10 largest cities in France
Saint-Florent, in Corsican: San Fiurenzu, is a French commune, located in the departmental district of Haute-Corse and the territory of the community of Corsica.
The Cathedral of Nebbio located in Saint-Florent (Haute-Corse) in the department of Haute-Corse was the seat of the diocese of Nebbio until 1789, when it was abolished and attached to the diocese of Ajaccio.
The tower of the Mortella (in Corsican: torra di Mortella) is a ruined Genoese tower located in the commune of Saint-Florent, in the French department of Haute-Corse. The Mortella Tower is listed as a historic monument by decree of March 8, 1991.
Citadel of Saint-Florent
The citadel of Saint-Florent is a citadel located in Saint-Florent in Haute-Corse, France. The citadel of Saint-Florent has two round towers and a square tower. It strategically guarded the Gulf of Saint-Florent by protecting its port and the “rear” of Bastia.
Built in 1440 by the Doge of Genoa Giano I di Campofregoso, the citadel was developed and improved several times, whether by the Genoese in the sixteenth century, in 1553 by General Paul de La Barthe de Thermes or in the eighteenth century when the city consolidates its fortifications1. The citadel was transformed again at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.
The town of Saint-Florent was founded in the 16th century around the citadel.
In 1795, Pascal Paoli left Corsica for his exile in England from this citadel.
“The weak citadel on the land side had only a detachment of twenty-five men when I visited it. Fort Gentili takes its name from the brave Corsican general who built it, who defended it so intrepidly in 1794, and only gave in after General Dundas had managed to miraculously establish his artillery up to the ridge and through the rocks. from the Stolli mountain. France then temporarily lost Corsica; England has lost her forever, but she has the ashes of her two greatest men: Paoli rests at Westminster, and Napoleon's bones remain captive at St. Helena. "
- Antoine Claude Valery in Voyages in Corsica, on the island of Elba and in Sardinia, 1837
Archeology indicates that this territory was already occupied in the ancient Neolithic. The chroniclers speak of the existence, one kilometer west of the present city, of the Roman city of Cersunum. In addition, about a kilometer to the south-west of Monte Revinco in Agriates, in the municipality of Santo-Pietro-di-Tenda, is a dolmen classified MH.
Saint-Florent was founded by the Genoese in the 16th century. But from 1440, a citadel was built to resist Aragonese, French and Ottoman assaults.
It was a village surrounded by an enclosure which sheltered nearly three hundred fires distributed between Terravecchia and Terranova, with a suburb to the south. There was a convent for minors abandoned in the 15th century. The only tower, or castle of S. Florent, which was located less than half a mile from land in front of the islet of Roya, was undoubtedly to keep the neighboring saltworks of Roya where one made every year a little salt, destroyed at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The land of Saint-Florent was the first to be given to the Office of Saint Georges, in the year 1483. It enjoyed numerous franchises and exemptions in Genoa and Corsica.
Each year a new officer arrived who was both governor and podestate. He administered justice in the company of four consuls taken from the people of the country; this tribunal had jurisdiction only over the inhabitants of Saint-Florent. These were exempt from pruning, as were those of Calvi, Biguglia and Bastia.
1438 - Tommasino de Campofregoso, doge of Genoa, to put an end to the struggles between the two brothers Giovanni and Nicolò de Montalto against Luciano de Casta and Opicino Leccitano, sent to the island as governor Janus, his nephew.
1440 - Janus populated and fortified the land of Saint-Florent, the gulf of which he found advantageous, then he returned to Genoa.
1445 - the Doge sent as governor Gregorio Adorno, his relative, with a hundred men. The latter landed at Saint-Florent.
Corsica was divided between a crowd of lords; Saint-Florent belonged to Governor Galeazzo de Campofregoso,
1449 - Lodovico de Campofregoso, brother of Janus, is appointed governor and lord of Corsica by Nicolas V.
1453 - A Catalan corsair arrives at Saint-Florent with two galleys, on which Vincentello d'Istria was as a passenger. Yielding to Vincentello's suggestions, the privateer besieged this weakly defended place and seized it without difficulty. After leaving Vincentello with a garrison there, he sailed for Naples, in order to engage the King of Aragon to undertake the conquest of Corsica.
The Protectors of the Office of Saint-Georges sent Pier Battista D'Oria to Corsica at the head of five hundred infantry. He presented himself in front of Saint-Florent with two vessels; after a few engagements, Vincentello abandoned the place which capitulated.
1462 - Francesco Spinola governor in Corsica for the Office, leaving Bastia, retires to Saint-Florent where he dies.
1464 - Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, then very powerful prince, after seizing Genoa, sends the Milanese Francesco Manetto to the island with considerable forces. The latter, barely disembarked at Saint-Florent, took possession of the place. Immediately Vincentello, the Bishop of Aleria, Giocante and all the other Corsicans, with the exception of Count Polo Della Rocca and the lords of Cap-Corse, came to him to swear loyalty to him.
1483 - Jacopo IV Appiano, (or Jacques IV) lord of Piombino, who had some secret views of Corsica, sent his brother Gherardo de Montagana to the island with a hundred infantry, almost all from the island of Elba. The Corsicans all followed him and swore loyalty to him, honoring him with the title of Count of Corsica. He walked on Saint-Florent, which he took over; the siege lasted long enough, punctuated by numerous deadly skirmishes for both parties. In the end, the besieged, driven from the outer village and reduced to extreme distress, entered into negotiations, asking before surrendering that they be given time to inform Tommasino de Campofregoso, their lord, in Genoa of their situation. . However, Tommasino sold his fortresses and all the rights he had over Corsica to the Office of Saint George for two thousand gold crowns. The latter immediately sent to the island, as commissioner, Francesco Pammoglio, who had previously been vicar in Corsica. Pammoglio left Genoa with a galley and arrived at Saint-Florent at the time when the time limit obtained by the besieged to deliver the place expired. As soon as he arrived he had it published that Corsica had been sold by Tommasino to the Office. Count Gherardo, terrified when he saw that he had to fight the powerful Office of St. George, suddenly raised the siege of St. Florent and returned to Venzolasca.
1487 - Giovan Paolo di Leca leads the revolt of most of Corsica
against the Genoese. The Protectors of the Office sent on two ships
and two galleys fifteen hundred infantry and eighteen horses
commanded by Damiano Canazzo and Monsignor de Falconi, a Frenchman.
They were accompanied by four commissioners, three of whom were then
chosen at Genoa. Domenico Spinola, one of the commissioners who was
in Bastia, was confirmed in office. The landing takes place in
For a long time Corsica will be governed by the Office of St. George, and under this government it will live quietly for seventy years.
1501 - Corsica remains under the authority of St. George for several years, with no notable events except for the raids by Catalan privateers. One day in bad weather, two of their staff were forced to take refuge in Saint-Florent; the crews with Romeo their captain, were taken prisoner and taken to Bastia where they were hanged up to the last man.
1506 - The Office destroys the Saint-Florent salt mine.
1525 - The plague, which reappears even more frightening in 1528, decimates a considerable part of the population.
The siege of Saint-Florent by the Genoese 1553-1554
Wanting to embark on a glorious expedition, in which the king's interests would be discussed with caution and supported with courage, Thermes was of the opinion that before the departure of the Allied Turkish fleet, an attempt should be made with light troops on the Corsica which was all set to be an easy conquest.
1553 - August 24, Monsignor de Thermes, general of King Henry II in Corsica, determined to make a landing in Corsica, arrived in Saint-Florent with four thousand elite Italian infantry, which he maintained in Siena. He found the city, which had been fortified only against the raids of the corsairs, deserted by the fleeing Genoese soldiers and governor. The inhabitants of Genoa offered no resistance. They sent to present the keys of the city to the French general who was entering Saint-Florent with all his troops. Recognizing the advantageous position of this city and the convenience of its gulf, Thermes immediately resolved to make it a stronghold.
Preparing to support an impending war against Genoa that was preparing a fleet and troops to retake Corsica, Thermes set about fortifying Saint-Florent and Ajaccio.
1553 - November 15, in the middle of the afternoon, the Genoese armada enters the port of Saint-Florent. Thermes had completed the fortifications of the square; he had appointed Giordano Orsino his lieutenant general, governor of that place.
Arriving in the Gulf, Andrea D'Oria withdrew with her entire fleet on the Mortella side, west of St. Florent, five miles from the square, without letting anyone land. The next day he left the Mortella with the whole fleet, and went aboard on the other side of the gulf, at Olzu, where he landed all his infantry on boats and skiffs. As soon as they landed, the infantry marched in battle order to the convent of St. Francis, about four hundred paces from the square. There she found in front of her a number of French arquebusiers sent by Giordano Orsino to prevent the Genoese from settling in the convent; the French offered little resistance as they were compelled to yield to superior forces and withdrew into the square.
Recognizing that it was impossible to storm St. Florent, Agostino Spinola knew that the city was poorly supplied with food. With Andrea D'Oria, they decided to stick to the investment. Responsible for the conduct of the siege, he had a fort erected to the west of the city, on the beach of La Roya, where he put a strong garrison and much artillery, and entrusted its defense to Imperiale D'Oria, lord of Dolceacqua. As for Andrea D'Oria, he had a fort built at the Mortella, so that he could remain safe there with his fleet. The blockade was complete and the siege could begin.
The besieging Genoese soldiers went every day in groups, to seek refreshments in the neighboring villages, attracting by their insolence the contempt of the rising Corsican population. "Not a day went by that no soldier was killed or ransacked; in the very end they made a real massacre of the Genoese soldiers. »
Thermes sent Giovanni of Turin, one of the most famous captains
that the king had in his service at that time, with 150 arquebusiers
to supply the besieged. During a skirmish, Giovanni of Turin was
pierced by an arquebus shot recklessly fired by one of his very
soldiers. Admiral Andrea D'Oria agreed to have his body transported
to Livorno, from where he hoped the Duke of Florence would send it
to Borgo a Sansepolcro, homeland of Giovanni of Turin. But the ship
carrying the beer sank during the crossing.
But mortality was great in the army which besieged Saint-Florent. “The number of soldiers who died was staggering. This mortality was caused by the air which in this place is still unhealthy, but was then more pestilential than ever, and also by the sufferings and privations that one endured there more than anywhere else, because it rained almost every day. . ".
But fortune for the Genoese wanted four thousand Spaniards to arrive in the port of Calvi, with nine ships, under the command of Don Luis de Lugo Adolentado Canarie. It was the King of Spain, Philip II, who had sent them to the aid of the place. With other troops raised, the Genoese were thus able to continue the conduct of the siege.
Sampiero Corso burned down the Mortella tower, which was taken by surprise from the Genoese defenders.
D'Oria reinforced his army by bringing in a thousand Germans commanded by Colonel Alberic, Count of Lodrone. He had a fort built in Olzu, as he had built one in Mortella, then he linked these two forts by a line of ships, galleys and other boats, so that the passage was closed to the smallest skiff. .
Giordano Orsino not benefiting from any help, he finally had to give in to famine and capitulated under certain conditions: the place would be handed over to the Genoese; Giordano, Vallerone and their people would come out with their bundled weapons, their banners in the scabbard, and without beating the drum; they would embark at Saint-Florent itself, and would be transported safe and sound with their luggage to Antibes. During the eight months which would follow the capitulation, Giordano could not take up arms against the Duke of Florence; moreover, none of the soldiers rebelling against the emperor, the government of Genoa and the Office of Saint George, who would be found in the place, could enjoy the benefit of the capitulation. These articles were stipulated and signed in the square of Saint-Florent by Count Alberico de Lodrone and Carlo Orsino, sent by D'Oria with full powers for this purpose. Count Alberico de Lodrone obtained his freedom, but could not conclude anything.
1554 - February 17, D'Oria took possession of the ruined square of Saint-Florent, with the exception of the fortress.
Ten thousand is the estimated number of those who succumbed during the long siege of Saint-Florent, both in the camp and in the fleet.
1559 - The new Genoese commissioners, Giovan Battista Grimaldi and Cristoforo Saoli, peacefully take possession of the island. Artillery and other necessary things are brought in for the occupation of the fortresses that Giordano Orsino was to hand over to them. They set sail for Saint-Florent where Giordano, with eight galleys and other boats had gone to wait for them, to relieve their duties there, the governor, Monsignor de Masses, the royal prosecutor Jean Michel Pertuis and the judge Antonio Torelli .
After having withdrawn the artillery and all the weapons belonging to the king, Giordano gives the place to the commissioners. On September 5, 1559, the act of restitution of the place of Saint-Florent was signed. The next morning, the commissioners set sail for Calvi. On the way they take possession of the Algajola which was also in the power of the French.
1559 - September 18, the general act of restitution of Corsica is signed in Bonifacio.
1561 - Until then submitted to the Office of Saint-George, the island of Corsica comes under the authority and government of the Serene Signoria who immediately appointed two new commissioners whom she sent to take possession of the island; these were Giuliano Sauli and Francesco Lomellino. They visited the entire island and went to Saint-Florent, Calvi, Ajaccio, Bonifacio and returned to Bastia where they embarked for Genoa.
In these times of mistrust, the Signoria of Genoa, considering the importance of the fortress of Saint-Florent, enlightened on the goal that Sampiero was obstinately pursuing, resolved to rebuild this fortress and for this purpose sent Giorgio D'Oria with the engineer Giacopo Fratino, from Morcò in Lombardy. As soon as they arrived, they began the work without delay, completed it in a short time and returned to dry land.
1562 - Sampiero, an irreconcilable enemy of the Genoese who had
thrown him into prison when Giovan Maria Spinola ruled Corsica,
banished from his homeland and lost all the property he once owned
in Corsica, had the firm resolve to start the war again . With the
support of Queen Catherine of Medici, he went to find Francis the
King of Navarre and told him in full detail the conversation he had
had with the queen. The king gave her consent. The King of Navarre
and Queen Catherine wrote to the King of Algiers and the Great Turk
to explain their intentions. On June 24, Sampiero arrived in Algiers
where the king gave him a cordial reception and gave him letters of
recommendation for the Great Lord in Constantinople.
1564 - On July 29, he landed in a galley at St. Florent, with his company, Captain Stefano D'Oria, lord of Dolceacqua, with the title of commander-in-chief of the Genoese troops, which the Senate had hastily dispatched in Corsica, following the complete rout of Genoese troops in a battle at Caccia against those of Sampiero. In early October, Don Lorenzo Figuerroa arrived on a ship in St. Florent with three hundred infantry sent by Philip II, King of Spain.
1565 - Commissioners then have all the earthworks that Giordano Orsino had recently erected in St. Florent razed; they did the same in Belgodère and Ischia, in the pond.
On July 13, three of the companies which the King of Spain had bribed at his expense landed at St. Florent.
On August 10, Stefano D'Oria, determined to seize the castle of Corte, again left Bastia with all his infantry and took the direction of Saint-Florent where he remained until the 15th, waiting for the artillery which had to arrive from Calvi to help him take the aforesaid castle. The artillery arrived by sea on Ostricone beach on 18 August.
On December 4, Stefano embarks on a galley in St. Florent to return home.
1566 - A detachment of Corsicans who were in the service of the Genoese and a few horsemen lodged at Saint-Florent.
1573 - Unfaithful privateers continue to infest the island with their piracy, mainly on the part of the coast between Portovecchio and Bonifacio and on the stretch from St. Florent to Calvi.
1578 - The diocese of Nebbio is conferred by Pope Gregory XIII on Marc 'Antonio Monte, of the Gulf of La Spezia. Landed in Bastia on September 15, he died of a violent fever on December 10 of the same year.
1593 - A certain Filippo, of Lota, abducted in 1560 by the Turks at the age of nine, sold, mutilated, became a wealthy merchant when he reached the age of man. He had a twenty-bench galleon built in the Levant and went to Barbary, where he had several Christians regained their freedom. On June 22, in Porto Genovese, he managed to free ten Christian slaves and six Turks who were chained, before fleeing. Pursued, he managed to escape in the direction of Barcelona. A terrible storm occurs that forces him to go along the coasts of France. He was glad to be able to enter the Gulf of St. Florent. As they had vowed to give the galleon to the first church where they would find rest, they donated to the church of St. Florent, the galleon with all its equipment.
The Great Corsican Revolt 1729-1769
1729 - May 20, gunmen attack Mortella's tower and seize eight rifles, powder and bullets.
1730 - February 21, Governor Felice Pinelli, elected governor on April 1, 1728, learns that Farinole, Patrimonio, San Fiorenzo and Algajola are under siege and that Corte and Rogliano have fallen into the hands of the Corsicans. He wrote to Bishop Gaetano Aprosio, Bishop of Nebbio, asking him to intervene with the besiegers of San Fiurenzu. The deputies obtained from the Corsicans the acceptance of the armistice.
On April 12, Extraordinary Commissioner Girolamo Veneroso arrived in the Gulf of St. Florent and then traveled by sea to Bastia, where he immediately issued a general amnesty.
April 18 to May 22, Pinelli visits the provinces (or presidents) of Porto-Vecchio, Bonifacio, Ajaccio, Calvi and San Fiorenzo.
On December 23, the Corsicans headed for Bastia in two columns, one on the heights, the other in the plain. Marquis Camillo Doria, commissioner to whom the Republic gave full military powers, hurried back by sea from Ajaccio, where he set up his Q.G., to San Fiorenzo and then to Bastia.
1731 - March 29, the inhabitants of Nebbio, under the orders of Father Poletti, of Olmeta, one of the warlords of the Nation, lay siege to San Fiurenzu.
On April 6, General Philibert Evariste Ciattoni, the new Rebel Leader, convenes a diet in Saint Florent to gain recognition from the island’s villages and magistrates. He designates pedrillo glacelli, former judge of the Pièvé as lieutenant general.
On April 17, Poletti granted an eight-day arms suspension to the
commander of San Fiurenzu. If no relief has reached him by then, he
will have to hand over the fort and city to the Nationals, and the
besieged will be able to withdraw with the honors of war.
On April 25, the Republic asked Ghjambattista Sorba, of Ajaccio, his minister before the Court of France, to inform the French government that ships should board only the ports of Bastia, Calvi, Bonifacio and San Fiorenzo. She begs the King of France to forbid her subjects from carrying weapons and ammunition of war to the rebels.
April 27, surrender of San Fiorenzo. The Corsicans recover eight pieces of cannon. The four in Mortella's tower had already been taken by Angulu Matteu Stefanini.
In May, Luiggi Giafferi of Talasani made a quick trip to Livorno and procured artillery for the defense of San Fiorenzo.
On May 18, Erasimu Orticoni embarked at San Fiorenzo, commissioned by the Generals on a mission to Clement XII.
On August 10, German troops commanded by Baron Wachtendonck, who had embarked at Genoa, landed at Bastia. Doria publishes an edict of the Doge and the Assemblies, dated August 4, granting general pardon to the Corsicans. "The following are excluded from the pardon: 1 ° Andria Ceccaldi, Luigi Giafferi, Ghjanfrancescu Lusinchi, Carlu Francesco Alessandrini, from Canari, Pier'Simone Ginestra, Ghjuvan Tumasgiu Giuliani, from Muro, and Simone Fabiani, from Santa Reparata di Balagna; a fine of ECU 2,000 is offered for the murder of one of them, or 2,500 for his capture. 2 ° The following communities: Olmeta di Tuda and Oletta, Loreto and Vescovato, Talasani, La Porta and Ficaja, Carchetto and Piedicroce, Castineto and Morosaglia, Noceta, Rospigliani and I Gatti di Vivario, Bustanico, Corscia and Calacuccia, Palasca and Speloncato, Muro, Santa Reparata di Balagna, Zicavo, Bastelica, Centuri and Morsiglia), provided they reach their homes, hand over their weapons within 15 days and return the fort of San Fiurenzu and the tower of Mortella. »
August 22, Ghjannatale Natali, of Olmeta, who commanded San Fiorenzo, hands over the fort to German troops.
1732 - April 19, an edict of the Prince of Württemberg, which gives five days to the Corsicans to return to obedience to the Republic, is published in San Fiorenzo.
April 23, having no answer to the edict of April 16, Württemberg ordered the march forward of the troops of Calvi. Kulmbach occupies the Balagna where Ceccaldi was. Subsequently, the troops stationed in the maritime squares will advance inland. Schmettau quitte San Fiurenzu; it occupies the Nebbio where Giafferi was, then the Costera as far as Tenda, and Lento.
1736 - May 14, edict of Commissioner General RivarolaNote 2 to be published in Bastia, San Fiorenzo, San Pellegrino, Algajola and Calvi, who ordered the parishes that remained loyal to the Republic to give before six days an inventory of the armed forces at their disposal.
On May 30, the troops of Baron Theodore de Neuhoff, King of Corsica, attacked Bastia and San Fiorenzo simultaneously.
June 6, Theodore passes to Balagne accompanied by Hyacinthe Paoli and Luiggi Giafferi. The Bastia camp is entrusted to Castineta and Arrighi; that of San Fiorenzo to Ghjuvan Natale Natali and Ghjuvan Battista Cervoni. The king will attack, without much success, Calenzana and Algajola.
1737 - November 10 at Fontainebleau, signing of an agreement between France and Genoa for the sending of troops to Corsica, in accordance with the French proposals of August 5.
1738 - February 4, the French fleet arrives in sight of San Fiorenzo. But a sudden storm disperses the ships.
February 6, French boats arrive in Corsica; they dock at San Fiorenzo, Bastia, Canari and elsewhere. Some, damaged, took refuge in Tuscan ports. The bulk of the troops, with M. de Boissieux, landed at San Fiorenzo. Three days later, Boissieux went to Bastia by land.
1739 - January 8, caught in a storm, the six companies of the Cambraisis regiment are shipwrecked at Punta di a Civula (Punta di l'Acciolu - Palasca), at 11 o'clock in the evening. The occupants of two tartans are taken prisoner at the mouth of the Ostriconi. Colonel de Villemur, commander for the Balagna, will obtain their release. Survivors of 4 buildings will disembark in San Fiorenzo.
April 13, Maillebois travels by sea from Calvi to San Fiorenzo.
1744 - August, Rivarola communicates to Horace Mann and Villettes a draft convention for England's aid to the Corsicans in exchange for one or two ports on the island, San Fiorenzo and Portovecchio.
1745 - November 23, Marshal de Maillebois reports to the Earl of Argenson, Secretary of State for War, the danger of letting the English settle in San Fiorenzo.
December, disagreements worsen between Rivarola and the other
leaders. Rivarola leaves Bastia for San Fiorenzo. Townshend reunites
the Corsican chiefs at San Fiorenzo and obtains a provisional
agreement; Gaffori will remain in Bastia; Matra, at the head of all
the Corsican troops, marched on Ajaccio; Rivarola, after the capture
of Ajaccio, attacked Calvi.
1747 - September 5, the Marquis de Bisay, who temporarily succeeds Boufflers, sends 500 soldiers to Bastia (300 Genoese, 100 French and 100 Spanish) under the command of Colonel Choiseul-Beaupré. He lands in Bastia and attacks Rivarola who is forced to take refuge in San Fiorenzo.
On September 12, Commissioner Mari, who lives in Calvi, stormed San Fiorenzo and failed. He raised the siege before Giuliani arrived with reinforcements.
In October, Admiral Byngh set sail from Livorno for San Fiorenzo, Captain Stepney with two boats. On October 16, the English ships arrived at San Fiorenzo. A council of the leaders of the Nation met at once to consider a combined action of the islanders and the protective nations. Rivarola and Giuliani decide to leave for the Court of Sardinia.
1748 - May 3, three Savoy battalions and a German battalion left Savona two days earlier, under the protection of the English fleet, land at San Fiorenzo. At their head was the knight Giovanni Secondo Canale di Cumiana, brigadier of the armies of the king of Sardinia, colonel of the Asti regiment. : * May 7, at a council of war in San Fiorenzo, between Cumiana and the Corsican leaders, they decide to attack Bastia.
September 12, at Patrimonio, Séraphin Marie Rioult de Douilly, Marquis de Cursay, and Cumiana sign an armistice agreement which will be published on the 15th at San Fiorenzo.
October 18, Treaty of Aachen: the fate of Corsica is fixed by Article 2, which stipulates a general forgetfulness for all that may have been committed during the war that has just ended, and by the Article 14, which puts the Republic of Genoa in the possession of all its states.
November, having learned of the charges against the Corsican chiefs, Cursay requests that he return him to deposition, on behalf of S.M. Sardinia, the fort of San Fiorenzo, in Cumiana which refuses. On the 17th of the month he left San Fiorenzo where he left only a hundred Piedmontese. Those leave the square on December 20th.
December 23, San Fiorenzo is abandoned to the French.
1749 - January 2, Cursay visits the fort of San Fiorenzo (the name will not become St. Florent until 1801).
January 14 and 15, general consultation at Corte under the presidency of the Marquis de Cursay, assisted by Gaffori, Giuliani and L. Ornano. The citadel of Corte is entrusted to the French. French troops will be stationed in San Fiorenzo, Corte, Casinca and Campoloro.
On April 21 and 22, Cursay gathered the fifteen deputies in San Fiorenzo to tell them that the king's will was for Corsica to return under the obedience of the Republic.
1751 - July 25, M. de Chauvelin and Cursay receive the deputies at San Fiorenzo.
1753 - February, the French leave Corsica.
1755 - November 5 Giovan Giacomo Grimaldi Commissioner General in place of Stefano de'Mari since October 25, 1745, who has just taken command of San Fiorenzo, forbids access to the city to the inhabitants of the Nebbio, as well as any trade between the president and the province.
November 18, in San Fiorenzo, Grimaldi tries an outing. He is repulsed while a detachment sent from Bastia by Commissioner Giuseppe Maria Doria, is torn to pieces by the people of Barbaggio.
December 4, meeting in Santo Pietro to organize the blockade of San Fiorenzo. During the month, the Corsicans attacked the defensive belt of San Fiorenzo but were repulsed.
1756 - August 14, first treaty of Compiègne signed by Knight Antoine-Louis Rouillé, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and Guérin, Secretary of the King's Command and Finance, on behalf of Louis XV, and Agostini Paolo Domenico Sorba ( son of Ghjambattista), plenipotentiary, on behalf of the Republic. France grants subsidies and protection to the Republic; it received in storage San Fiorenzo, Calvi and Ajaccio, thus preventing a landing of the English.
1758 - September 5, edict of Pascal Paoli against the inhabitants of San Fiorenzo who work for the Republic.
1760 - February 10-14, San Fiorenzo attack: Clemente Paoli, on the land side, Tiborziu Murati, on the sea side, manage to invest the city but must withdraw after the arrival of reinforcements.
In November, the Corsicans seize the tower of Mortella which controls the entrance to the Gulf of Saint-Florent.
1762 - March-April, Paoli builds the tower of Fornali to control navigation in the Gulf of San Fiorenzo.
At the end of June, Commissioner General Sauli sent reinforcements to San Fiorenzo.
1763 - May, the garrison of the tower of Fornali rounds a Genoese
pinque flying the French flag. As the national government alerted
the French consul in Livorno, two armed Quebecers will come to
retrieve the ship on June 18, taking two young Corsicans they met on
a boat in the port of San Fiorenzo. Paoli will get the return of the
young people but France will demand, in return, the release of F.M.
CostaNote 5, sentenced to death and detained in Corte prison. Costa,
sent to a supervised residence in Balagna, will resume his intrigues
and will be imprisoned again.
1764 - May 8, instructions of the Republic to Agostini Paolo Domenico Sorba (son of Ghjambattista Sorba, of Ajaccio, Minister of the Republic of Genoa at the Court of France) to defeat the resistance of the French regarding the sending of troops in Corsica. The Genoese, who feel that they are about to be driven from the island, would like the rapid relief of the soldiers of the King of France and the guard, by them, of Bastia and San Fiorenzo, jointly, and preferably , to other maritime places.
June, Paoli strengthens the blockade of San Fiorenzo in the hope of obtaining the capitulation of the city before a new French intervention.
August 6, second Treaty of Compiègne between France and the Republic of Genoa, signed by Choiseul and Sorba. France receives in deposit for four years: Bastia, Ajaccio, San Fiorenzo, Calvi and Algajola.
August 26 and 27, naval battle in the Gulf of San Fiorenzo, between two Corsican ships and a Genoese flotilla that brings troops and supplies to the city. Despite the losses, the Genoese managed to supply the square of San Fiorenzo.
December 10, the French arrive in the Gulf of San Fiorenzo. In the following days the troops will be distributed in the maritime places provided for by the Treaty of Compiègne. They are placed under the command of the field marshals: Louis-Charles Count of Marbeuf, Commander-in-Chief and La Tour du Pin. A letter from Marbeuf to Paoli is given to Ghj. Barbaggi and Petru Boccheciampe who were blocking the San Fiorenzo.
1765 - January 5, Paoli addresses a protest to the court of France against the occupation of maritime squares, in particular San Fiorenzo. He is obliged to appeal to the rulers of Europe.
March, under the pretext of the exchange of prisoners between Genoa and Corsica, Marbeuf gets an interview with Paoli. In reality, the French commander wants to talk about freedom of trade between the presidents and the interior. He obtained the opening of markets on Wednesdays and Saturdays: below Furiani and near Erbalonga for the garrison of Bastia, at the tower of Fiuminale d'Oletta for that of San Fiorenzo, at the tower of Caldanu for that of Calvi and Algalola, under Alata for that of Ajaccio.
October, Paoli goes to the gates of Ajacciu to receive the tribute of the city. The inhabitants, and even the French officers, rush to the Salines to acclaim the General. Paoli grants favors to the Ajaccio people, guaranteeing to the owners the properties they have outside the city, to the others the freedom to trade, to the boat owners the free navigation. This event will encourage the people of Bastia and San Fiorenzo to put themselves under the protection of the general.
1768 - January 2 and 4, interviews Choiseul- Ghjambattista Buttafoco, consultant. The Minister announced that the Republic had offered France its right of sovereignty over Corsica and, at the same time, had negotiated with Spain a succession of French troops at the end of the planned four years. The King of France, concerned about the security of the Bourbons in the Mediterranean, is ready to give his agreement to a Spanish occupation but prefers to agree with the Corsican Nation and, for this, claims Bastia, San Fiorenzo and Capocorso in full ownership against its guarantee of national independence for the rest of the island.
February 13, Paoli ends the role of Buttafoco. He asks him, before ceasing his mission, to let the king know that the refusal of the Corsicans is not disgust but a simple desire to preserve the future and to beg him to dissuade the Spaniards from sending troops to Corsica and to to hand over San Fiorenzo to the Nationals before the departure of the French troops.
June 22, four French battalions arrive at San Fiorenzo. The command of the town is assumed by M. de Grandmaison, Marshal of Camp.
On July 29, Marbeuf wrote to Paoli to summon him to withdraw his soldiers from Barbaggio and Patrimonio, in order to leave the French free communication between Bastia and San Fiorenzo, and to give him L'Île-Rousse. He goes at night to Teghime with 2,000 men and orders M. de Grandmaison to leave San Fiorenzo.
August 26, M de Chauvelin, lieutenant-general of the troops of
S.M. and Governor General of the Kingdom of Corsica lands at San
Fiorenzo. Instead of a two-month armistice that he refuses, Paoli
grants them at most free communication between Bastia and San
In October, four new battalions landed at San Fiorenzo and four at Calvi.
November 9, French troops completed their installation in the winter quarters; they occupy the Capicorso, Bastia, and Biguglia, San Fiorenzo, and Oletta, and communicate with each other by a chain of redoubts. The Corsican outposts are in Borgu, Lucciana, Muratu, Rapale, Vallecalle and Olmeta.
December 28, Chauvelin, recalled to court, embarks at San Fiorenzo.
1769 - On the night of January 1-2, Paoli tries to surprise San Fiorenzo. As the alert was given, the Corsicans gave up crossing the enclosure wall.
April 9, Count De Vaux lands at San Fiorenzo.
On May 1, the two armies face off. De Vaux stationed the bulk of his troops, 20 battalions plus cavalry, in the plain of Oletta; 90 "volunteers" led by the Knight of Viomesnil are arranged forward; on the left, Count Marbeuf with 3,000 men and the cavalry of the Soubise legion went as far as the Bevinco; on the right, 2,000 men commanded by the Field Marshal of Arcambal occupy the area between Oletta and San Fiorenzo. For his part, Paoli established his Q.G. in Murato and had his militias occupy the heights of the Serra di Tenda which control the valleys of the Aliso, the Ostriconi and the Golo.
After his defeat at Ponte Novu a few years earlier, Pascal Paoli's army, aided by Nelson's fleet, reconquered the port of St. Florent in 1794. It was during the brief period of the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom.
The French Revolution and Corsica
1789 - Corsica belongs to the Kingdom of France. San Fiorenzo is the seat of the royal court of Nebbio.
On December 22, the Constituent Assembly divided France into 83 departments. The department of Corsica is created with Bastia as prefecture. Former communities or parishes are called communes.
1790 - April 18, arrived in San Fiorenzo with boats to transport his regiment to France, Colonel de Rully returned to Bastia. Disappointed, Rully, who had taken refuge in the grenadier barracks, was ransacked the next day by the people and killed.
On July 12, the five dioceses of Corsica (Ajaccio, Aléria, Bastia, Mariana and Nebbio) were reduced to one.
1791 - June 14, mailboats board at San Fiorenzo. Four commissioners: Ghjuvan Battista Quenza, Luigi Ciavaldini, Anton Filippu Casalta and Acchile Murati, are in charge of transporting themselves to Bastia with an armed troop and at the expense of the city; General Paoli is asked to put himself at his head.
1792 - November 22, first day of the French Republic (1st vintage year I).
1793 - January 12, boats bringing volunteers from the mainland for the planned attack on Sardinia arrive in sight of the Gulf of Ajaccio but are scattered by the storm. Most boats manage to take refuge in San Fiorenzo. From there, volunteers move to Bastia where they indulge in the worst abuses, including desecration of churches and tombs. Embarked on the 18th for Ajaccio, they commit in this city the same acts of indiscipline and terror.
On February 5, Antone Gentili, commander of the San Fiorenzo National Guard, is proposed as a lieutenant colonel by Saliceti.
On April 5, Saliceti, Delcher and Lacombe-Saint-Michel, deputies sent to Corsica “to restore order and provide for its defense,” landed in San Fiorenzo. The next day they are in Bastia.
April 20, in Calvi, Corsica is disarmed by French troops. The next day, the opposite happens in L’Île-Rousse. The unrest prevailed throughout Corsica except Calvi, San Fiorenzo, and Bastia, which, together with Ajaccio, were loyal to the Republic; but everything happens without bloodshed.
August 11, the Convention decides that the departments of the island of Corsica will be called El Golo, the current Haute-Corse, (capital: Bastia, districts: Bastia, Calvi and Corte) and Liamone, the current Corsica -du-Sud, (capital: Ajaccio, districts: Ajaccio, Vico and Sartène). The former royal court of Nebbio passes through the district of Bastia; it is divided into cantons (ex-pievi), and the township into communes. The town which was called San Fiorenzo, is in the canton of the same name, in the district of Bastia and in the department of El Golo.
September 18 to December 1, the English fleet and Corsican troops try in vain to invest San Fiorenzo.
On December 1, Lacombe became a brigadier general in November, announcing to the Convention the attack on San Fiorenzo by the British: 'was kept away from the fire'.
December 29, four French warships appear in front of Biguglia. A
frigate enters the port of Bastia and then the ships will drop
anchor at San Fiorenzo. The English fleet is absent.
1794 - January 14, Gilbert Elliot, appointed by the English Government Governor of the Kingdom of Corsica, Moore and Koelher, disembark from the frigate Lowestoft which arrived in the Isula Rossa harbor. They are received by Paoli on the 16th. Accompanied by Carlu Andria Pozzo di Borgo, Moore and Koelher leave in reconnaissance in the San Fiorenzo area and return to Murato on the 18th. On the 19th, with Paoli, they prepare a plan of attack. Elliot left Corsica on the 21st and Moore on the 25th.
February 5-6; the English fleet presented itself at the entrance to the Gulf of San Fiorenzo and made a landing near the tower of the Mortella which went two days later.
On February 19, Lacombe evacuated San Fiorenzo to the San Bernardinu camp and the next day to Teghime. That day, Nelson lands at Lavasina and seizes Miomu’s tower.
On February 21, Paoli is in San Fiorenzo where they are organizing to make the siege of Bastia.
March 6, the rest of the English Mediterranean fleet arrives in the Gulf of San Fiorenzo.
On April 5, Elliot wrote to Henry Dundas, Secretary of State in the Home Office, requesting the recall of Brigadier General Abraham d’Aubant, who refused any collaboration with Hood and raised unnecessary fortifications at San Fiorenzo.
April 18, aboard the Victory, Elliot and Lord Samuel Hood (appointed Admiral April 11, 1794. On May 16, celebrating Hood's appointment, the English squadron fires all its batteries at Bastia!), Commander of the fleet British in the Mediterranean, write to d'Aubant to reproach him for not participating in the siege of Bastia, or even for taking a four-hour "walk" from San Fiorenzo to find out about the situation. They solemnly call on his collaboration.
May 22, Bastia chapter. The French retain only Calvi who will surrender on August 20th. Elliot was appointed Viceroy of Corsica on November 1, 1794.
1801 - Under the Consulate, the commune whose name was San Fiorenzo, becomes Saint-Florent, is still in the canton of San Fiorenzo, in the borough of Bastia and the department of El Golo.
1811 - The departments of El Golo and Liamone are merged to form the department of Corsica.
1828 - The township of San Fiorenzo becomes the township of St. Florent.
1942 - During World War II, resistance quickly organizes after the Italian fascist occupier (80,000 soldiers) invades Corsica on November 11, 1942. Two of the four Pearl Harbor secret mission officers arrive on December 14, 1942. (Toussaint Griffi, the active volunteer soldier and Laurent Preziosi, the resistant civilian) get in touch with the area manager, Pierre Casale (future mayor of Saint-Florent à la Libération) and his companions, including the Hungarian painter Barta hosted clandestinely at home. They are informed of the local locations of the enemy, find an agreement on a accommodation network, liaison for coordination at the island level of a future landing. The other two members of the mission, Pierre Griffi and the head of the mission Roger de Saule, had remained in Corte to expand the network and broadcast radio information with Algiers.
1943 - October 4, Corsica was the first French department liberated. The city of Saint-Florent was one of the important places during the liberation of Bastia in 1943. A company of Moroccan tabors who had landed in the Gulf of Saint-Florent, at the cost of a fierce fight to the body to the German forces, they removed from the German forces the fortifications installed at the Col de Téghime, an important strategic crossing point on the road to Bastia. At the entrance to the city from Bastia, by the sea, a blockhouse and a Muslim cemetery bear witness to these facts.
1954 - The township of Saint-Florent was composed of the municipalities of Barbaggio, Farinole, Patrimonio and Saint-Florent.
1973 - The township of Conca-d'Oro (capital Oletta) is created with the forced merger of the former townships of Oletta and Saint-Florent.
1975 - Corsica is again divided into two departments. Saint-Florent is located in that of Haute-Corse.
Saint-Florent is today a resort for many tourists in summer.