Atalanti is a town in the prefecture of Fthiotida. It is the seat of the Municipality of Lokra. It is a commercial, agricultural and industrial center of the former province of Lokrida. It is built at the foot of the mountain Roda (Pale). It is 78.5 km from Lamia and 146 km from Athens. Its population, according to the 2011 Census, amounts to 4,978 inhabitants. Her telephone code is 22330 and her zip code is 35200.
The capital of Locri was the city of Opus. According to Hesiod and Plutarch, the city of Opus was named after Opunta, who was the son of Lokros and great-grandson of Deucalion and Pyrrhus.
The Opunti Lokroi participated in the Trojan War with 40 ships and four thousand warriors. The leader of the Opundians in the Trojan War was Ajax Lokros, son of Oileos and grandson of Odidokos. Ajax was particularly distinguished in the Trojan War, however, on his return from Troy his ship fell into a sea of turmoil resulting in the sinking and having a glorious end for himself and his crew. From Opunta was Achilles' best friend, Patroclus, the son of Menoitius. Patroclus, when he was still a small child, killed on the game a nobleman of his age, Kleisonimos, the son of Amphidamantas. Although he was a minor, Patroclus had to leave his place, because the blood of the dead weighed on him. So his father brought him to Peleus, who raised him with Achilles as his own child.
The first samples of organized human life in the area of Atalanta are found in the Neolithic era (7000 BC - 3200/3100 BC), when a settlement developed in the Atalanta plain near Skala. In this settlement are observed all the activities of Neolithic man: agriculture, animal husbandry, hunting, fishing.
During the Early Helladic period (3200 -2100 BC) there is a development of trade (land and sea) and ceramics, having influences from other settlements in mainland and island Greece. This settlement - like other counterparts of the period - is characterized by a hierarchically organized society.
In the Middle Helladic period (2100 - 1600 BC) there are destructions of settlements (which are probably due to the invasion of other Greek tribes). There is introversion, return to agriculture and cultural isolation.
The Mycenaean city of Opunta was probably built in the Late Helladic period (Late Bronze Age between 1600 and 1100 BC). The main occupations of the inhabitants are fishing and agriculture (wheat, cereals, legumes, olives, grapes are grown and wine is produced).
In the 11th century BC. (Sub-Mycenaean period) there is an economic and population decline, as well as the abandonment of old settlements and the creation of new ones. Characteristic of the period is the attachment to tradition. Ceramics remains one of the main occupations of the inhabitants.
Between the 10th and 8th century BC. in Opunta the regime is aristocratic and oligarchic. Hierarchy is one of the basic features of the society of that time. It is a multi-class society where classes owe their existence mainly to the distinction between the different occupations of the inhabitants. Trade and shipping are growing. Opountas is influenced by art from Attica, Corinth, Evia and Thessaly. There is a mass production of pottery and at the same time metallurgy (manufacture of weapons and gold jewelry). All this argues for the existence of a wealthy people in the area of Opountia Lokridos.
During the Archaic period (700 - 480 BC) the regime of Opunta remained oligarchic without presenting political conflicts. We can probably talk about a "conservative democracy" since there were no slaves in Locri. The main occupations of the inhabitants remain agriculture, animal husbandry (mainly cattle breeding), fishing, pottery and viticulture.
In the Classical Age (second quarter of the 5th century BC - 323 BC) and more specifically during the Peloponnesian War (431 - 404 BC) the Lokroi sided with the Spartans (the leading force of the Peloponnesian Alliance ). The Athenians attack and destroy the coastal towns of Locri. In 431 BC. fortify the island of Atalanti (Atalantonisi or Talantonisi), in order to stop the action of the Lokra pirates and to ensure the security of the coast of Evia. But the earthquake of 426 BC. destroyed part of the walls and fortress located in Atalantonisi.
In Hellenistic times (336 or 323 BC - mid 1st century BC) a new
earthquake in 300 BC. destroys part of Opunta. In 204 BC. Roman
general Gaius Flaminius (Latin: Gaius Flaminius) conquers Opunta,
but re-establishes independence for Locros in 197 BC. In 165 BC. the
"Common of Lokra" is founded. Another earthquake in 106 BC. destroys
the Opunda, but is rebuilt. The end of the Hellenistic years is
sealed by the invasion of Sulla (Lefkios Cornelius Sulla, Latin:
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix) in the area in 87/86 BC. Throughout
this period, Opuntas remains a predominantly rural economy. At the
same time, Atalanti is the main craft center of ceramics in the
area. The invasion of Sulla pushed many inhabitants of the cities of
Opuntia Lokrida to leave the settlements that lived during the Roman
period (30 BC - 324 AD). Urbanization is intensifying and mainly the
population is concentrated in Opunta and Kynos. There are large
privately owned areas - farms in the area. Baths and an aqueduct are
being built in Atalanti.
Early Christian period
During the Early Christian times, the Diocese of Opuntos was created (Ecumenical Council of Ephesus in 431 AD and of Chalcedon in 451 AD) which belongs to the Diocese of Corinth.
The years 376 AD and 395-397 AD. There are raids by Goths and Visigoths (under Alaric I) in the area that seriously affect the economy of the area. There is another setback and in many cases abandonment of coastal settlements.
In 565 AD (during the Byzantine times during the reign of Justinian I) the name "Taladi" is mentioned for the first time.
Between 7th and 10th century AD. the sources are minimal due to the "Iconoclasm" that had broken out in Byzantium during this period. In the 9th century there are raids by Arabs and in the 10th raids by Bulgarians (under Tsar Symeon I).
In 1204 AD "Baronia Atalanti" was founded by the Frankish ruler Boniface of Momferatikos, being part of the Duchy of Athens and one of its four most important ports, based in Taladi (La Calandri).
In the 13th century Atalanta is found with the Latin name "Talantum". The administration of the region is done according to the feudal standards of small city-states of the time.
In 1311 AD the Duchy of Athens passes into the hands of the Catalan mercenaries (Catalan Company) after the victorious battle of Kopaida. In 1319 the Duchy passed into the hands of the Sicilians.
In 1380 the Navarres invade the Catalans of Atalanta. In 1385 AD all of Fthiotida passes into the hands of the Serbs except Atalanti. The Slavic etymological name of the mountain of Atalanta as Chlomos reveals a significant influence of the Slavs in the place.
In 1388 AD the area of Locri passes into the hands of the Florentine-born Atsagioli and the Catalan domination ends.
In 1393 AD The Diocese of Talanti is founded with its seat in Talanti (Atalanti). The same year the Turkish invasions begin. The overthrow of the Duchy of Athens by the Ottoman Turks in 1458, leads to the enslavement of Atalanta and the whole of Locri in general.
In 1466, "nachies" of Talanta are recorded and from 1470 AD. and hence the area belongs to the Sandzaki (Turkish: سنجاق) of Evripos (Turkish: Egriboz). In the census of 1466 AD. In Atalanta live 248 families, 18 unmarried and 22 widows, all of them exclusively Christians.
According to the 1506 census, there were 449 Christian and 13 Ottoman settlements in Atalanta. In 1521, 435 Christian houses and 30 Ottoman houses were registered in Atalanta, while the total taxes paid by the inhabitants amounted to 33,541 white (silver Ottoman currency).
The inhabitants of Atalanta did not pay hike, spentza and other monetary taxes, while at the same time their children were free from child abuse (Turk. Devşirme, devsirme). In return, the inhabitants of Atalanta had to protect the sea straits and coasts in the event of an attack by pirate and enemy ships with 7 armed cavalry.
These privileges were maintained by the inhabitants of Atalanta
until 1571 AD. According to the census of the same year in Atalanta
there were 622 Christian and 77 Ottoman settlements, which made it
the largest settlement in all of Lokrida, with a population of about
3000. This explains the upgrade of Atalanta to kaza that included
the surrounding villages against the next century. The main
occupations of the inhabitants were agriculture (cereals,
viticulture), cultivation of flax, vegetables and cotton, as well as
beekeeping and animal husbandry.
In 1688 -during the Venetian-Turkish war- the armatolos Kourmas and the bishop of Amfissi Filotheos temporarily conquered Atalanti and expelled the Turkish guard.
In the same year a plague broke out in Atalanti. The Turks recapture the city in a short time.
Several families - apparently for fear of retaliation - fled to the Venetian-occupied Peloponnese between 1691 and 1697.
Our knowledge of the period of the 18th and early 19th century is limited and is mainly limited to travel reports of the time.
One of them, William Martin Leake, visited Atalanta in 1805, about which he writes: This city includes 300 houses, one third of which are Turkish. Some of the houses in Atalanta are large and each of them is surrounded by a garden, so they look beautiful from afar. But most are abandoned, and half-ruined, in part by a plague epidemic that wiped out entire families a few years ago. The commander is Issent Bey, a son of Ali Pasha's Capizilar Kayashi. The Greek neighborhood is separate from the Turkish one. The Bishop of Talanti, who belongs to the Metropolitan of Athens, is the head of the community and has a tolerable house in Episkopi, in a garden of orange, lemon and other fruit trees, a garden that, despite its relative wildness, is the best in the place. something great in the area. The plain is very fertile, but little cultivated, because the hands are missing. In its lower parts, towards the sea, corn grows, in the rest excellent wheat, vines from which they make a tolerable wine, and a few olives, which thrive perfectly. The daily wage is the same as that of Athens, Livadia and so on, ie forty deliveries a day and an ounce of wine. The administrative area includes thirty to forty villages, most of which are very small and semi-inhabited, as most of their inhabitants migrate to the areas of Livadia and Athens, after Ali Pasha acquired the place. The mukatas (income) is now in the hands of Velis, who is trying to bring back the immigrants, promising tax cuts.
Another traveler, the Frenchman Francois Pouqueville (between 1806 and 1816) states: Two mosques and a metropolis are the only remarkable things one can see. The importance of the city lies in the fact that twenty villages are administratively dependent on it.
According to other sources, in 1800 more than 200 Ottoman families lived in Talanti (Atalanti) in their own settlement (Turkomachalas) in the western part of the city. Also stationed there were Boevoda (Turkish commander of the Casa Talanti), the Turkish treasurer (Haznadar-Agas), the Turkish judge (Kadis or Katis) and a small Turkish guard (about 150 men).
The main kotzambasides of Talanti are: Lambros Alexandrou (later renamed Evmolpidis), Konstantinos Sakellion and Alexis Michalis.
In 1803 Neophytos (Nikolaos Metaxas) from Athens was ordained bishop of Talanti.
From 1810 in Atalanti, the Ottoman doctor Hassan Agas Kourtalis offers his services to Greeks and Ottomans indiscriminately.
Atalanti in the Greek Revolution of 1821
In 1821, the chief Antonis Kontosopoulos or Gerantonos with about 1000 armed Lokros, besieged the Ottomans in Atalanti and on March 31, 1821 liberated it. The catalyst was the contribution of Lambros Eleftherios, leader of the Atlanteans, but also the solidarity and solidarity shown by the nobles, inhabitants and clergy of the city. In April the "SEAL OF FREEDOM TALENT 1821 APRIL" is established.
In the winter of the same year, the Turkish army under Omer
Vryonis and Kiyose Mehmet, passing through Atalanta, took its
remaining inhabitants captive and burned all its houses. Those who
managed to escape, fled for safety to Atalantonisi. Next year,
Atalanti will be burned again by Turkish troops passing through the
area, while plague will fall on Atalantonisi.
In the Second National Assembly (Astros of Kynouria) in 1823, the bishop of Talanti, Neophytos, and the plenipotentiary Atalantos, Lambros Alexandrou, take part. Ioannis Filon was appointed Governor of Talanti. In 1824 the Turkish fleet occupied Atalantonisi, destroyed its facilities, slaughtered and captured those who had taken refuge there.
Between 5 and 9 November 1826 the Battle of Atalanta takes place. Anastasios Karatasos, Angelis Gatsos and the philhellene Olivier Voutier lead 1500 warriors from Thessaly. Mustafabeis, however, headed from Livadia to Atalanta with an army of a thousand men (infantry and cavalry), surprising the Greeks. After a fierce battle, the Greeks retreated having lost 42 men on the battlefield.
In Atalanta there were gunpowder depots, vital for the supply of the Turks. They were guarded by 200 Ottomans.
In 1826 the attempt of Georgios Karaiskakis to set them on fire failed. The following year, Karaiskakis had set up a guard, with his men, in Atalanti, under Spyros Xydis. Another attempt, by Ioannis Kolettis in 1827, to land in Atalanti will fail.
The final liberation of Atalanta came on November 6, 1828. Mitros Liakopoulos (from Kato Milia, Pieria), attacks suddenly and liberates the city.
Atalanta after the liberation
In Atalanti in 1831 a Primary School is founded (the first teacher is D. Manasidis from Samos), Magistrate's Court-Notary, Ephorate, Fund, Tobacco Factory, Customs, Forestry and Post Office.
In 1833 the city became part of the Prefecture of Lokrida and Fokida with the first Prefect Ioannis Ambrosiadis and the prefect Anagnostis Mostras. The diocese of Lokrida is formed (from the dioceses of Mendenitsa and Talanti), with Agathangelos Myrianthousis as bishop. During the same year, the first Macedonian settlers, fighters of the 1821 revolution, began to settle permanently in Atalanti.
On January 10, 1834, the Municipality of Atalanti was established by law, which includes, apart from Atalanti, the villages: Skala, Skenteraga (Megaplatanos), Kyparissi, Kolaka, Bogdano, Exarcho and Drousko (Drisbei). Efstathios Spyridon was elected the first Mayor in 1836.
In December 1836, Konstantinos D. Vellios or Belios, benefactor of the Macedonian settlers, arrived in Atalanti. While in 1837 it was decided by Royal Decree to form a Municipality in "Pelli" Atalanti for the Macedonian settlers and they were granted exclusive use of the water of the "Bazaar" fountain from 1839 onwards.
In 1843 a three-level Greek school (School Office) and a Primary School for Girls was founded from 1857. In 1855 the Metropolitan Church of Ag. Theodoron Atalantis while in 1862 the Holy Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior was completed. In 1860, 7 large fountains were built in the neighborhoods of Atalanti and Nea Pelli.
In 1864 begins the annual "trade fair" of Atalanta from 6 to 10 August, which continues to this day.
The carriage road between Atalanti and Skala was built in 1871. In 1873 a branch of the National Bank was established.
In the "Revolution of Litochoro" (or the Revolution of Olympus) in 1878, the Macedonian -the origin- Kosmas Doumbiotis became the leader, having at his side several volunteer compatriots from Nea Pella Atalantis.
In 1885 oil lamps were installed to illuminate the city and an aqueduct was built for its water supply.
In 1888, Nikolaos K. Abraham was born in Nea Pella, who also served as Minister of Justice and Merchant Shipping.
The earthquake of 1894 caused great damage throughout Locri. 255 people were killed and 3,783 houses collapsed. At that time, home breeding of silkworms (sericulture) was flourishing in many households in Atalanta.
In 1895, the "Atalanti Locational Gymnastics Association" was founded, one of the first sports clubs in the country and also one of the 28 clubs that founded the S.E.A.G.S. later Σ.Ε.Γ.Α.Σ.
Nikolaos Doumbiotis (born in 1866 in Nea Pelli) takes part in the Macedonian Struggle (1904-1908), as an officer, under the pseudonym "Captain Amyntas".
In 1912 the Municipalities of Atalanti and Nea Pelli were
abolished and became communities. The first passenger car arrives in
Atalanta in 1915.
In March 1913, the Thracian Greeks living in the village of Plavos were forced to leave. The Plavians who no longer felt safe decided and crossed into Turkish territory, taking from their belongings only what they could carry in their hands and came to Greece. Some stayed in Athens and others went to the area of Lamia. Most in Kostalexi, Stavros, Roditsa, Fthiotida and Atalanti.
The flu of 1918 caused death in the city. The inhabitants asked for the grace of Agioi Anargyroi (Kosmas and Damianos) and every year they bring on foot their miraculous image -from the homonymous Monastery- to Atalanti on November 12 where it remains for about a week and again on foot they return it to the monastery.
Between 1912 and 1922, 63 Atlantean soldiers were lost in the wars (First and Second Balkan, First World and Asia Minor Campaigns).
After the Asia Minor catastrophe of 1922, 218 refugees from Asia Minor settled permanently in the "Synoikismos" area of the city. In 1931, 30 acres were expropriated for settlements in the area of Atalanti, from where the specific district of Atalanti has taken its name, Synoikismos. In 1926 the refugee organization "Atalanti Refugee Association and Surroundings" was founded with the main goals of claiming compensation, issuing refugee IDs, finding work, information and mutual support, while in 1975 the "Refugee Association" was founded. with the aim of rescuing and disseminating refugee culture.
In 1923 the Atalanti Commercial Association was founded and in 1927 the Agricultural Credit Cooperative, the Mandolinata and a branch of the Bank of Athens, while at the same time the first roller mill began to operate.
The Gymnastic Association "Aias o Lokros" (with athletics and football departments) is founded in 1928, the Atalanti Philodasiki Association "i Melissa" (when the reforestation of Mount Roda begins) and also operates a power plant that contributes to the current electrification of city households.
Vassilios Ath. Kokkinos was born in Ano Pelli Atalantis in 1929, who later served as president of the Supreme Court (1990-1996).
In 1931 the Association of Macedonians of Nea Pelli "Alexander the Great" and the football Association "Olympic Atalantis" are founded. In the same year, the sports club "Ajax of Locros" successfully organizes track and field competitions in Atalanti.
The building of the Primary School for Boys and Girls (later 1st Primary School of Atalanti) was built in 1932. In 1933 a group of scouts was founded.
Brothers Charilaos, Demosthenes and Georgios Konstantinou, from Atalanti, found the tobacco factory Santé in Athens.
The Atalanti Music Association "Orpheus" was founded in 1935, in 1936 the sports association "I Enosis", in 1937 a branch of the Agricultural Bank of Greece, in 1938 the Atalanti Choir appeared for the first time and in 1939 the Union of Farmers was founded Atalanti.
On April 20, 1941, the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) bombed Atalanta, causing only material damage, mainly to buildings, while on April 25, 1941, the German army occupied Atalanta. The "Atalanti White Cross" was founded in 1943, with the aim of helping - materially and morally - all those in need.
On March 23, 1943, the Italian occupying forces left the city. But the darkest page of the Occupation is written on May 29, 1943, when the Italians lead the executive detachment of nine inhabitants of Atalanta. The Italians were replaced by the Germans, who left Atalanta in October 1944.
From 1945 (until 1987) about 160 families from Evrytania settled permanently in Atalanti. From 1944 they began to leave their particular homeland due to the peculiar territory and the inability of the Greek state to support them and moved to the surrounding fertile plains such as Atalanta, and urban centers for a better life. Also the earthquake in Vracha Evritania of magnitude 6.2 on the Richter scale on 5.2.1966 became the cause of relocation of Evrytania again to Atalanti.
During the Greek Civil War (1946-1949), many -mainly young in
age- found themselves in the two warring camps, the National Army
and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE), many times being members of
the same family. Eight Atlantean soldiers of the National Army were
killed, while the number of dead Atlantean fighters of the DSE
In the 1950s, municipal elections were held after 16 years (in 1951), a water supply network was installed (1953), the current Atalanta city plan was approved (1954) and the Sunday holiday was introduced by the Chamber of Commerce (1957).
In the next decade are founded: the 1st Kindergarten (1963), the Municipal Library of Atalanti (1965), a branch of Emporiki Bank and the Educational, Cultural and Entertainment Association "Progress" (1966).
From the merger of the two football clubs of the city (Aiada and Olympiakos) the Athletic and Football Club "I ATALANTI" was created in 1968.
The Dictatorship of the Colonels (1967-1974) terminates the Boards of Directors of the Municipality, the Cooperatives and the Associations. During this period, the City Hall, the Gymnasium and Lyceum, the Kindergarten and the "National Stadium" Atalanti are being built.
The soldier (commando) Ligdis L. Christos fell heroically in Cyprus, during the Turkish invasion (July 20-21, 1974).
In 1976 the "Constantine Cultural Center Atalanti" was built, in 1979 the Technical Vocational High School was founded and operated.
In 1980, the "Lokros Athletic Mountaineering Association" was founded, which in 1992 was renamed the "Lokros" Athletic Association, creating departments in more sports.
In 1982 the Atalantis Nautical Club was founded, in 1985 the Municipal Conservatory, in 1988 the Municipal fish farm in the Gulf of Atalanti, in 1989 the indoor gym of the city (1,100 seats) and the "Atalanti Historical and Folklore Research Society" were built
In 1992 the Athletic Football Association "Atalanti 92" was founded and operated for the first time a radio station in the city.
From 1993 onwards, economic migrants began to settle in the city - some permanently and others temporarily - mainly from the Balkan countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Romania), Central Europe (Poland) and Asia (Pakistan, India, China) and .a.
In 1998 the Atalanti Archaeological Museum was inaugurated and the Aiantio Open Municipal Theater started operating.
In 2011 the Municipality of Atalanti, merges with the Municipalities of Malesina, Opountia and Dafnousia and form the Municipality of Lokra, based on the "Kallikratis plan, based in Atalanti.