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Estonia

 

Estonia Destinations Travel Guide

 

 

 

Language: Estonian

Currency: Estonian kroon (EEK)

Calling Code:  372

 

History of Estonia

 

 

 

Description of Estonia

Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a Baltic republic located in northern Europe. Since 2004, it has been part of the European Union (EU) and NATO. It is bordered on the south by Latvia, on the east by Russia, on the north by the Gulf of Finland and on the west by the Baltic Sea. The territory of Estonia comprises a continental region and a set of 2 222 islands and islets within the Baltic Sea, covering a total of 45 228 km2. It is divided politically into 15 counties, and the capital of the country is its largest city, Tallinn With a population of 1.3 million, Estonia is one of the least populated countries within the European Union. The Estonian people are ethnically and linguistically related to the Finnish and have historical and cultural ties with the Nordic countries as well as the other two Baltic countries, this despite the fact that the Nordic countries do not yet recognize their affiliation to this group, although they are negotiations to join the Nordic Council, being the member countries observers of the Nordic bloc. Estonia adopted the euro on January 1, 2011, replacing the Estonian crown.

 

Until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Estonians called themselves maarahvas, which literally means “the people of the earth,” that is, engaged in agriculture. The term eestlane comes from Latin (Aesti). So called Tacitus in "Germany" the people inhabiting the far coast of the Baltic Sea. Ancient Scandinavian sagas contain a mention of a land called Eistland - so Estonia is still called in the Icelandic language, which is close to the Danish, German, Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian versions of the name - Estland. Early Latin sources also contain versions of the name of the territory of Estia and Hestia (Estia and Hestia).

After independence in 1918, the country received the name "Estonia" (Esthonia), under this name it joined the League of Nations in 1921. After joining the USSR in 1940, the country was renamed the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, and after the collapse of the USSR in 1991, it became known as the Republic of Estonia.

 

 

Travel Destinations in Estonia

Hiiumaa Island

Hiiumaa Island is a large island in the entrance of Gulf of Riga in Estonia.

Lahemaa National Park

Lahemaa National Park established in 1971 was the first national park in the Soviet Union.

 

Laiuse Castle

Laiuse Castle is a ruined medieval castle constructed by the Livonian Order in Jõgeva Parish of Estonia.

 

Matsalu National Park

Matsalu National Park is a nature preserve on the coast of Matsalu Bay in Estonia.

 

Narva Castle

Narva Castle is a medieval citadel in Estonia that saw a lot of military action in its time that shaped history of the region.

 

Paide Castle

Ruins of medieval Paide Castle are a former defense fortifications of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword.

 

Pühtitsa Convent

Pühtitsa Convent is a Russian Orthodox monastery in the Eastern Estonia on the border with Russia

 

Rakvere Castle

Medieval Rakvere Castle is one of the largest and best defended strongholds of the Livonian Order.

 

Saaremaa Island

Saaremaa Island is the largest island in Estonia that contains nature reserve, Kuressaare castle and several historic buildings.

Sangaste Manor

Sangaste Manor is a great example of how insulting people can make them do great things.

 

Soomaa National Park

Soomaa National Park or Land of Bogs is situated in south-western Estonia and protects the unique biosphere of Estonian wetlands, forests and rivers.

 

Taevaskoja Sandstone Cliffs

Taevaskoja Sandstone Cliffs on the banks of the Anja river are located in the Põlva County in Estonia.

 

Tallinn

Tallinn is the largest city in Estonia that also serves as a capital for this Eastern European country.

 

Toolse Castle

Medieval ruins of Toolse Castle located in Lääne-Viru County are still very impressive despite years of disrepair.

 

Vilsandi National Park

Vilsandi National Park is a nature reserve located on a western Saaremaa Island and adjacent islands.

 

 

 

 

Geography of Estonia

Estonia is a state in the North East of Europe on the east coast of the Baltic Sea. It is one of the youngest countries on the continent gaining their independence from USSR in 1991. It shares its borders with Russia and Latvia. Estonia has more than 1,500 islands, the largest of which are Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. The relief of the country is mainly flat with a large network of rivers and lakes left since the recent Ice Age.

Politics of Estonia

Estonia is a republic. The head of the state is the president, legislature is the State Assembly. Despite being separated from the USSR for over 20 years many problems still linger in political and social life. The status of the non- Estonian population as well as historic importance of European events such as World War II still stir a great deal of debates. Recent events such as removing a bronze monument to Soviet soldiers who fought against Nazi Germany further adds fuel.

Language in Estonia

Official language of the country is Estonia. However Russian is also wide spread. Besides many local communities speak German and Fininish.

Religion in Estonia

Most of the believers are Lutheran at about 70%, while 20% are Estern Orthodox. The religious are usually divided along ethnic lines. So native Estonian are predominantly Lutheran, while Russian population is predominantly Orthodox. While the country also has a great number of atheists and agnostic years of atheistic propaganda made religion a symbol of struggle. So even if people don't necessarily follow any religious laws, they nevertheless respect institutes of religious organizations.

Telephone

Police 110

Fire and Ambulance 112

 

 

History of Estonia

The first human settlements arose in the territory where modern Estonia is located, approximately 9500–9600 years BC. in the framework of the so-called Kunda culture. By the X-XIII centuries, an early feudal structure of society had developed, where the elders and leaders of military squads stood at the head of the lands.

In the XIII century, the crusaders, suppressing the resistance of the Estonians, included their lands in the lands of the Livonian Order. Since that time, the Germans have for several centuries occupied key positions in Estonia in power structures, culture, economics, and so on. In the sixteenth century, Estonia went through the era of the Reformation, since then Protestantism has become the main religious denomination in its territory. In the same century, following the results of the Livonian War, northern Estonia became part of Sweden, and half a century later, southern Estonia was also included in Sweden.

After the Northern War between Sweden and the Russian Empire, according to the Nystadt Peace Treaty, Estonia was incorporated into Russia in 1721, and later became the Estland province. According to the census of 1897, 958,000 people lived in the Estland province, of which a little more than 90% were Estonians, 4% Russians, and 3,5% Germans.

After the collapse of the Russian Empire, the Republic of Estonia was proclaimed on February 24, 1918. Independence was achieved during the War of Independence. On February 2, 1920, Soviet Russia and Estonia signed a peace agreement on mutual recognition.

September 22, 1921 Estonia became a member of the League of Nations.

As a result of the division of spheres of influence between the USSR and Germany in 1939, in September 1939, the Soviet Union imposed a Mutual Assistance Pact on Estonia, and on August 6, 1940, Estonia was incorporated into the USSR. Between July 7, 1941 and November 24, 1944, Estonian territory was occupied by Nazi Germany. After the Soviet troops regained control of the territory of Estonia, it was again included in the USSR. The USA and a number of other countries recognized this inclusion de facto and did not recognize de jure.

On May 8, 1990, the Supreme Council of the Estonian SSR adopted a law on the restoration of the Constitution of the independent Republic of Estonia in 1938. On August 20, 1991, Estonia reaffirmed its independence. On September 17, 1991, Estonia was admitted to the UN. In 2004, Estonia became a member of the European Union and NATO.

On December 9, 2010, Estonia was the first among the post-Soviet countries to become a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. From January 1, 2011, Estonia switched to the use of the euro....