Travel Destinations in France
Chateau de Vincennes a medieval citadel that is most
famous for execution of Louis Antoine upon the orders of Napoleon.
Paris or City of Lights is the capital of
France as well as its largest city. It gained notoriety as
being the capital of sophisticated culture and life.
Château d'Andlau is a two story medieval castle that
barely survived years of negligence and was almost sold piece by piece.
Chateau de Froensbourg
Unique architectural feature of
Chateau de Froensbourg is that part of rooms and halls of this
citadel is cut into a cliff of a mountain.
Château de Guirbaden
Medieval castle known as Château de Guirbaden is the
largest citadel in Alsace region of France.
Château de Greifenstein
Greifenstein is a medieval castle situated in the Griffon
Mais Forest on the outskirt of a small French town of
Château de Hohbarr
Château de Hohbarr is a medieval castle
located in Saverne in the department of Bas-Rhin in France.
Château de Hohenfels
Château de Hohenfels is a
medieval citadel that is partially dug into the cliffside. Underground
parts of the castle are well preserved.
l'Ortenbourg is a ruined medieval citadel near a town of
Scherwiller in the Bas- Rhin department. It was built in the
Château de Kintzheim is a medieval castle that
stands on a strategic hill overlooking a village of Kintzheim below
in the Bas- Rhin department.
Château de Ramstein (Alsace)
Château de Ramstein is a dilapidated medieval castle in
Scherwiller. Its name is a German in origin and can be translated as
Château de Ramstein
Château de Ramstein is a ruined medieval castle in
Lorraine province. It was used to control strategic hill overlooking
Zinselbach Valley below.
Wangenbourg.is one of the largest and most impressive medieval
citadel in the country. It kept its original appearance and
Château du Bernstein
Château du Bernstein is a medieval castle that sits on
top of ruins of several forts from different time periods including the
Château du Birkenfels
Château du Birkenfels is a medieval citadel that is
situated just outside of the town of Ottrott in Bas- Rhin department.
Château du Grand-Geroldseck
is a ruined medieval citadel on the outskirts of town of Haegen in the
Bas- Rhin department in Alsace, France.
Chateau du Fleckenstein is a beautiful that is
literally dug into the mountains it stands on.
Château du Frankenbourg
Despite year of neglect Frankenbourg Castle is
still a magnificent example of medieval architects and military
Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg
Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg was constructed in the 12th
century in the Vosges mountains overlooking a strategic location over
Château du Grand Ringelstein is a ruined castle
that stands on beautiful sandstone cliffs near a town of
Oberalash, Bas- Rhin department of France.
Neuf-Brisach is historic settlement that arouse on
the site of the former fortress in Haut-Rhin department of France.
French medieval city of Strasbourg is one of
the most colorful and interesting cities in the country.
Medieval castle Château de Beynac was constructed
in the 12th century by the barons of Beynac.
Château de Biron
Castle Château de Biron is situated in Dordogne
département of France. This military citadel was constructed in the 12th
Château de Bourdeilles
Medieval castle Château de Bourdeilles located in
Dordogne département was constructed in 1183 and named after legendary
Château de Castelnaud-la-Chapelle
Medieval Château de Castelnaud-la-Chapelle in
Périgord takes a strategic high location over river Dordogne
Fort du Portalet is an old French fortress turned to prison. It
is said to be haunted by ghosts of those who lived here.
Basse-Normandie (Lower Normandy) (France)
Medieval walled town of Mont- St.- Michel is one
of the most interesting and unique medieval settlements in
Carnac is ancient archeological site located in
Morbihan department of France. It was created by ancient people
to track movement of sun and planets.
Château de Vitré Castle was constructed in the
late 11th century by baron Robert I of Vitré on a site that was
formerly occupied by a wooden fortress.
Medieval town of Saint Malo is located on the
island in the mouth of Rance River where it flows into the
Château de Chenonceau is a magnificent former
royal residence that stands on a bridge in Indre- et- Loire
département of France.
Château de Chinon
Medieval castle of Château de Chinon is located on the
banks of Vienne river in the city of Chinon, Indre-et-Loire in France.
Château de Sedan
Medieval Château de Sedan became famous in the nineteenth
century as a place where French Monarchy was finally defeated.
Starting with Clovis, king of France in 446 AD many
French Kings came to Reims for coronation in the Cathedral of the city.
Rocroi is a former fortified citadel that was turned into
a civilian settlement over time.
(Upper Normandie) (France)
Castle Château d'Arques-la-Bataille was
constructed in the 11th century by William of Talou, uncle of
William the Conqueror.
Château de Conches-en-Ouche a french medieval
castle in the Upper Normandy region of France.
Château de Gisors
Château de Gisors, a Motte-and-bailey castle in the Upper
Normandy region of France.
Château de Tancarville
Château de Tancarville castle located in Tancarville,
Seine-Maritime departement was constructed in the 11th century.
Château d'Harcourt is located in Harcourt, Eure
département in France. Harcourt Castle was constructed in the 11th
Château d'Hardelot is located in Hardelot, Pas de
Calais departement of France. Although the original structure
date back to the 12th century much of the structure today was
added in the 19th and 20th century.
Château d'Ivry-la-Bataille is a medieval citadel that was
constructed in 10th- 13th century.
Château Gaillard is a large medieval concentric
castle in the Upper Normandy region of France that was
constructed by English king Richard the Lionheart.
Rouen is a famous medieval French city where
Joan of Arc was burned after accusation of witchcraft.
Cévennes National Park covers 913 km² of
mountainous terrain in the French Lozère and Gard départements
Pont du Gard
Pont du Gard is an ancient Roman aqueduct and a
bridge that stands here for over 2000 years.
Oradour-sur-Glane a site of a horrible massacre of
french civilians by the Nazis.
Towers of Merle is a complex of medieval
defensive structures situated in the French wilderness.
Medieval Montsegur castle a stronghold of the
legendary cathars that opposed Catholic Church.
Pyrenees National Park
Pyrenees National Park is situated in
Hautes-Pyrénées, Pyrénées-Atlantiques departments. This
nature reserve covers an area of 457 sq km.
Pays de la Loire (France)
Abbaye Royale de Fontevraud
Abbaye Royale de Fontevraud is a former Catholic
monastery that served as a prison for criminals and even
political opponents of Vichy regime.
Wolfsschluct II (gorge or ravine of the wolf in
German) or simply W2 is an abandoned headquarters of Adolf Hitler
during World War II.
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (France)
Arles is a major town in the Provence-Alpes-Côte
d'Azur region of South France.
Avignon is widely known as the 'City of Popes'
since it became the official seat of the Roman Catholic Church
between 1309 to 1423.
Ecrins National Park
Ecrins National Park is located in the province
of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in South East France and 50 km
South of Grenoble.
Mercantour National Park
Mercantour National Park is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte
d'Azur province of France. This protected area if covered by a
network of hiking trails.
Verdon Gorge is the deepest canyon in Europe.
It is located in a province Provence- Alpes- Cote- D’Azur of
Beautiful Ardeche Gorge in the South France is
famous for its picturesque limestone cliffs.
Les Drus or Aiguille du Dru is a mountain in
the French Alps in the Mont Blanc massif.
Vanoise National Park
Vanoise National Park is a protected natyre
reserve located in Tarentaise Valley in the French Alps.
Ambulance (SAMU): 15
Fire (Sapeurs Pompiers): 18
Police (Gendarmerie): 17
2 Ave Gabriel, 75008 Paris
Tel. 02- 43 12 22 22
35 Rue du Faubourg
St.- Honore, 75008 Paris
18bis Rue d'Anjou 75008 Paris
Tel. 01- 44 51 31 00
35 Ave Montaigne, 75008 Paris
Tel. 01- 44 43 29 00
4 Rue Jean Rey, 75015 Paris
Tel. 01- 40 59 33 00
The first mention of the ancient Germans appeared
in the writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans. One of the first
mention of the Germans dates back to '98. It was made by the Roman
chronicler Tacitus (lat. Tacitus). The entire territory of modern
Germany east of the Elbe (Slavic Laba) until the 10th century was
inhabited by Slavic tribes. By the XII-XIV centuries, these lands
gradually became part of various German state formations that made
up the so-called Holy Roman Empire. As these territories became part
of the German states for several centuries, the local Slavs were
gradually almost completely assimilated by the Germans. This process
lasted until the late Middle Ages and the beginning of a new time,
and in some places, with the last, not yet fully assimilated Slavic
people of Germany - Luzhans, it continues to this day.
the collapse of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, the Frankish
state was formed, which, after three centuries, under Charlemagne,
turned into an empire (800 year). Karl's empire covered the
territory of a number of modern states, in particular Germany.
However, the empire of Charlemagne did not last long - the
grandchildren of this emperor divided it among themselves, as a
result of which three kingdoms were formed - the West Frankish
(subsequently France), the East Frankish (later Germany) and the
Middle Kingdom (soon divided into Italy, Provence and Lorraine).
Traditionally, the date of the founding of the German state is
considered to be February 2, 962: on this day, the East Frankish
king Otton I was crowned in Rome and became emperor of the Holy
Roman Empire; this empire was a confederation of lands (German:
Land), each of which had its own army and minted its own coin. At
the head of the Holy Roman Empire was the emperor, elected by the
council of electors, there was a body representing the land - the
Reichstag (German: Reichstag). Each of the lands was an estate
monarchy with a landtag (German: Landtag).
continued until 1806, when, under pressure from Napoleon I, the Holy
Roman Empire ceased to exist and its emperor began to bear only the
title of Emperor of Austria. The number of German states was
significantly reduced; the Rhine Union was created, which was also a
confederation consisting of independent lands. At the head of the
Rhine Union was the Federal President, who was the Emperor of the
French, the body representing individual lands - the Bundestag
The Congress of Vienna contributed to
the further unification of the German states, as a result of which
the German Union was formed from 38 German states, which also
remained a confederation of independent lands. At the head of the
German Union was the Federal President, who was the Kaiser of the
Austrian Empire from the Habsburg dynasty, the Bundestag was the
body representing the lands. The transformation of the monarchical
German states from absolute monarchies to constitutional began - the
conversion of the Landtags from irregular meetings of
representatives to permanent qualified parliaments.
revolution of 1848, a conflict was brewing between the growing
influence of Prussia and the Austrian Empire. This led to the war of
1866, in which Prussia won and annexed a number of German
principalities. The German Union collapsed.
On August 10,
1866, the North German Union was created - a federal state with a
form of government in the form of a dualistic monarchy, a single
army and a single monetary system were created. In 1867, the North
German Union Constitution was adopted, establishing the Federal
Council (German Bundesrat), formed by the heads of state, and the
Reichstag (German Reichstag), elected by the people, on the basis of
universal suffrage, as legislative bodies, and the post of State
President (German . Reichspräsident), which was the king of Prussia
as head of state. The introduction of universal suffrage in the
elections to the Landtags began.
On December 10, 1870, the
Reichstag renamed the North German Union into the German Empire
(German Deutsches Reich), and the President of the North German
Union into the German Emperor (German Deutscher Kaiser).
Otto von Bismarck was appointed chancellor of the German Empire.
Political parties emerged: the Socialist Workers Party of Germany,
the liberal German Progressive Party and the National Liberal Party,
the conservative German Center Party and the German Conservative
The growth of German national identity led the
heyday of German culture, science and philosophy. In the 19th
century, such distinguished figures as composer Richard Wagner,
philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, economist Karl Marx, writer
Heinrich Heine, physicists Heinrich Hertz and Max Planck, among many
others, created in Germany. The Germans Karl Benz and Gottlieb
Daimler invented the car. Sigmund Freud laid the foundation for
In 1914, Germany entered the First World War.
On November 4–9, 1918, Germany was swept by an anti-monarchist
uprising, and the rebels began to form workers councils
(arbeiterrat) at the enterprise level. On November 9, the King of
Prussia fled to the Netherlands, where he abdicated soon, the German
Empire was proclaimed the German Socialist Republic, on November 10
the General Meeting of the Berlin Workers' and Soldiers' Councils
(Vollversammlung der Berliner Arbeiter- und Soldatenräte), elected
provisional bodies of state power - the Executive Council of
Workers' Workers and the Soldiers Councils of Greater Berlin
(Vollzugsrat des Arbeiter- und Soldatenrates Groß-Berlin) and the
Council of People's Commissioners (Rat der Volksbeauftragten), the
latter consisted of representatives of the SPD and the recently left
more left-wing Nez -volatile Social Democratic Party of Germany,
Chairman of People's Representatives (Vorsitzende des Rates der
Volksbeauftragten) have become the Social Democrat Friedrich Ebert,
Philipp Shaydeman and independent Social Democrat Hugo Gaza. On
December 16-21, 1918, at the last Imperial Congress of Workers 'and
Soldiers' Councils, a constitution was decided to convene the 2nd
German National Assembly, the Central Council of the German
Socialist Republic (Zentralrat der Deutschen Sozialistischen
Republik) was elected as the interim parliament, and the composition
of the Council of People's Commissioners was approved . The
elections to the Second German National Assembly took place on
January 19, 1919, with the SPD taking the first place and on
February 10, 1919, the Law on Provisional Imperial Power was passed,
according to which the State Committee (Staatenausschuss) elected by
the land governments and the National Assembly became the
legislative bodies. elected by the people, head of state - the
Imperial President, elected by the National Assembly, the executive
body - the Imperial Ministry (Reichsministerium), appointed by the
Imperial President, consisting of the Imperial Prime Minister
Minister (Reichsministerpräsident) and imperial ministers. On June
28, 1919, a peace treaty was signed at Versailles between France,
Great Britain and the USA on the one hand and Germany on the other,
according to which the defeat of the latter was actually
ascertained. West Prussia and Poznan moved to Poland, Alsace to
France, Eipen to Belgium, Saar was transferred under the control of
the League of Nations, German military formations were withdrawn
from the Rhine Province, as a result of which an attempt was made to
completely separate it from Germany. The Imperial army was
disbanded, instead of it the Imperial defense limited in number
(German Reichswehr) was created.
On June 30, 1919, the Second
German National Assembly adopted the Constitution, according to
which the legislative bodies were the State Council (Reichsrat),
appointed by the land governments, and the Reichstag, elected on the
basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot, the
head of state - the State President ( German Reichspräsident)
elected by the people, the executive body is the State Government
(German Reichsregierung), consisting of the State Chancellor (German
Reichskanzler) and state ministers (German Reichsminister),
appointed by the State President and responsible to the Reichstag,
the German Empire remained a federal state, consisted of lands, the
legislative bodies of the land were parliament elected by the
people, the executive bodies were state ministries (German
Staatsministerium), consisting of prime ministers
(Ministerpräsident) and state ministers (German: Staatsminister),
representative bodies of local self-government - provincial
parliament (Provinziallandtag, in the provinces of Prussia),
Kreistag (German Kreistag), city assembly of commissioners
(Stadtverordnetenversammlung), community offices
(Gemeindevertretung), local government executive bodies - land
committees (Landesausschuss, in the provinces of Prussia), district
committees (Kreisausschuss), magistrates (Magistrat), community
councils (Gemeins authorities in local units - land governors
(Landeshauptman, in the provinces of Prussia), landrats (in the
districts), burgomaster, constitutional oversight body - the State
Court of Justice (Staatsgerichtshof), the highest court - the State
The largest political parties were: the Social
Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the power-oriented workers'
councils of the Communist Party of Germany (KKE), the liberal
democratic - the German Democratic Party (DP), the conservative
democratic party - the Center Party (PC), the liberal - the German
People’s party (NNP), conservative monarchist - German National
People's Party (NNNP). Three democratic parties (SPD, DP, HRC)
formed the Weimar Coalition, which opposed revanchism, and if this
coalition did not have an absolute majority in parliament, it
entered into a large coalition with the NNP.
On January 30,
1933, the Reich Chancellor of Germany appointed the chairman of the
National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) Adolf Hitler. This
event marked the end of the Weimar Republic. Germany was declared a
unitary state, the landtags were abolished, the functions of the
legislative bodies of the German lands were transferred to the
appointed state governors, and the Reichsrat was also abolished. On
February 1, 1933, the Reichstag was dissolved.
Germany pursued an aggressive expansionist and revanchist policy,
which in 1939 led to the Second World War. The regime that existed
in Germany under the Nazis is called the Third Reich.
the unconditional surrender of Germany in World War II on May 8 (in
the USSR on May 9) 1945, the German Reich was liquidated. The
restoration of state independence of the German lands began, power
from state governors was taken away and transferred to the restored
Landtags by a temporary assembly (Beratende Versammlung). The land
of Prussia was liquidated as a “source of militarism and reaction in
Germany” by the Law “On the Elimination of the Prussian State”
adopted on February 25, 1947 by the Allied Control Council. The
provinces of Prussia gained independence. East Prussia, Silesia,
Pomerania, Lower Silesia, Upper Silesia, Western Pomerania were
liquidated, their territories were divided between the USSR and the
Polish People's Republic. The Germans from these territories, as
well as from the Sudetenland, were deported, and these territories
themselves were settled by Poles, Russians, Czechs. Luxembourg's
independence was restored, the Sudetenland returned to
Czechoslovakia, Epen - Belgium, South Tyrol - Italy, Alsace was
transferred to France. On the territory of the rest of the
German-speaking states, occupation troops remained, four zones of
occupation were formed to control the occupation forces:
French, which includes the southern part of Württemberg, the
southern part of Baden and the southern part of the Rhine region and
British, which includes the northern part of the
Rhine region, Westphalia, Hanover, Braunschweig, Oldenburg,
American, which includes Bavaria, Hesse, the
northern part of Baden and the northern part of Württemberg;
Soviet, which includes Saxony, Halle-Merseburg, Magdeburg, Anhalt,
Thuringia, Brandenburg, Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania;
was also divided into four sectors.
First, political parties
were allowed in the Soviet, and later in other areas of German
occupation - the Communist Party of Germany (KKE) and all three
parties of the former Weimar coalition — the SPD, the Democratic
Party, and the Human Rights Council — were restored. However, soon
the party elite of the Democratic Party together with the former
members of the NNP create the Free Democratic Party of Germany (FDP)
(in the Soviet zone of occupation - the Liberal Democratic Party
(LDP)), and the party elite of the Human Rights Center together with
the former members of the NNP create the Christian Democratic Union
(CDU) As a result, DP and HR are marginalized.
In the Soviet
zone of occupation, an attempt is made to recreate the likeness of
the Weimar coalition, which leads to the creation of a "Democratic
bloc", which includes the KKE, the SPD, the LDP, the East German
CDU, whose governing body was formed on the basis of the parity of
all parties included in the bloc. Similar blocks were created at the
land level, on a parity basis of these parties, temporary land
meetings were formed, which also included representatives of some
public organizations. In April 1946, the SPD and the KKE in the
Soviet zone of occupation merged into the Socialist Unified Party of
Germany (SED), whose governing bodies were formed on the basis of
the parity of the former communists and social democrats. The SDPG
of the other three zones refused such a union, the KPD organizations
became the organizations of the SEDG of these zones.
1946-1947, land and district assemblies, community councils (or
community representations) elected by the population were recreated,
and in the elections in them in the Soviet zone of occupation, in
which the KKE and the SPD were merged into the SED, the SED received
the majority, in the rest the majority received either SPD, or CDU.
On May 29, 1947, the United Economic Council for
the United Economy (Wirtschaftsrat des Vereinigten
Wirtschaftsgebietes), elected by the Landtags and the Land Council
(Länderrat) elected by the land governments and the Administrative
Council (Verwaltungsrat), formed by the Economic Council, was
created in the British and American zones of occupation. In the
Soviet zone of occupation, the German People’s Congress (Deutscher
Volkskongress) arose, consisting of delegates from parties and
public organizations, who elected from among its members the German
People’s Council (Deutscher Volksrat). On March 1, 1948, the Bank of
German Lands was established by the occupation administration of the
British and American zones of occupation, which on June 20, 1948
began issuing the German mark.
In response to this, in the
Soviet zone of occupation on July 20, 1948, a German issuing bank
was established in the GDR, which began issuing cash, and on July
24, the issue of the German mark of the German issuing bank began.
On September 1, 1948, a Parliamentary Council (Parlamentarischer
Rat) was convened in Bonn, elected by the Landtags, which passed on
May 8, 1949, and enacted the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of
Germany (Germany) on May 23 and elected the Federal President,
recognized as the lands of the western zones of occupation. This
basic law established the Bundesrat and the Bundestag as legislative
bodies, the position of the Federal President (Bundespräsident) as
head of state, and the Federal Government (Bundesregierung) as the
executive body. In the Soviet zone of occupation, direct elections
were held to the Third German People's Congress, which on October 7,
1949 put into effect the Constitution of the German Democratic
Republic (GDR) and elected the President. Under this constitution,
the Länderkammer Chamber of Lands, the GDR People’s Chamber
(Volkskammer) as legislative bodies, the President of the GDR
(Präsident) as head of state and the government as the executive
body were established by this constitution. In 1950, elections were
held in the Bundestag and the People’s Chamber.
In 1951, the
Bank of German Lands was transferred to Germany, in the same year
the German Issuing Bank was transferred to the GDR. In 1952, the
lands were abolished in the GDR, the territory of the state was
divided into districts. April 25, 1952 Baden, Württemberg-Baden and
Württemberg-Hohenzollern united in the land of Baden-Württemberg.
On June 7, 1955, the Bundeswehr armed forces were created, and
the FRG itself was admitted to NATO. A year later, on March 1, 1956,
the GDR armed forces were created - the National People's Army (NNA)
(Nationale Volksarmee), and the GDR itself joined the Warsaw Treaty
Organization (ATS). At the same time, at first both the Bundeswehr
and the NNA were not numerous and were staffed by volunteers,
however, in 1957 a conscription for active military service was
introduced in the Federal Republic of Germany, and in 1962 a
conscription for active military service was introduced in the GDR,
and in the same year the NNA was introduced to East Berlin. In 1956,
the Saar entered the FRG. In 1958, the Chamber of Land of the GDR
was abolished, and in 1960 the post of President of the GDR was
In 1973, the GDR and the Federal Republic of
Germany became members of the United Nations (UN).
3, 1990, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and West Berlin were
incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (Germany), the
People’s Chamber and the Government of the GDR were abolished.
Germany has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation,
which were established with the USSR in 1955 (GDR with the USSR in