Narva-Jõesuu

 

 

Narva-Jõesuu (Russian Ust-Narva) is a resort town in the north-east of Estonia in the Ida-Virumaa county. Population - 2681 people (2020).

After the administrative-territorial reform in 2017, Narva-Jõesuu became an inner city and became part of the eponymous municipality of Narva-Jõesuu.

Historical names:
Narwa-Mündung (German Narwa-Mündung)
Gungerburg until 1912
Ust-Narova - 1912-1917
Güngerburg (German Hungerburg) - the official name until 1921.
Narva-Jõesuu - 1921-1923
From 1923 to 1928 (?) - the official Estonian name Naroova-Jõesuu (Est. Naroova-Jõesuu).
Narva-Jõesuu - from 1928 (?) To the present
Ust-Narova is a historical Russian name, in the modern spelling Ust-Narva.

 

History of Narva-Jõesuu

It was founded, most likely, in the XIV century as a fishing place for the inhabitants of the village of Kudruküla. The development of the settlement was facilitated by active trade in Narva, which, in turn, was a sea gate. At the beginning of the 16th century, fishery from Narva moved to Narva-Jõesuu, which is mentioned in 1503 in the order of the Hermaster of the Livonian Order Walter von Plettenberg: the Narova rivers, in the open sea, and for this purpose, huts and houses should be built on land to dry nets and snares. " This order is the first mention of Narva-Jõesuu. Later, the Germans began to call the village Gungerburg (German Hungerbirg), during the Livonian War it received the Russian name Ust-Narva, which was later replaced by the German name Gungerburg, and in 1921 the village was renamed Narva-Jõesuu.

There is a legend according to which the name "Gungerburg" was appropriated to the settlement by Tsar Peter I. At the beginning of the Northern War, he examined the mouth of the Narova River in order to build engineering structures here. Hungry, he asked the locals for food, but they were so poor that they could not feed the king. Then Peter I exclaimed: "Gungerburg!", Which means "hungry city" in German.

At the beginning of the Livonian War (1558-1583), Narva was occupied by Russian troops, and in order to strengthen the protection of the city from the sea, another wooden fortress was built in Ust-Narva in addition to the existing ones there, on the right bank of the Narova River. During this period, the economic growth of Ust-Narva takes place due to the intensification of the Narva trade. In 1579, the fortresses were burned by the Swedes and the Swedish fleet entered the river, blocking the sea route to Narva. From 1581 to 1704 the city was ruled by Sweden.

The end of the 16th century - the first half of the 17th century is characterized by the decline of the Narva trade and, accordingly, the economic decline of Gungerburg. In the middle of the 17th century, trade with Narva intensified again and Gungerburg rose. In 1646, a permanent pilot station was established in Gungerburg.

During the Northern War (1700-1721), Russian troops erected fortifications and coastal batteries in Gungerburg, which closed Narva from the Swedish fleet. After the capture of Narva by the Russian troops, there was a significant increase in the flow of merchant ships through Gungerburg.

In the 19th century, the importance of Narva, and with it of Gungerburg, as a port hub declined. Affected by the shallowness of the mouth of the Narova. Large ships could not pass along the river, and because of the sandy soil of the Narva Bay, during storms, ships were thrown off their anchorages. The ongoing work on the arrangement of the channel did not bring results.

At the end of the 19th century, due to the formation of industry in Narva, the traffic flow through Gungerburg again increased.

In 1838, the first enterprise was built by the Frenchman Jusson in Gungerburg - a sawmill, which ceased to exist in 1849. Petersburg merchants Gerdau and Liddert in Gungerburg opened several more small enterprises for the production of vinegar and paints, which soon also ceased to exist.

On the military topographic maps of the Russian Empire in 1846-1863, the settlement is designated as Hungerburg.

Since 1872 Gungerburg began to develop as a summer cottage settlement and resort. The nobility of Petersburg, Moscow, Kostroma and Yaroslavl rushed to the village. Summer cottage construction was actively developing. In 1882, a kurhauz was built, which burned down in 1910. The first hydropathic establishment was built in 1876, the second in 1902. In 1909 a sanatorium was built. At the beginning of the 20th century, a forest area was allocated in Gungerburg, which later became a park; in 1912, a new kurhauz was built, designed by the famous St. Petersburg architect M.S.Lialevich. In those years, a regular steamship connection with St. Petersburg was established.

At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, special cabins came into fashion on the Gungerburg beach, in which bathers were taken to the sea for bathing, the cabins were also adapted for changing clothes. At first, this service was provided with the help of horses, later this service was provided by men. The service was paid, so only wealthy girls and women used it.

 

In 1917, the resort received the status of a settlement, in 1934 it became one of the districts of Narva, in 1945 - again a settlement and in 1993 received the status of a city.

During the Great Patriotic War, the village was almost completely destroyed, including the kurhauz and port facilities.

In 1950-1960s, the resort was being restored, pioneer camps, rest houses and sanatoriums were erected. The village has become an all-Union health resort. The industry developed in the same way - fishing and ship repair enterprises were built.

In the 1980s, about 20,000 people annually vacationed in Narva-Jõesuu, with an average population of about 3,800.

In 1991, after the declaration of independence of Estonia and the introduction of a visa regime with Russia, the flow of tourists decreased sharply, which affected the economy of the resort. Since 2007, the flow of tourists to Narva-Jõesuu has been gradually increasing. The construction of hotels resumed.