Description of Estonia
Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a
Baltic republic located in northern Europe. Since 2004, it has been
part of the European Union (EU) and NATO. It is bordered on the
south by Latvia, on the east by Russia, on the north by the Gulf of
Finland and on the west by the Baltic Sea. The territory of Estonia
comprises a continental region and a set of 2 222 islands and islets
within the Baltic Sea, covering a total of 45 228 km2. It is divided
politically into 15 counties, and the capital of the country is its
largest city, Tallinn With a population of 1.3 million, Estonia is
one of the least populated countries within the European Union. The
Estonian people are ethnically and linguistically related to the
Finnish and have historical and cultural ties with the Nordic
countries as well as the other two Baltic countries, this despite
the fact that the Nordic countries do not yet recognize their
affiliation to this group, although they are negotiations to join
the Nordic Council, being the member countries observers of the
Nordic bloc. Estonia adopted the euro on January 1, 2011, replacing
the Estonian crown.
Until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,
Estonians called themselves maarahvas, which literally means “the
people of the earth,” that is, engaged in agriculture. The term
eestlane comes from Latin (Aesti). So called Tacitus in "Germany"
the people inhabiting the far coast of the Baltic Sea. Ancient
Scandinavian sagas contain a mention of a land called Eistland - so
Estonia is still called in the Icelandic language, which is close to
the Danish, German, Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian versions of the
name - Estland. Early Latin sources also contain versions of the
name of the territory of Estia and Hestia (Estia and Hestia).
After independence in 1918, the country received the name
"Estonia" (Esthonia), under this name it joined the League of
Nations in 1921. After joining the USSR in 1940, the country was
renamed the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, and after the
collapse of the USSR in 1991, it became known as the Republic of
Travel Destinations in Estonia
Hiiumaa Island is a large island in the entrance
of Gulf of Riga in Estonia.
Lahemaa National Park
Lahemaa National Park established in 1971 was the
first national park in the Soviet Union.
Laiuse Castle is a ruined medieval castle
constructed by the Livonian Order in Jõgeva Parish of
Matsalu National Park
Matsalu National Park is a nature preserve on the
coast of Matsalu Bay in Estonia.
Narva Castle is a medieval citadel in Estonia
that saw a lot of military action in its time that shaped
history of the region.
Ruins of medieval Paide Castle are a former
defense fortifications of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword.
Pühtitsa Convent is a Russian Orthodox
monastery in the Eastern Estonia on the border with Russia
Medieval Rakvere Castle is one of the largest and
best defended strongholds of the Livonian Order.
Saaremaa Island is the largest island in Estonia
that contains nature reserve, Kuressaare castle and several
Sangaste Manor is a great example of how
insulting people can make them do great things.
Soomaa National Park
Soomaa National Park or Land of Bogs is situated
in south-western Estonia and protects the unique biosphere of
Estonian wetlands, forests and rivers.
Taevaskoja Sandstone Cliffs
Taevaskoja Sandstone Cliffs on the banks of the
Anja river are located in the Põlva County in Estonia.
Tallinn is the largest city in Estonia that also serves as a
capital for this Eastern European country.
Medieval ruins of Toolse Castle located in
Lääne-Viru County are still very impressive despite years of
Vilsandi National Park
Vilsandi National Park is a nature reserve
located on a western Saaremaa Island and adjacent islands.
Geography of Estonia
Estonia is a
state in the North East of Europe on the east coast of the
Baltic Sea. It is one of the youngest countries on the continent
gaining their independence from USSR in 1991. It shares its
borders with Russia and Latvia. Estonia has more than 1,500
islands, the largest of which are Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. The
relief of the country is mainly flat with a large network of
rivers and lakes left since the recent Ice Age.
Politics of Estonia
Estonia is a
republic. The head of the state is the president, legislature is
the State Assembly. Despite being separated from the USSR for
over 20 years many problems still linger in political and social
life. The status of the non- Estonian population as well as
historic importance of European events such as World War II
still stir a great deal of debates. Recent events such as
removing a bronze monument to Soviet soldiers who fought against
Nazi Germany further adds fuel.
Language in Estonia
of the country is Estonia. However Russian is also wide spread.
Besides many local communities speak German and Fininish.
Religion in Estonia
Most of the
believers are Lutheran at about 70%, while 20% are Estern
Orthodox. The religious are usually divided along ethnic lines.
So native Estonian are predominantly Lutheran, while Russian
population is predominantly Orthodox. While the country also has
a great number of atheists and agnostic years of atheistic
propaganda made religion a symbol of struggle. So even if people
don't necessarily follow any religious laws, they nevertheless
respect institutes of religious organizations.
Fire and Ambulance 112
History of Estonia
The first human settlements arose in the territory
where modern Estonia is located, approximately 9500–9600 years BC.
in the framework of the so-called Kunda culture. By the X-XIII
centuries, an early feudal structure of society had developed, where
the elders and leaders of military squads stood at the head of the
In the XIII century, the crusaders, suppressing the
resistance of the Estonians, included their lands in the lands of
the Livonian Order. Since that time, the Germans have for several
centuries occupied key positions in Estonia in power structures,
culture, economics, and so on. In the sixteenth century, Estonia
went through the era of the Reformation, since then Protestantism
has become the main religious denomination in its territory. In the
same century, following the results of the Livonian War, northern
Estonia became part of Sweden, and half a century later, southern
Estonia was also included in Sweden.
After the Northern War
between Sweden and the Russian Empire, according to the Nystadt
Peace Treaty, Estonia was incorporated into Russia in 1721, and
later became the Estland province. According to the census of 1897,
958,000 people lived in the Estland province, of which a little more
than 90% were Estonians, 4% Russians, and 3,5% Germans.
the collapse of the Russian Empire, the Republic of Estonia was
proclaimed on February 24, 1918. Independence was achieved during
the War of Independence. On February 2, 1920, Soviet Russia and
Estonia signed a peace agreement on mutual recognition.
September 22, 1921 Estonia became a member of the League of Nations.
As a result of the division of spheres of influence between the
USSR and Germany in 1939, in September 1939, the Soviet Union
imposed a Mutual Assistance Pact on Estonia, and on August 6, 1940,
Estonia was incorporated into the USSR. Between July 7, 1941 and
November 24, 1944, Estonian territory was occupied by Nazi Germany.
After the Soviet troops regained control of the territory of
Estonia, it was again included in the USSR. The USA and a number of
other countries recognized this inclusion de facto and did not
recognize de jure.
On May 8, 1990, the Supreme Council of the
Estonian SSR adopted a law on the restoration of the Constitution of
the independent Republic of Estonia in 1938. On August 20, 1991,
Estonia reaffirmed its independence. On September 17, 1991, Estonia
was admitted to the UN. In 2004, Estonia became a member of the
European Union and NATO.
On December 9, 2010, Estonia was the
first among the post-Soviet countries to become a member of the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. From January
1, 2011, Estonia switched to the use of the euro....