborg until it at a forced auction in 1823 for 143,000 rd. was taken over by the Treasury, which leased it out.

Judge Hoff had already had the idea of ​​constructing a small market town or charging station on the site and making the river navigable for barges, and also from the other side it was made, thus by Colonel Brock, customs inspector in Randers, who at the government's initiative had examined the Gudenåen in 1799 to see if it could be made navigable to Randers. Also suggested by H.P. Ingerslev a waterway from Silkeborg to Aarhus (through Remstrup river, Brassø, Borresø, Julsø, Birksø, Knudsø, Ravnsø, Venge lake, Petersø, Gammelgaard lake, Taastrup lake and Brabrand lake and Aarhus river), a plan which, however, was declared by the government too impractical. Again in 1836, the plan for a trading post on the spot appeared, put forward by estate inspector, Justice Bindesbøll, who together with Johs. I. Brun til Brunshaab had intended to lease the hydropower at Silkeborg for the construction of a garment factory, and in March 1840 Bindesbøll submitted a motivated proposal for a trading post 'construction to Christian VIII, when Silkeborg, according to the royal rescript of 7 February 1840, had been declared domain. The king himself had great interest in the case, especially after a visit to Silkeborg in the summer of the same year. However, the idea was only realized when the brothers Chr. and Mich. By royal resolution of 16 February 1844, Drewsen was able to build the paper mill, authorizing the rent chamber with this resolution to leave them the necessary hydropower and land for the factory, whereby all the lands of the main farm were leased to them for 50 years, subject to the obligation to to cede part of the lands to a trading post. At the inheritance deed, the Brothers Drewsen are handed over: 1) a plot of land on the east side of Gudenåen with buildings, including Silkeborg Watermill, of mill fault 17 td., 2) Stampeholm with building and a smaller plot of land on the left bank, 3) Hydropower at Silkeborg ladder with lock fishing, subject to 20 horsepower with space for an ironworks, as well as the necessary water for the construction of a canal lock (the total hydropower was 150 horsepower), 4) Fishing in streams, lakes and water bodies within the boundaries of the hereditary attachment; all against an annual tax of 840 rigsdaler for 10 years, 1440 rigsdaler for the next 10 years, and there after 2,500 rigsdaler. At the establishment of the trading post, the so-called Vestermark of about 250 td was handed over by the domain. land and about 50 td. land meadow of the main farm field. In 1853 a large part of these main farm lands was parceled out. Finally, in 1873, DKK 68,000 was sold to the factory's then owner Strøyberg farm with its buildings, Østmarken, some meadows, etc., a total of about 100 td. land, so that the state domain there after consisted only of the forests.

The early industrialization

Following a proposal from the Rentekammeret on 29 June 1844 for the establishment of a trading post, a commission was set up, which after some meetings held in Silkeborg in August 1845 on 2 September 1845 made proposals in which it emphasized the place as favorable for the emergence of a market town, mainly due to its central location in Jutland and by the country's only navigable watercourse, but nevertheless recommends that it be provisionally restricted to the construction of a trading post, which was established by resolutions of 15 December 1845 and 8 January 1846. In the first years the development was only small: before the factory's construction in 1844 there were about 30 people on the later municipality plot, in 1850 there were 499. But with 1854, when the place got its own birch judge, and in 1855, when it got its own municipal council and became its own parish. , and after the Silkeborg Medical District was established in 1856, the material recovery began; In 1855 the town had 1,204 inhabitants, and in the following years it progressed rapidly, though also the money crisis of 1857 hit the town so much harder as its merchants for the most part were younger men who had begun without great capital. The improved means of communication contributed in particular to the progress: in 1853-56 the Silkeborg-Herning country road was built, in 1854 the dam was built over Silkeborg Langsø, over which the country road through Hids Herred, Silkeborg's most important catchment area, to Viborg was built in 1855-60, just as the other roads gradually improved and was extended, and the canal road to Randers was regulated; also the railway, which was built in 1871, benefited it greatly (in its construction an agricultural association founded in the town in 1861 took an active part). In particular, the industrial enterprise grew. For a long time, however, the city occupied a strange intermediate position between the market town and the parish. Already in the parliamentary session 1856-57, a draft law was submitted to make it a market town, but it did not pass; only by the law of April 7, 1899, the city was elevated to a market town from January 1, 1900.

Silkeborg's population was increasing in the late 1800s and early 1900s: 556 in 1850, 1,204 in 1855, 1,775 in 1860, 2,338 in 1870, 2,931 in 1880, 4,217 in 1890, 7,228 in 1901, 7,803 in 1906 and 8,792 in 1911.

Straight streets were laid out at right angles.

Factories and industrial plants existed around the turn of the century: the paper mill (built in 1844, opened January 1, 1845, burned in 1864 and rebuilt, 1869 sold to Strøyberg, March 1, 1889 incorporated into Aktieselskabet "De forenede Papirfabrikker" and then temporarily stopped, but put back started in 1894; The factory, whose large building complex, consisting of the large factory buildings, the "old Mill" - restored in 1901 by Arkitekt Rosen and furnished for the manufacture of handmade paper - the manager's house, Mich. Drewsen's villa, engineer's house, workers' houses etc. wide, had of steam power 125 HP., of hydropower 200 HP., and employed about 200 workers, of which about half were women), Koopmann's pig slaughterhouse (founded 1878-79, on the field lands and with about 60 workers), Hammers Wool Spinning Mill and Cloth Factory (on the square , built in 1857, expanded in 1895, with an annual production of about 200,000 pd. of wool yarn and 50,000 acres of cloth and dress, with about 60 workers), Com michau & co. (knitwear factory, built in 1883, 1901 transferred to a limited company, capital DKK 400,000, with an annual production of approximately 8,000 dozen woolen goods and 8,000 dozen linen goods, the last only abroad, with approximately 90 workers), Silkeborg Ironworks and Machine Factory (Dons -Blædel and Schneecloth, laid out in 1854, with about 70 workers), Verners Wool Spinning Mill (about 24 workers), Jensens Wool Spinning Mill (about 20 workers), 1 distillery, 2 beer breweries, 2 steam mills, 1 cooperative dairy, 1 mill, 2 sawmills; 1 machine joinery, 1 tobacco factory, 1 dairy, 2 book printing houses, m.m.

In Silkeborg, markets were held every month, except January and August, with horses and cattle. Market day was every Saturday.

In Silkeborg, 4 newspapers were published: "Silkeborg Avis", "Silkeborg Dagblad", "Silkeborg Folkeblad" and "Silkeborg Socialdemokrat" (the last 3 were printed in Aarhus).

 

The distribution of the inhabitants by industry was in 1890: 459 lived by intangible enterprise, 50 by agriculture, 27 by horticulture, 2,060 by trade and industry, 827 by trade and turnover, 16 by shipping, 632 by various day-care enterprises, 108 by their means, and 38 enjoyed alms. According to a 1906 census, the population was 7,803, of which 734 subsisted on intangible activities, 48 ​​on agriculture, forestry and dairy farming, 0 on fishing, 4,341 on crafts and industry, 1,488 on trade and more, 315 on transportation, 399 were retired people, 244 lived by public support and 234 by other or unspecified business.

The interwar period
During the interwar period, Silkeborg's population was growing: in 1916, 9,180 inhabitants, in 1921 10,896, in 1925 11,473, in 1930 12,078, in 1935 13,393, in 1940 14,378 inhabitants. But at the same time there was a growth in the suburbs Alderslyst and Lysbro villaby in Balle Municipality and Søholt town in Gødvad Municipality. These suburbs were incorporated into the market town on April 1, 1941.

At the census in 1930, Silkeborg had 12,078 inhabitants, of which 1,088 subsisted on intangible activities, 5,597 by handicrafts and industry, 1,798 by trade etc., 873 by transport, 294 by agriculture, forestry and fishing, 1,029 by housework, 1,134 were out of business and 265 had not stated source of income.

The post-war period
After World War II, Silkeborg continued its population growth. In 1945 there were 20,955 inhabitants in the market town, in 1950 23,372 inhabitants, in 1955 24,296 inhabitants, in 1960 24,465 inhabitants and in 1965 25,789 inhabitants. Gradually, new suburbs developed, Funder Bakke in Funder Municipality and Balle town and Hvinningdal in Balle Municipality.

Recent times
After the municipal reform came into force in 2007, Silkeborg Municipality consists of Silkeborg, Gjern, Kjellerup and Them municipalities.