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Greece

 

Greece Destinations Travel Guide

 

 

 

Flag of Greece

Language: Greek

Currency: Euro (EUR)

Calling Code: 30

 

 

 

Greece (Greek Ελλάδα) is a state in southern Europe. Member of the European Union and NATO. The population is 10.8 million people (as of January 1, 2017, according to Eurostat estimates), the area is 131,957 km². It occupies 84th place in the world in terms of population and 95th in terms of area.

The capital is the city of Athens. The official language is Greek.

Unitary, parliamentary republic. In March 2015, Prokopis Pavlopoulos took over as president. It is subdivided into 13 regions.

The country is located on the Balkan Peninsula and numerous islands. It is washed by the Aegean (including the Ikarian and Thracian seas) in the east, the Ionian in the west, and the Mediterranean and Cretan seas in the south.

It has a land border with Albania in the northwest, northern Macedonia and Bulgaria in the north, with Turkey in the northeast.

About 98% of the population profess Orthodoxy.

Modern Greece is the heir to the culture of Ancient Greece, considered the cradle of Western civilization, the birthplace of democracy and Western philosophy, the basic principles of the physical and mathematical sciences, theater and the modern Olympic Games. The rich cultural heritage and geographical location make Greece one of the most visited countries in the world.

Greece is an industrial-agrarian country. The volume of GDP in 2011 amounted to 294.339 billion US dollars (about 24 543 US dollars per capita). The monetary unit is the euro.

The independence of the country was proclaimed on March 25, 1821. Before that, she was part of the Ottoman Empire.

 

 

Travel Destinations in Greece

 

Athens Area (Greece)

Athens

The fame of cultural achievements and beauty of Athens is known since the ancient times for the past 7000 years.

Brauron

 

Brauron is an ancient Greek town with numerous religious and public buildings.

Daphni Monastery

Greek medieval Daphni Monastery is famous for its exquisite mosaics and beatiful architecture.

Eleusis

 

Ancient Greek city of Eleusis was home to mysterious initiations and secret cults.

Koutouki Cave

 

Koutouki Cave is a large underground network of geological formations.

Marathon

Marathon is a site of a battle between Greeks and Persians. Runner from the battle site ran to Athens, told about victory and died shortly thereafter.

Oropos

 

Ancient Greek city Oropos has some interesting ruins on a backdrop of majestic Greek nature.

Rhamnous

 

Rhamnous is an ancient Greek settlement that is located in Attica region of Greece near Athens, Greek capital.

Sounion

 

Ancient Greek ruins of Sounion on a high grounds offer picturesque view of the sea.

     

 

Peloponnese (Greece)

Corinth

Ancient City of Corinth is one of the most important settlements in Antiquity. Although it was destroyed several times its citizens managed to find strength to rebuild Corinth to its former glory.

Epidaurus

 
Epidaurus is an ancient Greek city those remains are still used today for shows.
Korobi and Methone

 

Medieval castles of Korobi and Methone are well preserved despite years of disrepair.

Lousios Gorge

 

Lousios Gorge is a picturesque canyon in Arcadia region famous for its medieval Orthodox Greek monasteries that are perched on the walls of the canyon.

Monemvasia

Mighty Byzantine fortress of Monemvasia is situated on a picturesque peninsula with a single narrow road leading here.

Mycenae

 Mycanae is the former capital of king Agamemnon that is still visible and impressive after years of disrepair.

Mystras

A complex of military might and Christian architecture of Mystras is worth the climb.

Olympia

Greek city of Olympia is the site of the first pan- Greek games that today are celebrated World wide.

Pyrgos Dirou Caves


 Pyrgos Dirou Caves are a spiderweb of underground passages with marvelous geologic formations.

Tiryns

Massive ancient walls of Greek Tiryns still will impress anyone who will approach the ruins of the city.

 
   

 

Central Greece (Greece)

Delphi

 

Ancient religious site of Delphi is synonymous with predictions and clairvoyance.

Hosios Loukas

 

Hosios Loukas is one of the most impressive monasteries of medieval Greece.

Meteora

 

Meteora is a group of medieval monasteries perched on huge geological formations.

 

 

Northern Greece (Greece)

  Mount Athos

 

Mount Athos is an isolated peninsula with several Orthodox monasteries. Entrance to women is prohibited.

Philipi

 

Philippi was build by Philip of Macedon, Julius Caesar fought an import battle here, but it is a lonely preacher Paul that made this city World famous.

 

 

Crete (Greece)

Frangokastello

 

Frangokastello is a medieval castle famous for ghost armies that seem to appear here every year on anneversary of the famous battle between Greeks and Turks.

Knossos

 

Knossos Palace became a source of legend and a mythical Minotaur since the time of the ancient Greeks.

Psychro Cave

 

Psychro Cave is one of the most legendary caves on the Crete Island. The legend claims that it was in this cave god Zeus was born by goddess Rhea.

Samaria Gorge

 

Samaria Gorge is a picturesque valley on the island of Crete. Besides natural beaty there is a number of ruins from different period along the path.

 

Cyclades Islands (Greece)

Santorini

 

Santorini is probably one of the beautiful and picturesque Greek Islands in the Aegean Sea that has connections to the legendary city of Atlantis described by Plato.

     

 

Dodecanese (Greece)

 

Lindos

 

The center attraction of Lindos are ruins from ancient and medieval times.

   

 

Ionian Islands (Greece)

  Corfu Island

 

Greek island of Corfu is a small paradise that managed to stay out of continental troubles.

Ithaca Island

 

Legendary home of Odysseus, Ithaca still impresses anyone who visits this Mediterranean island.

 

 

 

History

Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilization. In the period of about 3 thousand years BC, a highly developed Minoan civilization arose on the island of Crete, the culture of which subsequently spread to the mainland. It was followed by the era of the Cretan-Mycenaean or Aegean civilization. Later, Greek policies emerged, as well as antique colonies of the Northern Black Sea region, Great Greece and Asia Minor. The cultural level of development extended to the entire Mediterranean region, which was reflected in architecture, theater, science and philosophy.

The policies of Athena and Sparta played a leading role in the victory over Persia, but later they themselves were defeated by Thebes, and later the Kingdom of Macedonia. The latter, under the leadership of Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great, achieved extraordinary power, which was a harbinger of the beginning of the Hellenistic era. However, Macedonia was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC, and Hellas became dependent on the Roman Republic.

Further mutual influence of Hellenic and Roman cultures is formalized in the culture of the Byzantine Empire. It remained the main cultural center for a thousand years, until its fall under the pressure of the Ottoman Empire on May 29, 1453. During the Ottoman rule, there was a system of Ottoman milletas that helped the Orthodox Greeks maintain their traditions for 4 centuries and contributed to their cohesion on the basis of religion, which played an important role in the formation of modern Greek identity.

Modern Greek period
Greece gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830, after the national liberation war of 1821-1829. The first president of independent Greece was John Kapodistrias, but soon a monarchy was established in Greece and a minor Otton of Bavaria from the Wittelsbach dynasty was invited to the throne. The uprising of September 3, 1843 forced King Otto to submit the Constitution and establish a representative National Assembly. In 1863, Otton was overthrown, and the Danish prince William, who became George I, was invited to the Greek throne. In honor of his coronation, Great Britain gave the Ionian Islands to Greece. In 1877, at the initiative of Harilaos Trikupis, the most prominent figure of Greek politics of the time, the king was deprived of the right to influence the National Assembly by raising a vote of no confidence in the country's prime minister.

After the completion of the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, Greece significantly expanded its territory. In subsequent years, the political struggle between King Constantine I and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos split Greek society on the eve of World War I. After the completion of the latter, Greece entered the war with Turkey, then headed by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. This war led to the loss by Greece of part of the territory and the massive exchange of people between the two countries in the framework of the Lausanne Peace Treaty signed on July 24, 1923.

On October 28, 1940, fascist Italy demanded that Greece provide a bridgehead for the deployment of its forces, to which Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas refused categorically “no,” realizing that now war is becoming inevitable for Greece. Although German troops were withdrawn from the territory of the country in 1944 as a result of the Soviet offensive in the direction of Yugoslavia, from October 28, 1942 in Greece they celebrate the day “No” to the ultimatum of the countries of the axis of Italy and Germany as a national holiday - Ohi Day (Όχι in Greek . - "no").

 

In the Civil War of 1946, the Communist Party of Greece was defeated. In 1949, the monarchy was restored in Greece, which was finally abolished on April 21, 1967, after the military coup of the "black colonels" supported by the United States of America. After the overthrow of the military junta in 1975, a new Constitution was adopted, the previous Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis returned to the country from Paris, and as a result of a popular referendum, the monarchy was abolished and Greece became a parliamentary republic. In contrast to the New Democracy of Karamanlis, Andreas Papandreou founded PASOK; these parties still remain the most influential in the country.

In 1980, Greece rejoined the NATO military alliance (in 1974, it withdrew from it in protest against the occupation of northern Cyprus). Greece became a member of the European Union on January 1, 1981.

In December 2008, riots broke out in Athens, which quickly swept and stirred up the whole of Europe. The cause of the riots was a long-growing discontent with the economic situation, which was significantly complicated by the World Economic Crisis that began in the same year. The reason for the unfolding of mass protests, which often turned into riots and riots, was the December 6 killing of a 15-year-old teenager by a Athenian police patrol. Since the spring of 2010, almost continuous national strikes, riots and terrorist attacks have become a real test for the government.

On January 25, 2015, early parliamentary elections were held. The victory was won by the Coalition of Radical Left (SYRIZA), for which 36.34% of voters voted. Of the 300 seats in parliament, the Coalition of Radical Left (SYRIZA) received 149 seats.

 

 

 

 

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