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Belle-Église is a French commune with 1,723 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2017) in the Oise department in the Hauts-de-France region. The municipality is located in the arrondissement of Senlis and is part of the Communauté de communes Thelloise and the canton of Méru (until 2015: canton of Neuilly-en-Thelle).
Places and monuments
Saint-Martin Church is a parish Catholic church located in
Belle-Église, France. Contrary to what its exterior elevations
lacking in character, it is a building of surprising complexity,
which is only the result of successive enlargements and
reorganizations since the end of the 12th century. Only the base of
the Romanesque bell tower from the end of the 11th or the first
quarter of the 12th century remains of origin. It is characterized
by its barrel vault, its great depth and its very thick walls. The
rest of the choir and its two aisles are Gothic. There are hardly
two similar spans, and most architectural styles are represented.
However, most of the spans have been built with great care, and the
architecture of the eastern parts is anything but rustic. There are
even elements that are remarkable for their quality, such as the
six-pointed ribbed vaults of the choir and the north brace with
their supports, or for their originality. The building is not
protected as historical monuments, but several elements of its
furniture and four stained glass windows are. The Church of
Saint-Martin is now affiliated with the parish of Saint-Louis en
Thelle with its seat in Chambly, and now only hosts two early Sunday
Masses per year, as well as special celebrations.
The church is located in France, in the Hauts-de-France region and in the department of Oise, in the valley of the Esches, in the town of Belle-Église, to the south-east of the town hall and schools , rue des Écoles. It is built back from the street. The western facade overlooks the street due to the uneven terrain, and you have to climb two successive staircases to reach the western portal, but access for people with reduced mobility also exists through the north side portal. A lawn planted with trees extends to the north of the church. The apse and the southern elevation overlook the cemetery.
The church is dedicated to Saint Martin de Tours. Under the Old Regime, it depends on the deanery of Beaumont, the archdeacon of Clermont and the diocese of Beauvais. The treatment is the appointment of the abbot of the abbey Saint-Martin de Pontoise. It is not known whether the name of the village has any connection with its church. It appears in the form of Belaglisa in 1164, and in its Latin form Bella-Ecclesia in 1214. In the thirteenth century, the seigneury belongs to a family which bears the name of the country, and is allied with the house of Beaumont. In the eighteenth century, it was shared between the Order of Malta and the Abbey of Royaumont. The hamlets fall partly under different seigneuries, including that of Gandicourt, which was given to the abbey of Saint-Denis in 690, and that of Montagny-Prouvaire, which belongs to the barony of Persan. The tithe is shared between the abbey Saint-Martin de Pontoise, the priory of Sainte-Madeleine de Bornel, the priory of Lay (in the current town of Hédouville) and the parish priest. It should be noted the presence of a priory on the parish, which is under the title of Saint-Jacques, and constitutes a dependency of the abbey Saint-Martin. This priory is separate from the church, and its buildings are located near the village, to the south. At the time of the Concordat of 1801, the diocese of Beauvais was annexed to the diocese of Amiens, then it regained its independence in 1822. Around 1840, Belle-Église was already attached to the parish of Chambly, but still had its own presbytery, and probably, a vicar. In 2016, the Saint-Martin church was affiliated to the parish of Saint-Louis en Thelle with its seat in Chambly, and now only hosts two early Sunday Masses per year, as well as special celebrations. However, residents have the opportunity to attend Mass celebrated every Sunday at 6 p.m. in the nearby Bornel church, less than two kilometers away.
No document provides information on the construction of the
church. It can only be dated thanks to archaeological analysis, and
for two of its five construction campaigns, through stained glass,
which have been studied more closely than the masonry (see the
chapter on Furniture). The nave approached by a single aisle to the
north still recalls the old Roman single nave, of which it is not
certain whether elements are still preserved in elevation. This nave
ends in the east on the base of the barrel-vaulted bell tower, which
constitutes the oldest part of the present church, and probably
dates from the end of the 11th or the first decades of the 12th
century, because the vault of Warheads took hold in the region long
before the middle of the century. Of the Roman bell tower itself,
only vestiges remain, including a row of billets visible above the
roof of the nave, and on which rested the two western bays of the
belfry floor, of which the pier still remains. and half of the
archivolts, which are included in the western gable of the choir.
Nothing is known about the Romanesque apse. On the other hand, it is
almost certain that the base of the bell tower was flanked by two
ribbed vaulted braces, which had to be added afterwards in case the
bell tower had to be assigned a rather high date. An unemployed
cul-de-lamp in the north-west corner of the south brace speaks in
this direction. At the end of the 12th century, the north crosspiece
was rebuilt. Then, in a sustained rhythm, we build a new choir,
which is apparently not vaulted immediately; we rebuild the southern
cross and extend it by a side aisle to the east; then we extend the
north crosspiece by a side aisle. The first half-bay of the choir
thus communicates by large arcades with side chapels, while the
second half-bay remains free. This work was completed around
1210/1220, as indicated by the dating of the stained glass window in
the first bay of the north aisle. The profile of the ribs and the
identical triplets at the bedside and to the south of the south
cross-piece allow these different stages of construction to be
linked to the same campaign. The pointed beaks to the north and
south of the choir, however, indicate a date after 1230. Judging
from the two pointed arch bays to the south, the nave is also
rebuilt in the early Gothic period, although that it is hardly
distinguishable from the unique Romanesque naves of the first half
of the 12th century.
The other two construction campaigns are after the Hundred Years War. First, the chapels which flank the choir are each extended by a span of flamboyant Gothic style, so that the three vessels now end at the same level. The windows at the head of the aisles are dated respectively from the first quarter (south) and second quarter (north) of the sixteenth century. Much later, during the Renaissance, the pillars of the great arches of the choir were used as underpinnings, logically since the second time since the extension of the side aisles. Around the same time, the nave has a north aisle. If its construction takes place at the end of the Renaissance, at the end of the sixteenth century, one can imagine that the creation of the portal of classical inspiration follows on this campaign. The description provided by Louis Graves in 1842 suggests something quite different, since it indicates a triplet on the facade, but Graves confuses the north and south side elevations, and the triplet on the facade should actually be that of the chevet. As for the question of when the bell tower disappeared and its circumstances, it remains unanswered. The modern bell tower is already mentioned by Louis Graves4. The neighboring churches of Bornel and Fresnoy-en-Thelle have also lost their Romanesque bell towers, and only retain its base.
Oriented more or less regularly, with a slight deviation from the
axis towards the northeast on the side of the apse, the church
responds to an asymmetrical plan, with a clear distinction between
nave and choir. The nave and its single aisle, to the north, are not
vaulted, and communicate with each other by four large
Renaissance-style arches. The central nave of the choir consists of
the base of the Romanesque bell tower, barrel vaulted, and the
sanctuary of two half-bays covered together by a sexpartite vault,
and terminated by a flat apse. On either side of the base of the
bell tower forming a crossing of the transept, the two crosses of
the transept are clearly different. The northern one is made up of
two half-bays covered together by a vault with six ribs like the
choir, while the southern one has an ordinary vault with four ribs.
It houses a stairwell in the southwest corner, as well as the
sacristy. In the axis of the braces and to the left and to the right
of the central aisle of the choir, there are two side aisles, the
first bay of which has the same style as the braces, and the second
bay of which constitutes an addition to the flamboyant period. The
side aisles are also fitted with ordinary rib vaults. The church is
accessed through the western portal of the nave, or through small
doors to the north and south. The structure of the roofs does not
quite reflect the interior organization, because the nine eastern
spans are covered together by a wide roof with two creepers
delimited by a gable to the west, and another to the east. The
western gable is formed by the remains of the Romanesque bell tower.
The current bell tower is a small frame roof that emerges from the
Nave and aisle
"Poor church, although not devoid of character, than that of Belle-Église", says Canon Müller. This observation may apply to the simplicity of the nave and the state of the furniture, but less so for the eastern parts, whose architecture is surprisingly complex, and offers a great diversity of styles. However, unvaulted naves are more the rule than the exception for the small rural churches of Beauvaisis. One can only deplore the nudity of the ceiling, which is a false barrel vault broken in plastered wood and painted in false apparatus, and conceals an overturned hull frame which would give much more character to the nave if it were discovered, or fitted out. paneling, as in Bruyères-sur-Oise, Frouville, Hodenc-en-Bray or Labbeville, for example. The current appearance conforms to 18th century taste and neoclassical architecture, which favors clarity above all. The pointed arch form nevertheless betrays the Gothic origins of the framework, and its three ties and hallmarks are still visible.
The western wall is blind, apart from the rectangular double-leaf portal. This wall retreats to the base of the gable. The southern elevation is presented as a smooth wall, which is pierced by two medium-sized pointed arched windows, and pierced with a small rectangular door in the base of the second window. The eastern elevation is more interesting, because it reveals the Romanesque origins of the building. The semicircular arch opening onto the base of the bell tower is no higher than the gutter walls of the nave, and not much wider than a third of the eastern wall of the nave. It is not molded, and devoid of supports. To the left and to the right, it is flanked by walls, each of which has a Berry passage to the transept braces. The passage to the north cross is rectangular, and contemporary with the large arcades. The one towards the south cross is smaller, and semicircular. Berry passages are not uncommon in churches with large single naves, nevertheless provided with a transept. Mention may be made, by way of example, of Ableiges, Arthies, Brignancourt, Delincourt, Heilles, Marquemont, Moussy, Nogent-sur-Oise and Villers-sous-Saint-Leu. At the top of the wall at the base of the bell tower, there is a parapet, where two sculptures are placed (see the Furniture chapter) and a kind of Gothic wooden aedicule, the windows of which are glazed. Eugène Müller has already wondered what his function might be. A small door gives access to the first floor of the bell tower, which has also been accessible for a long time by the stairwell of the south crosspiece and the attic.
The four large arches to the north are semicircular, and not
molded. They only have chamfered angles. By means of
Renaissance-type capitals, they fall on five monoyclindrical pillars
paired in a drum, the first of which is half engaged in the western
wall. As a peculiarity, the last pillar to the east is not engaged,
because it serves at the same time for the Berrichon passage towards
the north cross, and the double arch communicating this with the
aisle. The capitals consist of a cutter in the form of a tablet,
which is engraved on the south and north with spaced vertical lines,
and flanked on the other two sides by pads borrowed from the Ionic
capitals. Below the tablet, the capital proper consists of a row of
ovals and darts, a smooth frieze, and an astragalus. The pillars are
not curved. They are based on bases made up, from top to bottom, of
a listel, a torus, a scotia and two large tori, the second of which
appears to be crushed by the first. The plinths are cubic masonry
beds. The aisle is characterized, for the most part, by these large
arcades, and by its saddleback ceiling. As in the nave, there is no
western window, and the daylight enters through only two
semicircular bays, which do not appear to be older than the aisle
itself. A door to the outside exists at the end of the aisle. The
doubleau towards the cross is identical to the large arches, but
does not have supports on the side of the exterior wall.
Base of the bell tower and choir
As in Bouconvillers, Deuil-la-Barre, Fay-les-Étangs, Fleury, Labruyère, Néry, Omerville, Serans, Senots and Villers-Saint-Frambourg, the base of the bell tower is barrel-vaulted. In Labruyère and Néry, which represent the most recent examples, the vault is already in a broken barrel. Rarely are the bases of steeples so austere, and their vaults rarely rest on such thick walls. The proportions are also very unusual, as the depth is almost double the width, which is indeed very small. If it weren't for the two large arches leading to the braces, which are pointed arch and therefore not prior to the second quarter of the 12th century, it would be difficult to get around the celebration altar. The nature of the current vault remains to be specified. It is reinforced by large doubleaux, which are perhaps the only stone elements. It cannot be ruled out that the current structure dates only from the repair following the collapse of the Romanesque steeple at an undetermined period.
The small Gothic choir provides a little known example of a vault with six ribs. Sexpartite vaults are characteristic of large churches of the early Gothic period. In Île-de-France and its surroundings, cradle of Gothic architecture, the choirs Fontenay-en-Parisis, Gouvieux (formerly), Précy-sur-Oise (a single span), Puiseux-Pontoise, Saint-Jean -aux-Bois, Saint-Leu-d'Esserent (the first bay only), as well as the naves of Angicourt and Nesles-la-Vallée, and all the central nave of the collegiate Saint-Frambourg de Senlis, also have them . Several buildings concerned are only small rural churches, but except in Puiseux-Pontoise, the bays concerned are always at two levels of elevation. Before the addition of the last aisles of the side aisles during the flamboyant period, this was also the case for the Belle-Église choir: the tall blocked windows still bear witness to this, particularly visible to the south, and much too close to the large arcades to remain open. . If the number of two large arches on each side is the rule for sexpartite vault spans, which provide a subdivision into two half-bays, the choir of Belle-Église once had the particularity of sharing the side elevations between a large arcade and a wall, perhaps with a window open. The larger Ermenonville church retains this particularity. At the apse, the triplet formed by three sharp lancets, of which the central one is higher, forming part of a relief arch in third point, is characteristic of the first Gothic period. In the first quarter of the thirteenth century, the triplets are still found in Amblainville, Allonne, Borest, Ermenonville, Mareuil-sur-Ourcq, Méru, Précy-sur-Oise, or Saint-Crépin-Ibouvillers. They foreshadow tracery windows. They are already found in the Romanesque period with less fine piers and semicircular bay windows.
The vault is elegantly made. It is provided with thin toric
formets. The ribs, also quite thin, are in the profile of an
almond-shaped torus between two grooves. These ribs fall together on
the top of four capitals located in the angles, and on two
cul-de-lamps in the middle of the side elevations. The cutters are
in the profile of a flower bed, a well-released corbelled rod, and a
cavet. In the angles, they are square; in the north and in the
south, they are with beak (in point), party which appears at the
beginning of the years 1230 in the abbey of Royaumont. This detail
underlines that the choir does indeed belong to the extreme end of
the first Gothic period. The capitals baskets are carved with a row
of hooks and a row of applied polylobed leaves. The keystone is not
particularly remarkable. It is decorated with a disc carved with
foliage. On the other hand, the barrels in offense which carry the
four capitals housed in the angles are the mark of a particular care
brought to the construction. Like the triplet, the large arcades do
not appear as advanced in style as the vault. They are in fact with
chamfered edges and simple roll, except the first large arcade of
the south of which the layout of the upper row of keystones is
truncated for lack of space. In addition, these arcades are devoid
of supports on the west side. But having regard to the presence of
high blocked windows too close to the arcades and the late addition
of the second aisle span, these arcades cannot in reality date from
origin, which also explains their summary character. A first
underpinning must have taken place during the expansion of the side
aisles, during the flamboyant period, when the second large arcade
to the north and south was built. The capitals with polygonal
baskets and only decorated with moldings to the south bear witness
to this. This first resumption not having been carried out in the
rules of the art, we had to reinforce the intermediate pillar of the
south and take again for a second time the intermediate pillar of
the north and the pillar engaged in the wall of the bedside, at the
beginning. rebirth. This recovery provided two capitals carved with
Corinthian volutes and small human heads.
The north cross does not contain any vestige characterized by the Romanesque period, but the southern wall, which forms part of the base of the bell tower, is indeed Romanesque. Due to the very pronounced barlong plan of the base of the bell tower, the crosspiece is also barlong in the east-west direction. This peculiarity undoubtedly motivated the master builder at the end of the 12th century to opt for a sexpartite vault, which was subsequently chosen for the choir. The braces and aisles with sexpartite vaults are quite exceptional. As in the choir, the ribs fall on capitals in the angles, and on cul-de-lamps to the north and south, and toric formets exist all around, except to the east. In its other aspects, the architecture of the north brace differs quite a bit from the choir. The ribs affect a profile common throughout the first Gothic period, namely a thin ridge between two tori. The keystone features a foliage rose window with hollowed-out intervals. The cutters are higher. In addition to the layers of modenature present in the chancel, there is a net and an additional border. These cutters, as well as the capitals, were much too scratched during a restoration. The cutters of the cul-de-lamps are not with beaks or squares: they have projections on the left and on the right, which receive the formets. The capitals' cutters are tripartite, with a central part placed at 45 ° facing the ribs, as generally in the first Gothic period, and two orthogonal side parts, corresponding to the formerets. Despite the articulation of the cutters, the baskets are homogeneous. They are carved with two rows of open hooks. The astragals of the cul-de-lamps are octagonal. To the north, the cul-de-lamp rests on the head of a crouching figure holding out a speech balloon, reminiscent of Bury's Atlanteans. To the west, the barrels have been removed for lack of space, and in the northwest corner, the capital disappears under a thick layer of plaster. Of the four elevations, only the northern one is entirely contemporary with the vault. It has two sharply splayed pointed lancets. The base is animated by three blind arches without columns with capitals. There was once to be a fourth. To the west, the upper part of a similar window still exists. Below, the connection with the aisle was awkwardly made. To the east, the rudimentary character of the doubleau towards the north side of the choir suggests that it was opened in a pre-existing wall.
The vault of the first bay of the north aisle is in the same style as that of the choir. This bay is therefore posterior to the north cross, and perhaps also slightly posterior to the choir, failing which the large arcade connecting it to this one would undoubtedly be molded, and provided with columns with capitals, at least on the west side, no. concerned by the recoveries of the sixteenth century. The keystone and the ribs are analogous to the choir. The formerets are lacking. The ribs therefore fall alone on the four cul-de-lamps engaged in the angles, the shape of which indicates that they are not capitals having lost their shafts. We fitted the large double opening onto the north crosspiece with molded transoms like the cutters, but located slightly lower. The south transom is connected to the cutter by a short vertical section. The baskets of the cul-de-lamps are carved from a single row of hooks. The side window is quite reminiscent of the bays of the north brace, but its archivolt is not decorated on the outside with the row of nail heads which surmount the three bays of the brace. In the spandrel, we observe a blocked fire, which must have been deeper than the wall and include an annex building which has now disappeared, because the blocked arch is just as clearly visible from the outside.
The doubleau separating the two spans of the side aisle is semicircular, and not molded. It is based on two smooth low profile transoms. To the south, the transom is carried by a smooth pilaster, which in turn falls on the central capital of the large arcades to the north of the choir. To the north, there is no pilaster, strictly speaking, because the width of the second span is slightly less than that of the first. The vault of the second bay, added in the second quarter of the sixteenth century, judging from the dating of the canopy of the apse, is fairly flat, and not very neat. Not only devoid of formet, its supports are also disparate. In the northeast corner, the ogive continues down to the ground, while in the southeast corner, it merges into an engaged cylindrical shaft. To the west, the ribs simply blend into the wall. The profile of the ribs consists of a blunt wedge between two cavets, and clearly indicates the ending flamboyant period, when the profiles lose their sharpness. Like the semi-circular outline of the doubleau, this observation is consistent with the dating of the window. The keystone is an escutcheon carried by two cherubs, and surmounted by a helm with lambrequins. Despite the rather late date of the vault, the networks of the windows are still purely flamboyant. They are formed by two lancets with trefoil heads, surmounted by a trilobed bellows between two narrow specks. The side mullions merge with the edges, which are molded with a groove, without the concave molding that usually accompanies it.
Crossing and south aisle
In the south, the work in the first Gothic period did not take place in the same way as in the north. Once the choir was finished, apart from its vault, the southern crosspiece from the Romanesque period was rebuilt while at the same time extending it to the east by a side aisle. This fact is demonstrated by the coherence of the two vaults, which are separated by a doubleau of the same profile as the ribs, profile which is also found in the first bay of the north aisle and in the choir. It was not necessary here to have recourse to a sexpartite vault, because the joint construction of the two spans made it possible to place the intermediate doubleau further to the west than the old eastern wall of the crosspiece, and the latter is therefore smaller than its counterpart in the north. Despite everything, it was not possible to create a completely unified space, because the southern wall of the chancel, undoubtedly pierced with a large arcade only a few years after its completion, is placed further to the south than the southern wall. from the base of the bell tower. The collateral is therefore narrower than the cross, and a projection thus exists north of the intermediate doubleau. At the level of the capitals, it has been decorated with a frieze of foliage on the west side, which forms one with the cul-de-lamp of the doubleau and the arches. The formeret to the north of the cross does not fall on this cul-de-lumière, but on the frieze, in the angle of the bay.
The formeret to the north of the adjacent aisle span falls on a
cul-de-lamp set up clearly above the first, with no apparent
pattern. We note that the cutters are here flatter than in the choir
and the first bay of the north side chapel, and of a simpler
profile, composed only of a net and a cavet. In the northwest
corner, the architect once again used a cul-de-lamp, this time
because of the presence of the Berry passage, which left no room for
a small column. This cul-de-Lampe is sculpted with the bust of a
man, realistic in style, as can be seen around the same time in de
Brenouille, de Bréançon, Condécourt, Glaignes, Pondron, Rocquemont,
etc. Well below the indicated cul-de-Lampe, there is a second, which
has no function since the construction of the current vault. Its
basket is carved with a monstrous head, such as was often used for
cornices of the twelfth century. This second cul-de-Lampe was to
receive an ogive, and the primitive crosspiece was therefore already
less archaic than the base of the steeple, and perhaps also more
recent. Unfortunately, the crosspiece has been abused by the
construction of a stairwell, which largely closes the western
window, a simple lancet as in the north, and by the mutilation of
the capitals and columns to the south of the intermediate lining. In
addition, it is encumbered by the storage room serving as a
The connection with the second aisle of the aisle, added in the second quarter of the 16th century, was barely more skilfully made than that between the north brace and the aisle of the nave, during the Renaissance. The column in misdemeanor in the south-eastern corner of the first bay has been maintained, but the capital has been damaged. In the northeast corner of the same bay, the shaft and the capital have been embedded in a mass of masonry, which reinforces the intermediate pillar of the large arches. A polygonal pillar was placed in front of the cylindrical pillar of the Flamboyant Period. Their capitals, which are not carved, but only molded, show a similar profile, equivalent to the flamboyant bases, but the capital of the polygonal pillar is curiously surmounted by volutes, an exceptional case where the sculpture does not appear on the basket, but au- above the cutter. The doubleau towards the second span is semicircular, and has only chamfered angles, just like its counterpart to the north. There is, moreover, hardly any difference between the flaming spans in the north and in the south. To the south, the keystone displays only a small disc carved with a rose; the warheads are received on crude cul-de-lamps, and certain spandrels at the top of the trilobed heads of the lancets are still openwork.
The exterior of the church does not call for many remarks. We first note the differences in apparatus. The walls of the nave and the aisles, as well as the western wall of the north brace, are largely built of small irregular rubble embedded in a mortar, except for the western wall of the aisle, which is in medium-grade stone. up to the start of the pinion. The eastern parts are for the most part built of medium-sized stone, but the walls are much less regular in the north. At the level of the south spider and the first span of the south spider, the limit of the spandrels is underlined by a drip edge, which also passes around the buttresses. These are absorbed by a long, very steep glacis. The buttress between the two spans of the north aisle is of the same type, which is hardly surprising since these parts of the church are more or less contemporary, but we do not find the drip edge at the limit of the 'lightens. The two buttresses from the first half of the sixteenth century to the end of the side elevations are not characteristic of this precise period, but of the whole of the Gothic period; they are punctuated by a drip edge and end with a drip-like glaze.
We will look in vain for cornices. The windows are presented in
the same way as on the inside, except those of the north cross,
which are much more deeply flared on the inside than on the outside,
and surmounted by a bead of nail heads, typical from the first
Gothic period, exterior only. Like most Romanesque bell towers in
Beauvaisis, the belfry floor of the bell tower had undoubtedly
benefited from increased decorative care, as had the portal. But as
already mentioned, all that remains visible from the Romanesque
steeple on the outside are a row of billets at the limit between the
blind intermediate floor, visible from the nave, and the belfry
floor, as well as the trumeau between the two western bays of the
belfry floor, and half of the keystones of their archivolts. The
Romanesque portal has not been preserved either. The current portal,
in a basket handle, is in a very sober classical style. It is
flanked by two smooth pilasters, and surmounted by a molded cornice
with multiple projections, as well as a triangular pediment whose
ramps are molded in the same way. Two carved half-relief pots take
the place of acroterions. On either side, blocked basket-handle
windows are visible in the wall.
Among the furniture of the church, six elements or sets are registered or classified as a historical monument under the title object. These are the baptismal font; of a Virgin and Child; of Christ on the cross at the entrance to the choir; a set of sculpted panels; and two among the many paintings in the church (eleven in total). A third classified painting, which represents the massacre of the Triumvirs, and was painted in the last quarter of the sixteenth century from an original work by Hans Vredeman de Vries, was deposited at the departmental museum of Oise after having been stolen by two taken again in 1953 and 1954. However, it still remains the property of the municipality of Belle-Église. This painting is not to be confused with a painting by Antoine Caron bearing the same title, and kept in the same museum. Also listed are a fragment of 13th century stained glass and three 16th century stained glass windows. We can also point out a few missing or stolen objects, in this case a celebrant's chair from the sixteenth century; a portable sixteenth-century font with two copper brushes; and two embossed copper sconces from the last quarter of the 17th century.
The baptismal font, in stone, is 105 cm high. They consist of a small 17th century oval basin, carved with heads of cherubs flanked by outstretched wings and plant motifs, and a molded foot in the style of a baluster. These fonts have been registered since February 2007.
The statuette of the Virgin and Child, in stone, is carved in the round, but its reverse remains flat. It is a rough workmanship, which seems to date from the sixteenth century. The Virgin is standing, and carries the Child Jesus in her left arm. His right hand is broken. The mother is wearing a high crown and wearing a long dress under a mantle bordered with a gold braid. The Child, quite naked, presents an apple to his mother, who is about to seize it. This sculpture has been listed since April 1960, and placed on the edge of the western wall of the bell tower, at the top east of the nave.
Near the Virgin, there is a small charity of Saint-Martin in carved wood. There is a lack of information on this work from the seventeenth or eighteenth century, which is not yet protected as historical monuments. Along with the Virgin, it is the only statue in the church that survived the French Revolution.
The patron saint of the church also appears on the bas-relief which adorns the basin of the pulpit to preach.
The Christ on the Cross, which is placed on a plinth east of the base of the bell tower, in front of the entrance to the choir, is made of carved wood, and shows traces of an ancient polychrome. It measures approximately 128 cm in height, and dates from the 15th century. It would therefore be the oldest work of religious art in the church. Christ's head falls to the left, and his eyes are closed, while his face with the mouth parted expresses pain. Her figure is very slim, and the bone structure of her torso is well emphasized. The classification of Christ dates back to November 1912.
The set of eight wooden panels, each carved from a different
flamboyant network, with bellows and mouchettes, and shields
emblazoned with two fleurs-de-lis for two of them, were reassembled
in a modern chest (which is currently not visible in the church).
Four panels form its front face, and two form each of its side
faces. Each panel is cut from a single plank of wood, and measures
only 40cm high and 20cm wide. The departmental museum of Oise has
panels of a very similar invoice. They can be dated to the end of
the 15th or the beginning of the 16th century, but it is not known
what their function was. Their classification was also made in
The painting representing Saint Geneviève returning the sight to her mother is painted in oil on canvas. It measures 230 cm high and 190 cm wide without the frame, and could date from the seventeenth century. Its registration took place in December 2012.
The altarpiece painting in the north aisle (Chapel of the Virgin) represents the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, and is painted in oil on canvas. It measures 137 cm high and 155 cm wide without the frame, and dates from the 18th century. It is also registered in December 2012.
The painting on the high altar represents The Charity of Saint Martin, copied from the famous composition by Antoine Van Dyck
The two windows at the apse of the two side chapels of the choir date largely from the time of construction, ie the first half of the 16th century. They are however very restored. They measure 150 cm high by 120 cm wide, and each consist of two trilobed lancets; an eardrum in the form of a bellows; and two handkerchiefs so narrow that they could not accommodate any ornamental motif, but only blue glass. These two windows have been classified since November 1912.
In the south side chapel, the glass roof n ° 2 represents, in the middle of an architectural decoration of the Renaissance, Saint Nicolas with a tub containing the three young children whom he has just resuscitated (on the left), and Saint Marie-Madeleine featuring a donor (right). The dove of the Holy Spirit appears on the eardrum. This canopy is dated from the second quarter of the sixteenth century.
In the north side chapel, canopy n ° 1 represents the Annunciation. Under shields, we see the Virgin Mary kneeling in prayer in front of an open book placed on a table (left), and the Archangel Gabriel also kneeling, pointing a finger towards the sky, where a phylactery is deployed carrying the inscription "Ave Gracia plena". Marie is in a room, with an alcove visible on the left, and a window open to a landscape in the background on the right. The dove of the Holy Spirit is shown in perspective under the flat ceiling. The Archangel Gabriel seems to be in a different room, which is capped with two barrel vaults, and where a hanging hanging at the back prevents the view of the landscape. God the Father appears on the eardrum. This glass roof dates from the first quarter of the sixteenth century.
Still in the north side chapel, glass roof n ° 3, to the north, preserves a sixteenth century armorial tympanum, which cannot be dated with greater precision. It measures approximately 40 cm in width and height. This small stained-glass window has also been classified since November 1912. The borders of the two lancets would be modern according to the classification decree (which does not, however, exclude a dating from the 17th or 18th century). They represent fleur-de-lis painted with enamel.
The colored glass medallion in the bay of the previous bay (glass roof n ° 5) represents the Coronation of the Virgin by her son Jesus Christ. The stage is surrounded by a border of leaves. This small, strongly corroded stained-glass window, which is only a fragment, measures approximately 50 cm in height and 40 cm in width. By comparing it with stained glass in the choir of Laon cathedral, the tree of Jesse in Soissons cathedral or Saint-Quentin basilica, or even the western rose window of Notre-Dame de Paris, it can be dated to the years 1210-1220, with the exception of the head of Christ, which is modern. The work has also been listed since November 1912.
Château de Saint-Just, outside the village, on the RD 923 towards Chambly: first called hotel de Villiers, the castle takes its final name with the arrival of Oudin de Saint-Just in 1450. The castle belonged successively to the Villiers, to the Montmorency by marriage in 1415, to the Saint-Just by acquisition in 1450, to the Mérard de Saint-Just by acquisition in 1751, to the Marquis de Persan, to General Servan de Gerbey then to the Counts of Ribes by acquisition in 1826. With its 14 hectare park, the Château Saint-Just was in 2016 a 4-star hotel.
On June 19, 1944, the battle of Ronquerolles took place, on the
edge of the municipalities of Ronquerolles, Bornel, Belle-Église and
Hédouville, between a small group of French resistance fighters and
the German occupation and repression troops of the
Sicherungs-Regiment 6, evaluated at three battalions, that is to say
from 800 to 1000 men. Out of 17 resistance fighters arrested by the
Germans, 11 were shot in L'Isle-Adam and 2 were deported.
Politics and administration
Administrative and electoral attachments
The town is located in the district of Senlis in the department of Oise. For the election of deputies, it is part of the second constituency of the Oise.
Since 1801 it was part of the canton of Neuilly-en-Thelle. As part of the 2014 cantonal redistribution in France, the town is now part of the canton of Méru.
The municipality was part of the community of municipalities of the country of Thelle, created in 1996.
Under the provisions of the law on the new territorial organization of the Republic (NOTRe Law) of August 7, 2015, which provides that public inter-municipal cooperation establishments (EPCI) with their own tax system must have a minimum of 15,000 inhabitants, the prefect de l'Oise published in October 2015 a project for a new departmental inter-municipal cooperation plan, which provides for the merger of several inter-municipal authorities, and in particular the community of municipalities of the Pays de Thelle and the community of municipalities of La Ruraloise, thus forming an intermunicipal body of 42 municipalities and 59,626 inhabitants.
The new intercommunality, of which the municipality is a member and provisionally called the community of municipalities of the Pays de Thelle et Ruraloise, was created by a prefectural decree of November 30, 2016 which took effect on January 1, 2017.
The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the municipality since 1793. From 2006, the legal populations of the municipalities are published annually by INSEE. The census is now based on an annual collection of information, successively concerning all the municipal territories over a period of five years. For municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants, a census survey covering the entire population is carried out every five years, the legal populations of the intervening years being estimated by interpolation or extrapolation. For the municipality, the first exhaustive census coming under the new system was carried out in 2006.