Mont- St.- Michel

Mont- St- Michel


Location: Manche department, Lower Normandy  Map

Train: to Pontorson, then bus


Tel. 02- 33 89 80 00

Open: May- Sep: 9am- 5:30pm, Oct- Apr 9:30am- 5pm, night visits during summer months

Closed: Jan 1, May 1, Nov 1 & 11, Dec 25

Service 12:15 pm Tue- Sun


Description of Mont- Saint- Michel or Mountain of a Saint Michael

Abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel From May 2 to August 30, open from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. (last admission at 6 p.m.). September 1 to April 30, open 9:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. (last admission 5 p.m.). visit (without guide): € 9 per adult, free for 18-25 year old citizens of the European Union (€ 5 otherwise) and free for children under 18. - From May 1 to December 25, it is possible to use an audio guide (French, English, Spanish, Italian) for € 4. Mass is celebrated every day except Monday at 12:15 p.m.


Mont-Saint-Michel is a French commune located in the Manche in Normandy. It takes its name from the rocky islet dedicated to Saint Michel where the Mont-Saint-Michel Abbey stands today.

The architecture of Mont-Saint-Michel and its bay make it the busiest tourist site in Normandy and one of the ten busiest in France — the first site after those of Île-de-France — with nearly two and a half million visitors each year (3,250,000 in 2006, 2,376,000 in 20183) provoking, as elsewhere, a reflection on the regulation of tourist flows.

A statue of Saint Michael placed at the top of the abbey church rises 157.10 meters above the shore. A major element, the abbey and its outbuildings are classified as historical monuments by list of 1862 (Sixty other constructions being protected later); the islet and the coastline of the bay have been listed on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1979 as well as the Moidrey mill since 2007. In addition, the mount enjoys a second world recognition as a stage of the Paths of Compostela in France for "pilgrims from Northern Europe (who) passed through the Mount when they went to Galicia".

In 2021, the municipality had 25 inhabitants, called the Montois. The islet of Mont Saint-Michel has become over time an emblematic element of French heritage.

In 2023, the village of Mont-Saint-Michel joins the list of villages labeled Heritage Village, which work to highlight their material and / or intangible heritage (historical, cultural, natural, architectural, etc.).


Getting here

Since April 2012, it is no longer possible to drive to the foot of Mont- Saint- Michel. A new parking lot has been built on the mainland (12 € per car) and access to the mountain is done either on foot via the new footbridge completed in 2014 (about 2.5 km) or via one of the free shuttles (bus ) or paying (horse-drawn carriages) which provide a regular connection between 7:30 a.m. and midnight. However, the parking lot is relatively far (about 800 m) from the departure point of the shuttles and on arrival, there are still a few hundred meters to walk to the entrance.

By car
Driving is probably the easiest and cheapest way to visit Mont Saint-Michel, although the line at the entrance to the parking lot is often long. From Caen, take the A84 motorway, exit at exit 34 towards Saint-Brieuc on the national 175. It is then possible to exit to join the D43 which allows you to reach the mountain along the coast and follow the signs that point to Mt. Or, you can leave the 4 lanes by joining the D80.

From Paris, allow 4 hours by road.

Car park
Mont-Saint-Michel car park from € 4.5 for light vehicles. - Since the end of the implementation of the Saint-Michel project, parking is compulsory before arriving in the town of Mont-Saint-Michel. 4,000 parking spaces are available before crossing the footbridge, a work of art that connects Mont-Saint-Michel on foot or by shuttle bus.

Public transport
There is no direct train line between Paris and Mont Saint-Michel, but it is possible to travel to Pontorson by train and then complete the journey by bus. The best option is to take the TGV from Montparnasse station to Rennes or Dol-de-Bretagne. The Rennes - Mont-Saint-Michel and Dol-de-Bretagne - Mont-Saint-Michel express line of the regional council takes you to Mont Saint-Michel. Five round trips are offered during the day and are connected to the TGV from Paris. Remember to check the train times, they can change. It happens that out of season, the connection is not assured from Rennes; check it before you go. Also note that traffic can be very heavy around the mountain (there is only one road). So it is possible that you miss your train. During the summer, the wait at the exit of the mountain can reach an hour or more. The bus stop is located directly at the “north” exit of Rennes train station, at the bus station on the right. In Dol-de-Bretagne, the bus parks in front of the station exit.

Keolis Emeraude +33 2 99 26 16 00 - Information on Rennes - Mont-Saint-Michel - Dol-de-Bretagne bus timetables and prices.
Count € 15 for a one-way ticket from Rennes and € 8 from Dol-de-Bretagne. Reductions exist for people under 26 or over 60 (25% reduction). It is possible to buy tickets directly on the bus, via SNCF at the same time as the purchase of your train ticket or at the bus station in Rennes. On arrival, the bus drops you off at the car park. From there, it is possible to take the shuttles that connect the parking lot and the entrance to Mt.

Another option is to take the train to Pontorson - Mont-Saint-Michel station which is on the Caen - Rennes railway line. Buses from Pontorson are available and leave several times a day in accordance with the arrival of trains. Count € 3.2 per trip (free for children under 4).

By bike
Parking for bicycles is free and the road from Pontorson to the mountain is not particularly difficult (beware of the wind though).

By taxi
Taxis are extremely expensive for long journeys, unless you can share the cost with other travelers. A one-way taxi ride from Mont Saint-Michel to Rennes costs around € 135. A more economical option is to take a taxi to Dol de Bretagne and then take the train to Rennes from where you can reach Paris.

Rennes Taxi +33 7 87 91 71 49 100 € day / 150 € night or Sunday and public holidays. - Taxi company providing the Rennes - Mont-Saint-Michel route.


Around the town

The only way to get around inside the mountain is on foot. There are two gates in the walled city. The Porte de l'Avancée, the main gate at the end of the causeway, leads onto the Grande Rue which mainly contains souvenir and tourist shops as well as restaurants and cafes. Climb the stairs to reach the ramparts which are a little less crowded and which offer a beautiful view of the bay. The less used Eschaugette gate to the left of the main entrance is the quietest of the roads. All the routes converge towards the abbey at the top of the island.


Local culture and heritage

Monuments and tourist places

We enter the citadel through three successive doors :
those of the Advance which opens on the strikes and the sea. It opens onto the courtyard of the Advance and consists of a carriage door and a pedestrian door. The pilgrims who used it were controlled by the guards and then could quench their thirst, at the corner of the courtyard staircase, in the drinking water fountain whose basin is shaped like a scallop shell. The courtyard of the Advance which forms a triangular space (traced which conceals it from the shots fired from the access road), was laid out in 1530 by Lieutenant Gabriel du Puy. Defended by an elevated walkway and by a half-moon tower flanking the openings of the next courtyard, this courtyard protected the approaches to the Boulevard courtyard. The staircase leads to the old guard house to the bourgeois, granite construction covered in essentes, which now houses the tourist office of Mont-Saint-Michel. This courtyard exhibits two bombs, called the "michelettes", respectively 3.64 and 3.53 m long, 0.48 and 0.38 m in internal diameter, and weighing 2.5 tons, launching projectiles from 75 to 150 kilograms. These two artillery pieces are manufactured by means of flat iron moats surrounded by fire by collars also made of iron, solidly fretted. The Mons tradition reports that these cannons were abandoned by the troops of Thomas de Scales on June 17, 1434 during the Hundred Years' War and were repatriated intramural as a trophy by the inhabitants of the Mount who made them the symbol of their independence ;
at the back of the courtyard, the lion's door (reference to this animal engraved on an escutcheon with the arms of Abbot Robert Jollivet) opens onto the courtyard of the Boulevard built in 1430 by Louis d'Estouteville, captain of Mont-Saint-Michel (1424-1433) and governor of Normandy. This cramped courtyard is occupied by modern nineteenth-century buildings, including Mother Poulard's restaurant and the hotel Les Terrasses Poulard, properties of Mother Poulard Group, an industrial and hotel group that owns almost half of the hotels and restaurants in the Mont ;
the only entrance to the village originally, the King's Gate was built around 1415-1420 by Louis d'Estouteville. Ten years later, it was protected by a barbican now called cour du Boulevard. Equipped with a harrow, it is preceded by a drawbridge reconstructed in 1992 by the architect Pierre-André Lablaude and by a ditch filled with water on high tide days. Above this door is the King's house, a two-storey apartment that served as housing for the officer representing the royal power and entrusted by the sovereign to guard the entrance to the village. This accommodation now houses the Mons town hall. The rectangular frame located above the carriage door was formerly decorated by a relief now faded. It represented the coat of arms of the king, the abbey and the city: two angels supporting the royal coat of arms with three fleurs-de-lis surmounted by the royal crown, below two lines of shells placed two by two (reminder of the Mount, vassal of the King of France) and for support two fish placed in double wavy fasces (evocation of the waves during the tides)

The visitor then enters on one level in the Main Street of the village, a narrow lane only 200 meters long which goes up to the abbey winding between two rows of restaurants, hotels and shops offering religious jewelry and many souvenir objects made in China, which earned them to be designated as the "merchants of the Temple". The explosion of mass tourism in the 1960s has indeed led the Mons to make this way the most profitable shopping street in France per square meter by transforming their houses into shops whose storefronts and architecture refer to a medieval and historical imagination rebuilt and reinterpreted : the tourist site which attracts 2.5 to 3.5 million visitors a year has become a source of juicy and coveted profits at the origin of a commercial rivalry and a legal battle between mayors Patrick Gaulois and Eric Vannier who both have important commercial interests on the mountain. Nevertheless, it remains the main artery of the town crowded with tourists on busy days, which makes the climb to the abbey painful. According to the journalist Lomig Guillo, "it is the most marked path, taken by the majority of visitors; however, it has little interest. The houses that line the street all host souvenir shops, hotels or restaurants and are more or less recent reconstructions of houses from the Middle Ages ... The touts of the maritime museum, then those of the historical museum, encourage tourists on their way to the abbey to visit these private establishments: it is better to avoid them, their entrance is expensive and the interest is mediocre ". The houses on the Main Street date for the most part from the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century (corbelled Arcade house, Artichoke house, Saint-Pierre hotel, pastiche of the Picquerel-Poulard family built in 1987 opposite the Unicorn hotel, Tiphaine Raguenel's house (1366) wife of Bertrand du Guesclin which houses the fourth private museum of the mount and which still belongs to the descendants of the constable). Near this house, we can see a Romanesque door, the last vestige of the convent of St. Catherine. The Auberge du Mouton Blanc with its facade covered with wood species is one of the few houses that date back to the Middle Ages. The final ascent to the door of the abbey is carried out by the large degree (staircase) outside. 4 meters wide, it was barred halfway by a pivoting door, guarded by a watchman installed in a recess visible on the left. The Mons people call this staircase the Monteux. The entrance to the abbey is via the "Belle Chaise", both a porterhouse and a guard house where the abbot rendered justice and which was built by the abbot Richard Turstin from 1236 to 1264
The ramparts walkway, pierced with machicolations, and flanked by seven towers, offers many points of view on the bay, as far as the eye can see, but also on the houses of the village. The residential blocks are composed of two types of constructions, wooden and stone houses, but the colorization of the facades does not always make it possible to differentiate them. The towers are successively and from bottom to top those of: king's tower, near the entrance; Arcade tower; Freedom Tower; Low Tower (reduced in the sixteenth century to offer an esplanade for artillery); Cholet tower ; loop tower and its big bastion and its postern of the Cat's Hole (inaccessible nowadays) and finally the North Tower.
A small staircase joins on the right the courtyard of the crenellated barbican designed at the end of the fourteenth century during the abbacy of Abbot Pierre Le Roy. Equipped with surveillance posts pierced with loopholes, it protected the entrance castle of the abbey consisting of two round towers placed in corbels, supported by moulded pyramidal lampstands. The courtyard is dominated by the eastern gable of the Wonder and by the tapered silhouette of the Corbins tower that flanks it. Under the low arch of the entrance, a very steep staircase is engaged which is lost in the shadow of the vault, which leads it to be called "the Abyss". It leads to the Guards' room, the real entrance to the abbey.
To the west, the second entrance to the Mountain, with the fortified ensemble of the Fanils consists of the Fanils gate and ravelin (1530), Fanils tower and Pilette watchtower (thirteenth century) and the Gabriel tower (1530), formerly surmounted by a mill.

Sixty-one buildings located on the block are protected as historical monuments5, by several protection campaigns, carried out in particular in 1928 and 1934.

The abbey and the National Monuments Center
The abbey, the ramparts and some buildings, including the so-called Fanils building, are state property and managed by the National Monuments Center, an administrative public establishment placed under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture. In 2011, the abbey received 1,335,000 visitors. It is the second most visited national monument, after Notre-Dame de Paris (the Eiffel Tower and the Palace of Versailles are not managed by the CMN).


Religious presence

Since 2001, the Monastic Fraternities of Jerusalem have provided a religious presence all year round. They replace the Benedictine monks, who have been resettled at the mount since 1966. Since 2008, Brother Theophane has been the prior of the fraternities, present at the mount with eleven religious, five brothers and six sisters.

Thus, every day, the community meets for services in the abbey church or in the crypt of Our Lady of the Thirty Candles, thus returning the building to its original destination, to pray and sing the glory of God. Visitors and pilgrims come to attend the liturgical celebrations. The "Logis Saint-Abraham", allows, since October 2012, to host retreating pilgrims within the fraternities. The religious are the tenants of the National Monuments Center and do not intervene in the management of the abbey.

Since 2021, the fraternities have been working together with priests from the Saint-Martin community, called by the Bishop of Coutances, Laurent Le Boulc'h, to serve the sanctuary of the mount and the priory of Ardevon. Pierre Doat exercises the office of rector of the sanctuary there and is assisted by two other members of the community to provide for the needs of the neighboring parishes of Pontorson and Saint-James. He succeeds Maurice Franc.

Not far from the Mountain, the diocese of Coutances and Avranches has made, since 2015, the priory of Ardevon an additional place of welcome for pilgrims and other visitors.



The arms of the municipality of Mont-Saint-Michel are blazoned as follows :
azure with two wavy fess sewn on top and two salmon argent placed in a bar one on the other, that of the chief bypassed, skewering on the whole. This blazoning is wrong because at the inquiry it would be a simplification of an older form (on the right), more complex but not wrong.

The coat of arms of the abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel (from sand to 10 silver shells and head of France) is often wrongly attributed to the town.



On the mountain
The culinary specialties of Mont-Saint-Michel are the omelette, whipped to obtain a fluffy and light consistency, and the salted meadow lamb whose meat comes from the lambs which graze along the coast. None of the restaurants on the island are particularly good (and they're way overpriced) so if you decide to stay on the Mt, be aware that you might prefer to eat in a town in the surrounding countryside.

The old town at the base of the abbey has a wide selection of restaurants, cafes and fast food outlets and other places to eat. Keep in mind that Mont Saint-Michel is a big tourist trap when it comes to refreshment and travelers' needs; check a lot of places to find the best price before ordering. However, don't expect good service.


Local gastronomy
Mont Saint-Michel is located at the mouth of the Couesnon. On the land side, already old dyke installations have made it possible until today to gain land on the sea dedicated to agriculture and livestock (including that of sheep, qualified as pre-salt sheep). Pre-salted mutton or lamb is thus a local speciality, preferably to be enjoyed grilled over a wood fire.

A great media activity, in which the cartoonist Christophe de facto participated with his Fenouillard family, surrounds the preparation of the omelet of Mother Poulard, this Burgundian born in Nevers who arrived at twenty-one in Normandy (named after the restaurant located in the village and renowned for this specialty). This one is made of eggs and fresh cream, abundantly beaten into snow in a copper basin with a long whisk on a special rhythm that passers-by can hear before being cooked in a copper pan over a wood fire.


History of Mont- St.- Michel

For the detailed history of the abbey, see the article Abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel.



Originally, it was known as Mont Tombe. There were to be two oratories, one dedicated to Saint Symphorian, the other to Saint Stephen, built by hermits in the sixth and seventh centuries, as reported in the Revelatio ecclesiae sancti Michaelis archangeli in Monte Tumba. Following this first Christianization of the Tomb mount, an oratory was erected in honor of the archangel Saint Michael in 708 (709 for the dedication), as indicated by the Annals of Mont-Saint-Michel written at the beginning of the twelfth century. Aubert, Bishop of Avranches, installed a community of twelve canons on the site to serve the sanctuary and welcome pilgrims. It was at this time that the mount welcomed, to the east of the rock, the first villagers who were fleeing the Viking raids. This first habitat must have sheltered the various trades necessary for the construction of the first sanctuary: stonemasons, masons, taskmen and carpenters. Then he had to welcome the lay people in charge of supplying the religious community. "Despite the numerous reconstructions that have, little by little, shaped the town that we know today, the primitive core of the village still remains perceptible: it corresponds in fact to an area characterized by a relatively complex parcel organization and a tangle of buildings served by winding alleys". This is, roughly speaking, the area where the parish church of Saint-Pierre and its cemetery are located. Most of the dwellings had to be built of wood and cob.

From the year 710 and throughout the Middle Ages, the mount was commonly nicknamed by the clerics "Mont Saint-Michel at the risk of the sea" (Mons Sancti Michaeli in periculo mari).

The first written traces of a religious establishment on the Mountain links it to the diocese of Avranches, itself a suffragan of the metropolitan of Rouen. The geographical framework of the ecclesiastical province of Rouen also takes up that of the Roman administrative district of Lyon, of which the Avranchin is part, itself corresponding more or less to the territory of the Armorican tribe of the Abrincates. Then, this ecclesiastical province will serve as a framework for the future Normandy.

In 867, the Treaty of Compiègne grants Cotentin, as well as Avranchin (although it is not clearly stipulated), to the king of Brittany, Solomon. In 870, following a Viking raid, the population of the surroundings took refuge there and created a town there. The Avranchin, like the Cotentin and most of what will later be called Lower Normandy, were not part of the territory granted to the Viking leader Rollon in 911. Mont Saint-Michel remained under the political domination of the king of Brittany, although the religious power continued to emanate essentially from the diocese of Avranches in the ancient ecclesiastical province of Rouen, a city which had meanwhile become the capital of an embryo of the Norman state. The territory of the Mount was still under Breton domination in 933 when William I of Normandy, known as William Long Sword, "obtained from the king of France a notable enlargement of his territory, with Cotentin and Avranchin, hitherto controlled by the Bretons. It is therefore on this date that the Mount is officially attached to Normandy", the political border of the Avranchin being fixed temporarily to the Selune, coastal river which flowed east of the Mount. Guillaume Longue Épée made important donations of land to the community of the Montais canons, these domains being almost all located between the Couesnon and the Selune.

Richard I of Normandy, son of William the Long Sword, was keen to continue his father's work of monastic reform and he ordered the canons to whom the Mount had been entrusted to renounce their dissolute life or to leave the place. All left except one, Durand, who reformed out of love for the archangel. This is how Benedictines from different abbeys such as Saint-Taurin d'Évreux and Saint-Wandrille settled there in 966. The history of this foundation is recounted in the Introductio monachorum, which appears at the beginning of the Cartulary of Mont-Saint-Michel. The first abbot was Maynard I. A well-established tradition has it that it is the reformer Mainard, responsible for restoring the abbey of Saint-Wandrille but this hypothesis remains controversial. It is he who would have built the pre-Romanesque church called Notre-Dame-sous-Terre, built during the same period. In 992, a fire destroyed the village and the abbey. Maynard II, nephew of the previous one, who was also abbot of Redon, succeeded him until 1009. "At that time, the Mountain sealed the good understanding between the two dukes, of Normandy and Brittany".

Are buried in the chapel of Saint-Martin of the abbey the dukes of Brittany, of the house of Rennes :
Conan I the Wrong († 992), who, upon confirmation of a donation made to the abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel, on July 28, 990 in the presence of all the bishops of Brittany, takes the title of Princeps Britannorum ;
Geoffrey I Beranger († 1008), husband of Havoise of Normandy, great benefactor of the abbey by giving the income of Saint-Méloir-des-Ondes and Saint-Benoît-des-Ondes.


11th century century

In 1009, the Duke of Normandy decided to exercise direct control over the abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel and Abbot Maynard II, from the community of Saint-Wandrille, was ousted and had to retreat to the Saint-Sauveur Abbey of Redon. to be replaced by the abbot Hildebert I, preferred by Richard II.

During the first quarter of the eleventh century, good relations persisted between the monks of the Mount and the dukes, under the abbots Hildebert I (1009-1017) then Hildebert II (1017-1023) who began the reconstruction of the Romanesque church by the crypt of the bedside. But they spoil when the Norman Duke Richard II, who protected the abbey like his father, decides to replace the abbot of Mons by an external abbot and reformer, first the Roman Supo then the Burgundian Thierry, already abbot of the abbey of Jumièges and guardian of the abbey of Bernay, then dependency of the abbey of Fécamp.

Taking advantage of the regency of Havoise of Normandy, her sister, over Brittany and the aggression of the Viking leader Olaf on Dol-de-Bretagne in 1014, Duke Richard II of Normandy pushes back around 1027-1030 the border with Brittany from the Selune to Couesnon.

The new Duke Robert I of Normandy, known as Robert the Magnificent, appoints in 1027 an abbot of Mancelle origin, Aumode, to whom he entrusts in 1032 his new foundation, the abbey of Cerisy. The abbot Supo is therefore recalled and directed the Montoise abbey until his retirement at the Fruttuaria Abbey before 1048.

In 1030, Alain III, Duke of Brittany, comes into conflict with his cousin, Duke Robert I of Normandy, son of Richard II. It is the omnipotence of Robert "the Magnificent" who has firmly restored ducal power in his duchy of Normandy. It is in this view of hegemony that he asks his cousin Alain III to swear an oath of loyalty to him. The latter refuses and forces the Duke of Normandy to use force. After the construction of a fortress, that of Cheruel, the Duke of Normandy launches an expedition to Brittany. Alain retaliates by launching a counter-offensive in the Avranchin, but he is repulsed with heavy losses. His uncle Robert the Dane, Archbishop of Rouen, mediates during an interview at Mont-Saint-Michel. In 1031, Alain and his brother Eon of Penthièvre make a donation to Mont-Saint-Michel.

Duke William the Conqueror took a close interest in abbey estates and granted benefits, both temporal and spiritual, to the Mont Abbey which had financially supported the conquest of England. Thus, some Mons monks were called to lead English abbeys. Thanks to the income from the lands and priories granted by the duke, the Romanesque abbey was quickly completed. When the Conqueror died, the Mountain was going through a troubled period, but thanks to the excellent administration of its abbots, in particular Bernard du Bec, the abbey was experiencing a great intellectual development.

It was Henri I Beauclerc who first built a fort, probably sketchy, on the rock, and who was immediately besieged by his brothers Robert Courteheuse and Guillaume le Roux, in order to dislodge him, in the fratricidal war that opposed them. After the battle on the strikes, the Duke of Normandy, Robert, concedes to his brother Henri the Cotentin.


XII - XV century

The abbey escaped, in August 1138, the great fire that was triggered by the revolted peasants of the Avranchin and which ravaged the Mons village, following a disagreement with the monks on the succession of Henry I Beauclerc.

History and legend blur on this date. The texts of the time do not specify the fate of Mont Saint-Michel, but its attachment to Normandy is attested a few decades later, and it has already been effective for a long time when the Breton allies of Philippe Auguste, led by Guy de Thouars, burned the Mount in April 1204 in retaliation for the assassination of Arthur by Jean sans Terre, and massacred the population. Following this fire, the abbots Jourdain and Richard Tustin, rebuild the abbey.

The fortified enclosure of the city was started following the largesse of Saint Louis who came on pilgrimage in 1254, with the construction of the North tower and around 1257, a door blocking the only possible access to the platform by the large stairs to the east. The village, at that time, much smaller, grouped its houses at the very top of the rock near the entrance to the abbey. At the same time, the abbot Richard Turstin, built, at the entrance to the monastery, the guard room of the abbey buildings. This enclosure, which only surrounded the top of the Mountain, between the North tower, the bedside of the parish church of Saint-Pierre and the walls of the abbey house, will be completed, around 1311, by the abbot Guillaume of the Castle.

The rise of the pilgrimage is accompanied by an intense commercial movement. The merchants are grouped in the path of the Lodges, a alley located at the foot of the abbey. The traders' lodges are small cells (like the three visible in the Sow's house) in which they sell scallops or a Mons speciality to the miquelots (the lead bulb that is filled with the sand of the strikes), gradually replaced from the thirteenth century by pilgrimage signs.

In 1314, the first garrison was installed on the Mountain, composed of a man-at-arms and five servants, housed by the abbot in the porter's office and whose pay was borne by the king, the monks arguing that until now, they had defended themselves. The abbots will be, for the same reason, captains of the city and abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel throughout the fourteenth century and attach themselves, by giving in fiefs taken on the domains of the abbey, the armed service of many lords of Cotentin and Avranchin including the Painel of Hambye. In 1346, the English spared the Mount but ravaged Avranches. In 1365, Tiphaine Raguenel, wife of Bertrand du Guesclin (then governor of Pontorson), considering the place safe, settled there before the departure of Du Guesclin for Spain. Under the government of the 29th abbot, Pierre le Roy, from 1386 to 1410, some new fortifications were built there: at the north-east corner of the Wonder, the octagonal crowning of the Corbins tower; at the feet, a long curtain-terrace overlooking the wood. In 1393, the door of 1257 was flanked by two turrets. Great degrees were built in front of the barbican, and the abbot had a fortified dwelling built, as well as the Penine tower, with a square base, in charge of monitoring the Great Degree.

The urban ramparts that we see today are essentially the work of Father Robert Jollivet. In 1417, he surrounded the lower town and the foot of the Mountain with a continuous enclosure with a crenellated parapet on machicolations. The curtain wall is flanked by six towers including: Tour du Roy, Arcade, and Cholet, and warehouses were built to hold supplies and ammunition. At the bedside of the church, a filtering cistern is dug, and the only access to the city is blocked by a fortified door, the Porte du Roy. In 1420, the Mount resists the invasion of the English, but the abbot Jolivet pledges allegiance to King Henry V of England. It is the Prior Jean Gonault who ensures the interim. In 1425, it was Louis d'Estouteville who was appointed by Charles VII captain of the Mount and further improved the fortifications (the King's barbican). On June 17, 1434, a new assault by the English led by Lord Scales, which again ends in failure, the attackers abandoning two of their bombardments, which can be seen at the entrance to the city. It was Louis d'Estouteville, in 1441, who would have built the Loop tower. This tower, of a new kind, capable of withstanding artillery, was equipped with sufficiently ventilated covered batteries.


Renaissance and modern times

In 1534, Gabriel du Puy, military governor of the Mountain for King Francis I, still brings some improvements: spur of the Loop tower, gate of the Advance, Gabriel tower (from the first name of its designer and not the Archangel). In 1577, Huguenots disguised as pilgrims will try to seize the Mount; the inhabitants will drive them out. The mount was inspected in 1691 by Vauban. In 1731, Louis XV takes possession of the Mount, restores the ramparts and transforms the abbey into a state prison, a function that it will ensure until the Second Empire. In 1830, the fortress was transformed into a political prison after the July riots.


The rock, over the Couesnon

"The Couesnon in his madness put the Mount in Normandy. And when the Couesnon regains his reason, the Mountain will become Breton again". This Breton proverb implying that the belonging of the Mountain would depend on the ramblings of the river proves to be groundless, the Mont-Saint-Michel being already attached to Normandy (in 933) when the Couesnon was not yet considered as border.

Mont-Saint-Michel would therefore have been Breton from 867 to 933, in a geopolitical way, but without ever having been integrated into the archdiocese of Dol. It therefore remains, at this period, dependent on the diocese of Avranches (itself dependent on the ecclesiastical Province of Rouen)

Similarly, the foundation of a canon's college by the bishop of Avranches in the seventh century, the choice of Saint Michael as the patron saint of the empire by Charlemagne, then the donations of Rollon to restore the collegiate church and finally its conversion into a Benedictine abbey in 966 by a community of monks from the abbeys of Saint-Wandrille, Jumièges and Saint-Taurin d'Évreux, all located in Normandy, clearly indicate the permanent belonging of the Mountain to the sphere of influence of the Frankish then Norman church, distinct from the Breton church, which makes the question of the exact geographical location rather secondary.

The official limit between Brittany and Normandy is now fixed regardless of the location of a watercourse, 4 km west of the rock.

It should be noted that the hypothesis of an important rambling of the Couesnon is perfectly coherent and probable, as the beds of the rivers could vary, in the absence of any channelization – and sometimes of several tens of kilometers. The fact that the mouth of the Couesnon was 6 km from the rock in the eighteenth century does not provide any information on its position over the previous centuries – the topography even makes it inevitable that it has moved regularly. On the other hand, no text attests that it swung from one side of Mont Saint-Michel to the other.


The time of pilgrimages

The pilgrimage to Mont Saint-Michel is attested in the ninth century and it is likely that the miquelots found lodging and food at that time in one of the inns of the village, which appeared to welcome them at the foot of the mount. The village thus developed in the shadow of its medieval abbey, growing at the turn of the year one thousand thanks to the protection of the Benedictine abbots.

The economy of the Mountain has been dependent, for twelve centuries, on the numerous pilgrimages, in particular until the French Revolution. We come from all over Northern Europe on a pilgrimage to the abbey: from England, France, especially from the north and the west.

It is under the episcopate of Bishop Abel-Anastase Germain that the grandiose celebrations of the coronation of Saint Michael take place on July 3, 1877 in the presence of a cardinal, eight bishops, a thousand priests and an innumerable crowd. That day, while the cannon is thundering and military music is playing, the bishop misses losing his life: indeed, perched on top of a ladder to crown the head of the Archangel, Bishop Germain is about to lose his balance and fall into the void.


The time of tourism

Already since the nineteenth century, romantic authors and painters came to the mountain, for its unique charm and its picturesque qualities, such as Guy de Maupassant. At the end of the century, several hotels were established at Mt. In the second half of the twentieth century, the transformation of the site into a world-class place of visit made the small Norman town one of the first tourist destinations in France.

The attendance of the site and the abbey is concentrated in time. It is strongest during the summer period and some spring weekends which concentrate a third of the visitors to Mont-Saint-Michel, with a daily average approaching 12,000 visitors and peaks exceeding 16,000 visitors per day, with a flow of visitors less and less dense as you ascend to the abbey (only a third going up to the abbey). The average visit time is two to three hours. "During a day, it is between 11 a.m. and 16 p.m. that the density of visitors to the site is the highest".

The Mount has been experiencing a decline in attendance since the beginning of the twenty-first century, from 3.5 million visitors to 2.2 million in 2013. The site is indeed suffering from the new conditions of service of the peninsula and the bad reputation of Mont-Saint-Michel which charges dearly for poor services.

Since July 22, 2014, visitors can get to the Mountain by the new access works created by the architect Dietmar Feichtinger who won the competition for the Saint-Michel project. A new seawall and a stilt walkway allowing the water to pass underneath now serve the island. However, the tourist decline continues, due in particular to the increase in parking rates, the crossing on foot which takes 50 minutes or the shuttles which only make part of the route.



The neighboring municipalities are Beauvoir, Pontorson and Pontorson.

Mont Saint-Michel, located at 48 ° 38' 10" north latitude and 1 ° 30' 40" west longitude, in the "country" of Avranchin, is a rocky islet east of the mouth of the Couesnon, which flows into the English Channel. Pointedly granitic with a circumference of about 960 meters, this islet rises above a sandy plain at an altitude of 92 meters. The construction of the abbey modifies this perception: the height of the rock at the abbey is 78.60 meters, that of the floor of the abbey at the top of the tower is 34.70 m, the spire reaches a height of 39.80 m. The statue of Saint Michael, 4 m high, thus rises to 157.10 meters.

From a geological point of view, this point is a small-scale leucogranitic intrusion (leucogranite with biotite and muscovite) set up in the Cadomian basement (hosting Brioverian schist) during the Caledonian orogeny (525 Ma). This intrusion, cleared of its schistose gangue and highlighted by erosion (leucogranite presenting a greater resistance to erosion than shale), offers an emerged area of about 7 ha, above which stands the abbey. The essential part of the rock is covered by the footprint of the abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel and its domain. The rock represents only a small part of the municipality which also extends over the dyke and several tens of hectares of polders.

In 1846, Édouard Le Héricher described it as follows: "Mont Saint-Michel appears as a circular mountain that seems to collapse under the monumental pyramid that crowns it. We would like to extend its crown into a sharp spire that would rise to the sky (the current spire only dates from 1899), dominating its canopy of mists or losing itself in a pure and warm light. Vast solitudes surround it, that of the sea or that of the sea, framed in distant green or black shores".


Features of the abbey

Mont Saint-Michel (the islet or the abbey) in turn gave its name to the bay of Mont-Saint-Michel, whose coastline is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list.

The bay of Mont-Saint-Michel is the scene of the largest tides in continental Europe, up to 15 meters of tidal range, difference between low and high seas. The sea then joins the coasts "at the speed of a galloping horse", as the saying goes.


Municipal territory and neighboring municipalities

The municipality covers about four square kilometers. Apart from the rock with an area of seven hectares, the municipal territory includes two disjointed land parts totaling 393 ha, bordering the municipalities of Beauvoir (for the most part) and Pontorson.

The most important part (about 387 ha), to the west of the Couesnon, consists of the hamlets of Belmontet, Saincey and Camus, and the Molinié and Tesnières polders. This part borders the town of Beauvoir to the south.

The smallest part (about 6 ha), to the east of the Couesnon, forms the western part of the place called the Barracks, between the Mont-Saint-Michel road and the coastal river. It is landlocked between the territories of the municipalities of Beauvoir (to the south and west) and Pontorson (to the east). There are four hotels there.



In 2010, the climate of the municipality is of the frank oceanic climate type, according to a CNRS study based on a series of data covering the period 1971-2000. In 2020, Météo-France publishes a typology of the climates of metropolitan France in which the municipality is exposed to an oceanic climate and is in the climatic region of eastern and southern Brittany, Pays Nantes, Vendée, characterized by low rainfall in summer and good insolation. At the same time, the Normandy IPCC, a regional group of climate experts, differentiates, for its part, in a 2020 study, three main types of climates for the Normandy region, nuanced on a finer scale by local geographical factors. The town is, according to this zoning, exposed to a "maritime climate", corresponding to the Cotentin and the west of the department of Manche, cool, humid and rainy, where the rainfall and thermal contrasts are sometimes very pronounced in a few kilometers when the relief is marked.

For the period 1971-2000, the average annual temperature is 11.7 ° C, with an annual thermal amplitude of 12.2 ° C. The average annual cumulative rainfall is 706 mm, with 12.5 days of precipitation in January and 7.2 days in July. For the period 1991-2020 the annual average temperature observed on the nearest meteorological station, located in the town of Pontorson 9 km as the crow flies, is 11.9 ° C and the average annual cumulative rainfall is 821.3 mm. For the future, the climate parameters of the municipality estimated for 2050 according to different greenhouse gas emission scenarios can be consulted on a dedicated website published by Météo-France in November 2022.


Urban Planning


Mont-Saint-Michel is a rural municipality, because it is part of the municipalities with little or very little density, within the meaning of the Insee's communal density grid. The municipality is also out of attraction of the cities.

The municipality, bordered by the English Channel, is also a coastal municipality within the meaning of the law of January 3, 1986, called the coastal law. Specific urban planning provisions therefore apply in order to preserve natural spaces, sites, landscapes and the ecological balance of the coastline, such as the principle of unconstructibility, outside urbanized spaces, on the coastal strip of 100 meters, or more if the local urban planning plan provides for it.


Land use

The land use of the municipality, as it appears from the European database of biophysical land use Corine Land Cover (CLC), is marked by the importance of agricultural territories (95.1% in 2018), a proportion identical to that of 1990 (95.1%). The detailed distribution in 2018 is as follows: arable land (95.1%), coastal wetlands (3.9%), artificial green spaces, non-agricultural (1.1%). The evolution of the land use of the municipality and its infrastructures can be observed on the various cartographic representations of the territory: the Cassini map (eighteenth century), the staff map (1820-1866) and the maps or aerial photos of the IGN for the current period (1950 to today).


Population and society


The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the municipality since 1793. For municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants, a census survey covering the entire population is carried out every five years, the legal populations of the intermediate years being estimated by interpolation or extrapolation. For the municipality, the first exhaustive census within the framework of the new system was carried out in 2006.

In 2021, the municipality had 25 inhabitants, a decrease of 24.24% compared to 2015 (Manche: -0.76%, France excluding Mayotte: +1.84%).

In the Middle Ages, 300 to 400 people lived at Mt. The population fell to 234 in 1800 before the abbey became a central prison in 1810. The prison closed in 1863 and the population, having returned to previous values, has been declining ever since, the discomfort of the houses on the Rock (cramped, damp because they were built on top of the permanently oozing rock, and not accessible by car) prompting the inhabitants to settle in nicer houses in the bay. Among the 44 Mons residents counted in 2013, 20 live in the polders, 24 intramural (a family with two children, a shopkeeper, the administrator of the monument, two firefighters, a security guard, five monks, seven nuns and three priests).


Cultural events and festivities

Concerts and exhibitions at the abbey
Anxious to restore cultural influence to the Mountain, the National Monuments Center has been organizing since 2010 a series of prestigious concerts at the abbey between May and September. Thus were invited Jordi Saval, Hespèrion XXI, the accentus choir, Laurence Equilbey, the Concert spirituel, Hervé Niquet, Anne Queffélec, Jean-Guihen Queyras, the Basse-Normandie Orchestra, the Republican Guard Orchestra, the organists Vincent Warnier, Didier Hennuyer and Thierry Escaich…

On this occasion, the restoration of the organ was completed in 2012.

Exhibitions are proposed every year by the CMN, including an Arnulf Rainer exhibition in 2012.

Festival "13 centuries between sky and sea"
During the elaboration of the festivities of the 13th centenary of the foundation of the mount, the diocese of Coutances and Avranches and the Robert-de-Torigni association decided, among other things, to create a Christian art festival to "sensitize the visitor to the spiritual side of Mont-Saint-Michel". This would take place in July 2008 and would coincide with the 2008 World Youth Day organized in Sydney.

Thus, during this month of July, with the help of the Monastic Fraternities of Jerusalem of Mont-Saint-Michel, two weeks of festival were proposed, composed of a week of concerts and various animations (classical, gospel ...) and another exhibition (calligraphy, binding, drawing). In addition, celebrations, vigils and other festivities took place, in connection with the Sydney WYD. After this founding edition, the festival was perpetuated, taking place for a week each summer.



The Mont-Saint-Michel has long "belonged" to a few families, who shared the shops of the town, and succeeded each other in the administration of the village. Tourism is indeed the main, and even almost the only source of income for the municipality despite agriculture on the polders. There are about fifty shops for 2.5 million tourists, while only 25 people sleep every night on the mount (monks included) except in hotels. Even today, a dozen families share the main establishments of the municipality :

Eric Vannier, owner of the Poulard Mother group (owning half of the restaurants, shops and hotels in the town intra- and extra-muros, as well as three museums) ;
Patrick Gaulois, former aedile, hotelier and restaurateur intramural (and in Saint-Malo) ;
several families from Mons who control the Sodetour (five hotels, a supermarket and all extramural shops, including the Mercure La Caserne which benefits from the influx of tourists as part of the Saint-Michel Project and is nicknamed "Las Vegas for its flashy signs").

Mont-Saint-Michel has been called a "tourist town" since August 2009
Like other places that may require regulation of tourist flows, the site is a victim of its success and overtourism. In the summer of 2019, the police had to relieve the congestion of 25,000 people per day, leading Yan Galton, mayor of the town, to wish to "make the bay touristic" and not just the site. For Jean-François Rial, CEO of Voyageurs du monde and president of the Paris tourist office, it is "one of the worst examples of France" and "a good solution" is to go to Cancale to watch it from afar". Jacques Bono, the next mayor, maintained this policy by believing that Mont-Saint-Michel should remain "a commune, with freedom of movement" and stressed that tourists often come from very far away without having booked


Personalities related to the municipality

Aubert d'Avranches (born around 660, died in 725), bishop of Avranches and hermit on the Mont-Tombe. Saint Michael appeared to him three times to order him to build a chapel.
Robert of Thorigny (c. 1110-1186), famous abbot of Mont.
William of Saint Pair (fl. in the twelfth century), monk of the abbey author of the Novel of Mont-Saint-Michel.
Louis d'Estouteville (before 1400-1464), captain of Mont-Saint-Michel.
Louis XI who constituted there in 1469 the Order of Saint-Michel.
Anne of Joyeuse (1560-1587), governor of Mont, favorite of Henry III.
Jean-Baptiste Le Carpentier (Helleville, 1759 - Le Mont, 1829), conventional, died prisoner at Mt.
The Duke of Chartres (future Louis-Philippe I) (1773-1850), who came to demolish the "iron cage".
Mathurin Bruneau (1784-1822), saboteur, swindler and false Louis XVII, prisoner in the mont in 1821-1822.
Louis Auguste Blanqui (1805-1881), political prisoner.
Armand Barbès (1809-1870), political prisoner.
Monsignor Jean-Pierre Bravard (1811-1876), consecrated bishop of Coutances on October 28, 1862, he resigned on November 27, 1875 to die less than a year later; he is the restorer of the abbey.
Édouard Corroyer (1835-1904), architect, restorer of the Mount in 1878, and who brought to the rock his maid, Anne Boutiaut, the future mother Poulard.
Henri Voisin (1861-1945), born in Saint-Mandé (Val-de-Marne) on August 6, 1861, died in Indre-et-Loire on December 4, 1945 is an artistic personality of the English Channel, illustrator and engraver; he devotes to the Marvel no less than three hundred etchings. In addition, he writes several books and brochures and illustrates many others. Together with this intense artistic activity, Henri Voisin, wishing to ensure the safeguarding of the Mont, founded, on December 27, 1911, with the help of Paul Deschanel, the association "the Friends of Mont-Saint-Michel" of which he was the secretary general for twenty-seven years. According to David Nicolas, "from 1912 to 1938, every year, he made and handed over a large-format engraving to each of the members of the association who were thus able to build up a superb collection of twenty-seven different engravings". In 1938, he was made a knight of the Legion of Honor for his action in favor of Mont-Saint-Michel.
Mother Poulard (1851-1931), restorer (see below).
Émile Couillard (1880-1951), writer, historian of the Mountain and abbot of Mont-Saint-Michel.
Yves-Marie Froidevaux (1907-1983), architect and restorer of Mont-Saint-Michel.


The Mont-Saint-Michel and the arts

In the painting

Since the Middle Ages, the Mont-Saint-Michel has been the subject of representation, particularly in illuminated manuscripts. The most famous representation is undoubtedly found in the Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry, illustrating the feast of the archangel in the book of hours. The miniature is attributed to one of the brothers from Limburg, who painted it between 1411 and 1416. But we find the mount represented in at least seven other books of hours of the fifteenth century. This is the case in particular in The Very Beautiful Hours of the Duke of Berry or hours of Brussels, in a scene of flight to Egypt (around 1400), in the Hours of Marshal Boucicaut (Jacquemart-André museum) on folio 11v (around 1405), in the Sobieski Hours preserved at Windsor Castle, (f.204v) attributed to the Master of Bedford, the Book of hours for the use of Nantes preserved at the Bodleian Library (1450-1455).


In the literature

In 1832, the fantastic novel La Fée aux miettes by the writer Charles Nodier evokes the shifting sands of the bay of Mont-Saint-Michel.
In 1850, Paul Féval's historical novel, The Fairy of the Strikes, whose action takes place in 1450, evokes the legends of Mont-Saint-Michel and Mont Tombelaine.
In 1887, in The Horla, a fantastic story by Guy de Maupassant, the main character ends his therapeutic trip to Mont-Saint-Michel.
In 1890, in Our Heart, a novel by Guy de Maupassant, the two main characters, André Mariolle and Michèle de Burne, are walking in Mont-Saint-Michel.
In 1967, in his cycle of the Princes of Amber, Roger Zelazny was inspired by the facilities and particularities of Mont-Saint-Michel to create his Amber City.
In 1984, the Ministry of Culture published the book découpage by the creator François Rouillay, allowing to relive the thousand years of history and architecture of Mont-Saint-Michel, with a preface by Françoise Chandernagor.
In 1998, the novel The Skull pierced with a hole by Evelyne Brisou-Pellen evokes the main character, Garin Trousseboeuf, who solves a mysterious story about a very precious relic and a scribe dying on arrival. The author mixes in this book adventure, suspense, humor and beautiful pages on the life of the monks at Mont Saint-Michel.
In 2004, the novel The Promise of the Angel, by Frédéric Lenoir and Violette Cabesos, is an archaeological thriller whose action is mainly located in Mont-Saint-Michel.
In 2005, Maxime Chattam's thriller The Blood of Time takes place in Mont-Saint-Michel in 2005 and in Egypt of the 1920s.
In 2011, the science fiction novel The Age of the Wind by Pierre Bameul in which Mont-Saint-Michel became the seat of a New post-apocalyptic Vatican.
In 2014, the Saint-Michel novel, pray for them! by Jean-Pierre Alaux where the curator Séraphin Cantarel is mandated to restore the statue of the archangel.


In the comics

In 1961, Jacques Martin made Guy Lefranc evolve partly on the rock in The Hurricane of Fire, the second part of the adventures of the journalist.
In 1999 and 2000, Bruno Bertin published by P'tit Louis Editions two youth comics of the Adventures of Vick and Vicky set in Mont-Saint-Michel, under the common title The Archangels of Mont-Saint-Michel: The Testament (volume 1) and The Curse (volume 2).
In 2008, the comic strip The Devil & the Archangel, text and drawing by Guillaume Néel, color by Julien Gondouin, takes up an old medieval legend about the creation of Mont-Saint-Michel, and is embellished with an educational booklet to better understand the Devil and the Archangel, the history of the Mount, the city.
The school of the Blue Exorcist manga universe, called "True Cross Academy", is inspired by Mont-Saint-Michel.
In the manga Rosario+Vampire II, the headquarters of the Fairy Tale organization is very strongly inspired by Mont-Saint-Michel.
In 2012, in the American comic book series Glory by Joe Keatinge and Ross Campbell published by Image Comics, the action takes place at Mont Saint Michel.
Gilles Chaillet also makes his hero Vasco evolve at Mont Saint-Michel in The dogue de Brocéliande.


In contemporary art

In 1988, the Solar Mount, an ephemeral work of Land Art, transforms Mont-Saint-Michel into a sundial using the spire of the abbey during the autumn equinox. With a length of 1,125 m ranging from 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. TU, it consists of seven Roman numerals, from IX to III, about twenty meters long, as well as dots symbolizing the half-hours.


In the music

On July 28, 1993, the composer Jean-Michel Jarre gives a concert there, a show opening his world tour honoring the architectural wonders classified as world heritage of humanity by UNESCO.
In 1996, the English composer Mike Oldfield released the album Voyager, one of the titles of which is dedicated to Mont-Saint-Michel.
In 1998, the French composer Patrick Broguière published under the title Mont Saint-Michel a progressive rock concept album entirely devoted to the legends of Mont-Saint-Michel.
In 1999, the Breton harpist musician Kirjuhel published the album Echo of Mont-Saint-Michel.
In 2001, the English musician Aphex Twin, originally from Cornwall, released the electronic music album Drukqs, whose title Mt Saint Michel + St Michaels Mount is inspired by both Mont-Saint-Michel and St Michaels' Mount, located in Cornwall.
In 2003, the group Oldelaf and Monsieur D published the song Le Mont St-Michel on the album Chansons Cons.


At the cinema

1949: The troubled waters of Henri Calef
1983: Pauline at the beach by Eric Rohmer (visible on a short and only shot)
1990: There are days... and moons by Claude Lelouch
1991 : The Secret of Sarah Tombelaine by Daniel Lacambre
1998: Armageddon by Michael Bay
2003: Mont Saint-Michel was the inspiration for Peter Jackson's team for the city of Minas Tirith in the film The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King.
2009: Every other week (and half of the school holidays) by Ivan Calbérac
2010: The artistic team of Disney studios was inspired by Mont-Saint-Michel to realize the Kingdom of Rapunzel
2013: To the Wonder of Terrence Malick
2016: Everything to be happy by Cyril Gelblat – pre-credits scene (source: credits).


On television

2010: The Shadow of Mont-Saint-Michel by Klaus Biedermann (TV movie)


In philately

As early as 1930, the post office issued a brown 5-franc stamp.
In 1966, a new stamp of 25 cents, black, green and red on straw is issued on the occasion of the millennium of Mont-Saint-Michel.
In 1998, new stamp of 3 francs, multicolored. This stamp will be voted the most beautiful stamp of the year.
In 2006, the post office in a joint issue with the United Nations of Geneva issues two stamps, one of which is the Mont-Saint-Michel and its abbey (Manche) whose value is 90 euro cents. The theme was: Monuments. World heritage.

In video games
A Sniper Elite 5 mission (2022) takes place in a village named Beaumont-Saint-Denis, largely inspired by Mont Saint-Michel.
Mont Saint-Michel is represented during the Renaissance in Assassin's Creed Brotherhood (2010), a video game published by Ubisoft Montreal. The city is indeed proposed as a playground ("map") for multiplayer games in the first downloadable content released in December 2010.
Mont Saint-Michel is represented in contemporary times in the video game Onimusha 3: Demon Siege (2004) published by Capcom.
Mont Saint-Michel is represented at the time of the Renaissance in a game for 3DS, Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance (2012), video game created by Square Enix and Disney Interactive Studios.
The mount is present in the Civilization VI game as a buildable wonder.
The mount is used as a backdrop for the cover of the game Castlevania: Symphony of the Night.
The mountain is in the spotlight in a game on the CD-I entitled The Angel and the Demon. The game consists of many interior shots of the mountain and some aerial. The player must find objects in order to awaken the Archangel St. Michael so that he can prevent the Demon from destroying the world.
In Pokémon X and Y, the Mastery Tower, a place in the Kalos region, is inspired by Mount St. Michael.

In esotericism
According to some esoteric sites, Mont Saint-Michel is located on an axis that connects different places dedicated to Saint Michael in Europe, starting from the old monastery dedicated to Saint Michael, on Great Skelling Island in Ireland, then by St Michael's Mount in Cornwall, to Monte Gargano in Puglia, Delos Island in Greece, and Lydia where Saint George would have killed the dragon. Another mountain is topped by the abbey of Saint-Michel-de-la-Cluse in the Susa Valley.