Hillerød

 

Hillerød is a town with 33,391 inhabitants (2020), located centrally in North Zealand. It is the administrative headquarters of the Capital Region and the third largest city in this part of Zealand after Copenhagen and Elsinore.

 

History
The history of the town of Hillerød does not really go back further than the time of Christian IV. Previously, there was only a small village, Ilskjøb. At a change of heart in 1560, it also came into the possession of Frederik II in Frederik II's, and during the construction of Frederiksborg Castle, the town may have been named Hillerød. A school founded here by Frederik II in 1568 was already moved to Sorø Kloster in 1585, "when it was learned that dealing with the court officers made the place less convenient for studies".

According to the royal rescript of 6 April 1606, 12 farms in Hillerød were given free use of the entire area of ​​land, which lay between "Slottets Kirkegaard" (later the square) and Præstevangen, "in exchange for receiving for Logis og Opvartning the Royal Lordship and the Foreign Envoys' Domestics and servitude, when they come to Frederiksborg on a royal errand. " However, this obligation eventually became difficult for the citizens to fulfill, which is why the castle inn was built at the royal expense, and the city's above obligation, but certainly also its right to trade in spirits and in particular the use of the above land ("Krovangen") was transferred to this . Later this area ("Vognmandsjorderne") in the years 1728-29 went over to Vognmandslavet in Hillerød for use (not to Eje); later these lands again passed to the state.

It is not known when Hillerød actually became a market town; at the registration of the market towns in 1660, Hillerød was not mentioned in the general order, but was included according to a special royal rescript of 26 February 1661. In 1680 Hillerød got its first town bailiff, previously the only subordinate was a riding bailiff who was under the royal steward and the sheriff of Frederiksborg, only after the abolition of the inn in 1732 did the city receive a legal basis for the free exercise of complete market town business.

In the years 1581 - 1623, coins were reportedly minted in Frederiksborg.

In the years 1620-22, a church was built in Hillerød, but it was only small and of half-timber, and so poorly built that it blew over in a storm a few years later (probably November 25, 1625), after which the congregation was allowed to hold worship in one of the stable buildings by the castle and from around 1630 was referred to the castle church, which from the beginning was only intended for the court and the inhabitants of the castle. The castle priests lived at the castle; not until 1655, when Nørre Herlev was added as an annex, was the priestly vocation arranged in its later form.

Under the dictatorship
Hillerød had also from ancient times had the right to keep 24 cows on pasture in Gribskov, but by the year 1770 the state wanted to replace the grazing right against leaving the town approx. 288 tdr. Ld. of Grønholt Overdrev. However, the town required an additional 100 loads of fencing from the forest for fencing, but was eventually instead shown peat mass for 100 loads annually in Store Dyrehave, which were distributed among the town's landowners, and the 288 td were also allotted. ld. to the landowners in relation to the size of the properties. As early as around 1799, however, the state wanted to be exempted from the peat delivery in Store Dyrehave and gave as compensation about 130 td. ld. of the stud farms, "Holmene", against an annual fee of 290 rigsdaler to the state.

Until 1846-47 there were no municipal taxes levied in Hillerød due to the rather significant special income (the net income of Holmene and the lease tax of an area to the left of Frederiksborgvejen, namely the so-called Piskerbakke or Frydensbergslette, later under Hillerødsholm), which flowed into the town's box. on the account of which the special expenses incurred by the landlords were to be borne. The town has suffered a great deal, partly from the plague which raged there in 1654 and 1655 (1658-59 it was occupied by the Swedish troops), just as it was also there in 1711, though only to a lesser extent, partly by fire, thus 1698, 1733 and at night 10-11. May 1834, which last fire in particular helped to completely change the appearance of the city.

In the 19th century, the city expanded quite a bit, first west of the lake right up to the castle, and later, after the railway had come, towards the Southeast, where a whole new neighborhood emerged. Just as Hillerød owes its origin to the castle, it has also later been what has given the city its most important attraction and part of its prosperity: in the years 1849-59, Frederik VII regularly lived in Frederiksborg, and the great fire in December 1859 therefore caused a not insignificant loss for the small town, but the rebuilding of the castle provided the town with a lot of work, and since then the rebuilt castle with its national history museum practiced even more attraction than before.

In Hillerød, Bishop P.C. was born in 1805. Kierkegaard.

 

Fires along with the demolition of old houses during the second half of the 20th century mean that there are only very few historic houses left in the city. However, the appearance of the old provincial town can still be experienced on one side of Bakkegade, and in the area around Nyhuse.

The older industrialization
During industrialization, it was especially the North Stone Factories in the center of Hillerød that became the city's lifeblood.

In the middle of the 19th century, Hillerød had 2 steam and 3 ordinary spirits distilleries, 2 beer breweries, 3 tanneries, 1 clothing factory, linen spinning mill and wool spinning mill with 12 employees, 1 cotton weaving mill, 1 tobacco factory, 3 dye mills, 1 felberederi, 1 brick distillery, 1 p 1 sheath water and dye factory and 1 book printing plant. In addition, there were 2 wind turbines and 1 water turbine as well as a steam turbine. The town had 4 inns. In 1872 the town had 2 steam distilleries and 1 ordinary distillery, 2 breweries, 5 malting plants, 2 tanneries, 2 garment factories and wool spinning mills, 1 tobacco factory, 2 dyehouses, 1 pottery and 2 book printing works. There were also 2 sawmills, 2 wind turbines and 1 watermill as well as 2 steam turbines on the city grounds. The city now harbors 3 inns. At the turn of the century, the town had 1 iron foundry and machine factory, 3 machine workshops, 1 steam distillery, 2 malt factories, 2 tanneries, 1 garment factory, 2 tobacco factories, 1 dyehouse, 1 pottery and 3 book printing houses. In addition, there were in the city and on its grounds: 2 sawmills, 1 weather and 1 water mill as well as 2 steam turbines. In the city there were 4 hotels and 13 inns.

Hillerød's population was increasing at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century: 1,929 in 1850, 2,292 in 1855, 2,301 in 1860, 2,533 in 1870, 3,059 in 1880, 3,731 in 1890, 4,572 in 1901, 5,156 in 1906 and 5,551 in 1911.

By industry, the population in 1890 was divided into the following groups: 1,341 lived on handicrafts and industry, 834 on trade and turnover, 633 on intangible activities, 131 were farmers, 12 gardeners, 481 lived on other occupations, 201 on their means, 57 enjoyed alms, and 41 set aside in prison. According to a 1906 census, the distribution was as follows: 468 lived on intangible activities, 216 on agriculture, 1 on fishing, 2,526 on handicrafts and industry, 894 on trade, etc., 363 on transport, 345 were capitalists and emigrants, 166 received public support, 177 had not provided source of income.