Greece

 

Greece Destinations Travel Guide

 

 

 

Flag of Greece

Language: Greek

Currency: Euro (EUR)

Calling Code: 30

 

Greece (Greek Ελλάδα) is a state in southern Europe. Member of the European Union and NATO. The population is 10.8 million people (as of January 1, 2017, according to Eurostat estimates), the area is 131,957 km². It occupies 84th place in the world in terms of population and 95th in terms of area.

The capital is the city of Athens. The official language is Greek.

Unitary, parliamentary republic. In March 2015, Prokopis Pavlopoulos took over as president. It is subdivided into 13 regions.

The country is located on the Balkan Peninsula and numerous islands. It is washed by the Aegean (including the Ikarian and Thracian seas) in the east, the Ionian in the west, and the Mediterranean and Cretan seas in the south.

It has a land border with Albania in the northwest, northern Macedonia and Bulgaria in the north, with Turkey in the northeast.

About 98% of the population profess Orthodoxy.

Modern Greece is the heir to the culture of Ancient Greece, considered the cradle of Western civilization, the birthplace of democracy and Western philosophy, the basic principles of the physical and mathematical sciences, theater and the modern Olympic Games. The rich cultural heritage and geographical location make Greece one of the most visited countries in the world.

Greece is an industrial-agrarian country. The volume of GDP in 2011 amounted to 294.339 billion US dollars (about 24 543 US dollars per capita). The monetary unit is the euro.

The independence of the country was proclaimed on March 25, 1821. Before that, she was part of the Ottoman Empire.

 

Travel Destinations in Greece

 

Athens Area (Greece)

Athens
Brauron
Daphni Monastery
Koutouki Cave
Oropos
Rhamnous

 

Peloponnese (Greece)

Achaea (Greece)
Akrata
Diakofto
Zachlorou
Kalavryta
Patras

 

Arcadia (Greece)
Ano Doliana
Astros
Dimitsana
Karytaina
Langadia
Lousios Gorge
Stemnitsa
Tripoli
Tyros
Zygovisti

 

Argolis (Greece)
Epidaurus
Argos
Ermioni
Kiveri
Nafplio
Mycenae
Tiryns
Portocheli
Thermisia
Tolo

 

Corinthia (Greece)
Corinth
Kiato
Loutraki
Nemea
Xylokastro

 

Elis (Greece)
Olympia  

 

Laconia (Greece)
Sparta
Monemvasia
Mystras
Pyrgos Dirou Caves

 

Messenia (Greece)
Kalamata
Pylos
Korobi and Methone
Iamia
Foinikounta
Kardamyli
Kyparissia

 

 

Central Greece (Greece)

Aetolia-Acarnania
Mesolongi
Agrinio
Nafpaktos

 

Attica (Greece)
Eleusis
Marathon
Sounion
Lavrio
Marousi
Piraeus
Rafina
Vari-Voula-Vouliagmeni

 

Boeotia (Greece)
Hosios Loukas
Livadeia
Arachova
Orchomenus
Thebes
Chaeronea
Antikyra

 

Evvia (Greece)
Chalcis
Eretria
Edipsos

 

Evrytania (Greece)
Agrafa
Granitsa (Evrytania)
Karpenisi
Megalo Chorio
Proussos

 

Phthiotis (Greece)
Agios Konstantinos
Atalanti
Kamena Vourla
Lamia
Ypati

 

Phocis (Greece)
Delphi Galaxidi
Itea

 

 

Thessaly (Greece)

Magnesia (Greece)
Agria Volos

 

Larissa (Greece)
Larissa
Tyrnavos
Elassona
Farsala

 

 Trikala (Greece)
Meteora  

 

 

Northern Greece (Greece)

Alexandroupolis (Greece)
   

 

Chalkidiki (Greece)
Мount Athos  

 

Drama (Greece)
   

 

Florina (Greece)
   

 

Imathia (Greece)
   

 

Ioannina (Greece)
   

 

Kastoria (Greece)
   

 

Kavala (Greece)
Philipi  

 

Komotini (Greece)
   

 

Kozani (Greece)
   

 

Pella (Greece)
   

 

Pieria (Greece)
   

 

Thessaloniki (Greece)
Thessaloniki  

 

Serres (Greece)
   

 

Xanthi (Greece)
   

 

 

Epirus (Greece)

Arta (Greece)
   

 

Ioannina (Greece)
   

 

Preveza (Greece)
   

 

 

Crete (Greece)

Heraklion
Chania
Rethymno
Sitia
Ierapetra
Agios Nikolaos
Malia
Archanes
Houdetsi
Frangokastello
Knossos
Psychro Cave
Samaria Gorge

 

 

Greek Islands (Greece)

Cyclades Islands (Greece)

Santorini      

 

Dodecanese (Greece)

 

Lindos

   

 

Ionian Islands (Greece)

  Corfu Island Ithaca Island  

 

Saronic Gulf Islands (Greece)
   

 

Rhodes (Greece)
   

 

Sporades Islands (Greece)
   

 

East Aegean Islands (Greece)
   

 

North Aegean Islands (Greece)
   

 

History

Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilization. In the period of about 3 thousand years BC, a highly developed Minoan civilization arose on the island of Crete, the culture of which subsequently spread to the mainland. It was followed by the era of the Cretan-Mycenaean or Aegean civilization. Later, Greek policies emerged, as well as antique colonies of the Northern Black Sea region, Great Greece and Asia Minor. The cultural level of development extended to the entire Mediterranean region, which was reflected in architecture, theater, science and philosophy.

The policies of Athena and Sparta played a leading role in the victory over Persia, but later they themselves were defeated by Thebes, and later the Kingdom of Macedonia. The latter, under the leadership of Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great, achieved extraordinary power, which was a harbinger of the beginning of the Hellenistic era. However, Macedonia was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC, and Hellas became dependent on the Roman Republic.

Further mutual influence of Hellenic and Roman cultures is formalized in the culture of the Byzantine Empire. It remained the main cultural center for a thousand years, until its fall under the pressure of the Ottoman Empire on May 29, 1453. During the Ottoman rule, there was a system of Ottoman milletas that helped the Orthodox Greeks maintain their traditions for 4 centuries and contributed to their cohesion on the basis of religion, which played an important role in the formation of modern Greek identity.

Modern Greek period
Greece gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830, after the national liberation war of 1821-1829. The first president of independent Greece was John Kapodistrias, but soon a monarchy was established in Greece and a minor Otton of Bavaria from the Wittelsbach dynasty was invited to the throne. The uprising of September 3, 1843 forced King Otto to submit the Constitution and establish a representative National Assembly. In 1863, Otton was overthrown, and the Danish prince William, who became George I, was invited to the Greek throne. In honor of his coronation, Great Britain gave the Ionian Islands to Greece. In 1877, at the initiative of Harilaos Trikupis, the most prominent figure of Greek politics of the time, the king was deprived of the right to influence the National Assembly by raising a vote of no confidence in the country's prime minister.

After the completion of the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, Greece significantly expanded its territory. In subsequent years, the political struggle between King Constantine I and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos split Greek society on the eve of World War I. After the completion of the latter, Greece entered the war with Turkey, then headed by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. This war led to the loss by Greece of part of the territory and the massive exchange of people between the two countries in the framework of the Lausanne Peace Treaty signed on July 24, 1923.

On October 28, 1940, fascist Italy demanded that Greece provide a bridgehead for the deployment of its forces, to which Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas refused categorically “no,” realizing that now war is becoming inevitable for Greece. Although German troops were withdrawn from the territory of the country in 1944 as a result of the Soviet offensive in the direction of Yugoslavia, from October 28, 1942 in Greece they celebrate the day “No” to the ultimatum of the countries of the axis of Italy and Germany as a national holiday - Ohi Day (Όχι in Greek . - "no").

 

In the Civil War of 1946, the Communist Party of Greece was defeated. In 1949, the monarchy was restored in Greece, which was finally abolished on April 21, 1967, after the military coup of the "black colonels" supported by the United States of America. After the overthrow of the military junta in 1975, a new Constitution was adopted, the previous Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis returned to the country from Paris, and as a result of a popular referendum, the monarchy was abolished and Greece became a parliamentary republic. In contrast to the New Democracy of Karamanlis, Andreas Papandreou founded PASOK; these parties still remain the most influential in the country.

In 1980, Greece rejoined the NATO military alliance (in 1974, it withdrew from it in protest against the occupation of northern Cyprus). Greece became a member of the European Union on January 1, 1981.

In December 2008, riots broke out in Athens, which quickly swept and stirred up the whole of Europe. The cause of the riots was a long-growing discontent with the economic situation, which was significantly complicated by the World Economic Crisis that began in the same year. The reason for the unfolding of mass protests, which often turned into riots and riots, was the December 6 killing of a 15-year-old teenager by a Athenian police patrol. Since the spring of 2010, almost continuous national strikes, riots and terrorist attacks have become a real test for the government.

On January 25, 2015, early parliamentary elections were held. The victory was won by the Coalition of Radical Left (SYRIZA), for which 36.34% of voters voted. Of the 300 seats in parliament, the Coalition of Radical Left (SYRIZA) received 149 seats.