10 largest cities in France
Paris
Marseilles
Lyon
Toulouse
Nice
Nantes
Strasbourg
Orleans
Reims
Avignon

 

Noirmoutier-en-l'Île

 

Noirmoutier-en-l'Île, commonly known as Noirmoutier, is a French commune, located on the island of Noirmoutier in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region.

The town extends over the northern part of the island of Noirmoutier, formed by a rocky islet (formerly called: "island of Her"), separated from the rest of the current island by salt marshes.

The village, the true “capital” of the island of Noirmoutier, is built on the south-eastern side of this islet, overlooking the bay of Bourgneuf. The port of Boucaud (“lock port” or “canal port”) separates the urbanized areas from the salt marshes.

To the east, the Müllembourg polder (now an ornithological reserve) is limited in its southern part by the Jacobsen jetty, 1.5 km long. To the northeast, stretches the Bois de la Chaize.

A large north-western part of the territory of the town is occupied by fields devoted mainly to market gardening, and in particular a variety of potato, the famous bonnotte de Noirmoutier.

The territory of the municipality also extends over some surrounding islands and reefs, such as the Ile du Pilier to the northwest.

In addition, two towns are integrated into Noirmoutier-en-l'Île:
L'Herbaudière which is located on the northwest coast of the island, facing the Atlantic Ocean, and whose port activity makes it the second fishing port in the department, managed by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Vendée.
Le Vieil, located on the north coast of the island, is a typical hamlet made up of traditional Vendée houses bordering narrow streets, and which in summer becomes a popular vacation spot for holidaymakers. A Nantes inventor, Brutus Villeroi, made the first test of a French submarine there on August 12, 1832. A rue du Vieil bears his name.
The municipal territory of Noirmoutier-en-Île stretches over 1,997 hectares. The average altitude of the municipality is 4 meters, with levels fluctuating between 0 and 20 meters.

 

Destinations

The Table dolmen is a submerged dolmen, located at sea, on the Vendette plateau, among the mudflats of Bourgneuf bay and known since 1892
the ruined Pointe de l'Herbaudière dolmen
Menhir of the Pointe des Dames
Blanche Abbey in Noirmoutier
Noirmoutier castle is famous for its architecture. It is indeed one of the rare fortified castles to have remained the same since its construction at the end of the 12th beginning of the 13th century. The keep was built by Pierre de la Garnache, lord of the island, on the site of a castrum dependent on the abbey, erected under the abbey of Abbot Hilbod around the year 830. Noirmoutier castle is linked to the history of the island. Constantly occupied by troops, it was maintained and thus preserved. Under the Revolution, it served as a prison for the Vendéens, then in 1871 for the insurgents of the Commune. At the start of the First World War, foreigners from 26 nations were interned there, mostly students of great merit. Among them, the Hungarian Aladár Kuncz, the famous author of the Black Monastery. In 1940, he gave asylum to common law prisoners. German supply center during the occupation, in 1945 it served as a prison for its former tenants.
the parish church of Noirmoutier: is dedicated to Saint Philbert, who founded the abbey of Noirmoutier in this place around 674. The abbey church was first destroyed by the Saracens in 725 or 732. The son of Charlemagne, Louis became king of Aquitaine, obtained from his father in 801 the reconstruction of the abbey and the cloister chapel. Forty-five years later, it was destroyed again by the Normans in 846. It was then rebuilt at the end of the eleventh century on the primitive chapel which is the current crypt, it then only included the choir and the main nave. . From the end of the fourteenth to the seventeenth century the right and left naves were erected, it was consecrated in 1849. The neo-Romanesque bell tower was built in 1875 to replace the old bell tower which had been destroyed by fire in 1848. At the Inside, you can admire a frigate model, made by a village clockmaker in 1802 for Auguste Jacobsen. A stained-glass window represents the Saint-Philibert de Tournus abbey (bay of the side nave).
the crypt: it is located under the choir, it housed the body of Saint Philbert between 690 and 836, when it was transferred, to Saint-Philbert-de-Grand-Lieu, then to Tournus where the monks were refugees after the Norman invasions in 875. A shrine on the altar contains some relics of the saint transferred in 1863 when this crypt was restored. It has been classified as a historical monument since 1898.

the Chaussée Jacobsen: was built in 1812 by Jean-Corneille Jacobsen de la Crosnière (1750-1834), son of Cornil Guislain Jacobsen (1709-1787), who settled in Noirmoutier in 1740 and was the descendant of the corsair dunkirk d ' Dutch origin Michel Jacobsen. This dike allowed the development of the salt marshes, the creation of a towpath and a canal to access the port. Along the canal is the boat cemetery. On the north side of the pier is the Müllembourg Polder, an ornithological reserve where you can observe many water birds such as brent geese and little egrets. At the end of the jetty, which has been converted into a cycle and pedestrian path, you reach Fort Larron.
the Chapel of Pity: at the entrance to the roadway, on the left, at the height of the stele erected in memory of J.-C. Jacobsen, creator of this dike, a Calvary reminds us that in this place named la Vache, on January 3, 1794, when the republican troops took over the island, the latter massacred 1,500 prisoners of the Vendée armies, despite a promise of life that had been given to them.
the Jacobsen hotel: it remains the most important building in Noirmoutier. Built between 1761 and 1766 by Cornil-Guislain Jacobsen, it was the first of the Noirmoutrine line.
the Boucheron or Lebreton-des-Grapillères hotel: in 1767, the merchant François Boucheron obtained from the Prince of Condé the authorization "to raise the face of the house by him built" arguing that the heightening of the building should contribute "to the decoration of the newly created Place d'Armes ”. In 1790, the hotel became the property of the merchant Lebreton des Grapillières, who gave it its name. It was the seat of the customs administration in the nineteenth century, then a tourist hotel under the name of "Hotel du Général d'Elbée".
Noirmoutier-en-l'Île Sealand Aquarium
the Pointe des Dames lighthouse which is a typical lighthouse house
the Bois de la Chaise, with an area of ​​93 hectares, located north-east of the town: It is made up of mimosas, holm oaks, maritime pines and coves sheltered by rocky cliffs, some of which are close to thirty meters high.
the Church of the Sacred Heart of Herbaudière

 

History

In the second part of the seventeenth century, the island was a hotspot for contraband tobacco, like Paimbœuf. In fact, Louis XIV created in November 1674 a tobacco farm which bought tobacco in the Antilles at low prices to resell at high prices, exposing itself to competition from tobacco from Virginia. The imported stocks are then sold on the continent by means of small boats called cats.

Until 1858, the territory of the municipality extends over the whole of the island, then begins its fragmentation with the creation of the municipality of Barbâtre, followed, some sixty years later, in 1919, by those of La Guérinière and L'Épine.

 

Geography

The town extends over the northern part of the island of Noirmoutier, formed by a rocky islet (formerly called: "island of Her"), separated from the rest of the current island by salt marshes.

The village, the true “capital” of the island of Noirmoutier, is built on the south-eastern side of this islet, overlooking the bay of Bourgneuf. The port of Boucaud (“lock port” or “canal port”) separates the urbanized areas from the salt marshes.

To the east, the Müllembourg polder (now an ornithological reserve) is limited in its southern part by the Jacobsen jetty, 1.5 km long. To the northeast, stretches the Bois de la Chaize.

A large north-western part of the territory of the town is occupied by fields devoted mainly to market gardening, and in particular a variety of potato, the famous bonnotte de Noirmoutier.

The territory of the municipality also extends over some surrounding islands and reefs, such as the Ile du Pilier to the northwest.

In addition, two towns are integrated into Noirmoutier-en-l'Île:
L'Herbaudière which is located on the northwest coast of the island, facing the Atlantic Ocean, and whose port activity makes it the second fishing port of the department, managed by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Vendée.
Le Vieil, located on the north coast of the island, is a typical hamlet made up of traditional Vendée houses bordering narrow streets, and which in summer becomes a popular vacation spot for holidaymakers. A Nantes inventor, Brutus Villeroi, made the first test of a French submarine there on August 12, 1832. A rue du Vieil bears his name.
The municipal territory of Noirmoutier-en-Île covers 1,997 hectares. The average altitude of the municipality is 4 meters, with levels fluctuating between 0 and 20 meters.

Toponymy
The history of the town is strongly linked to that of the island of Noirmoutier. In 674, the monk Saint Philibert founded a monastery there. In Latin, the term in + Herio Monasterio, that is to say: "at the monastery of Herus" (Herus now designating the "island of Her") will be originally named "Noirmoutier" .

During the Revolution, the town, then called Noirmoutier, was called Île-de-la-Montagne.

From 1956, the town which until now was called simply Noirmoutier (or Noirmoutiers) takes its current name.