Piraeus (Ancient Greek: Πειραιεύς) is a city with its own
peripheral urban area, and the seat of the most important port in
Greece. The Municipality of Piraeus, according to the 2011 Census
has an area of 10.9 sq. km and a population of 163,688 inhabitants
(which makes it the fifth largest municipality in the country after
the implementation of the "Kallikratis" program).
The wider area of Piraeus constitutes the Peripheral Unit of Piraeus, which consists of the homonymous municipality and four more municipalities (Nikaia-Agios Ioannis Rentis, Korydallos, Keratsini-Drapetsonas and Perama), with a total population of 44.4 and 99.99. km Occupies the southwestern part of the Capital Region.
The center of Piraeus is about 10 km from the center of Athens, which is a historic port.
Piraeus in modern times is an important industrial and commercial center of the country, being the largest passenger port in Europe, connecting the capital with the Aegean islands and being an important destination for cruise ships within the Mediterranean.
According to Strabo and modern geological studies,
Piraeus was once an island which was united with Attica after the
deposits of Kifissos and other streams in the area.
According to Suidas, it was an island during the Quaternary period of history, while the Early Helladic life in the area appears around 3000 BC. The area of Piraeus seems to have been inhabited since the Neolithic period. Later in the fifth century BC. The area was chosen as the new port of the Athenian city-state, gradually replacing the old port of Athens Faliro, was declared a municipality, being one of the municipalities of the ancient city of Athens, beginning the reconstruction of the fortifications of the three ports and the settlement. It reached its peak in the classical period. The conquest of Athens by the Romans followed a long period of decline where Piraeus was deserted from time to time, reaching the 19th century and the transfer of the capital of the then newly formed Greek state to Athens in 1834, when the area was repopulated and a period of development began. with the gradual increase of its population and its even urban planning based on the system applied by Hippodamus the Milesian in the design of ancient Piraeus, which is a model of urban planning until today.
Piraeus was proposed in 1832 by Gutenzon, architect of Louis I of Bavaria, for the capital of Greece which would gradually expand to Athens, but eventually the opposite happened after Athens was chosen as the capital and Piraeus was later incorporated into the periphery of the capital.
Direct sources for the study of the history and topography of Piraeus are the various inscriptions, finds of ancient tombs, foundations of temples, neo-palaces, buildings and walls and ancient port works, always in combination with the cuts of ancient writers mentioned in Piraeus. are: Thucydides, Xenophon, Aristotle, Plutarch, Isocrates, Plato, Lycurgus, Demosthenes, Herodotus and Polydeuces. The oldest of these, however, was Diodorus the Traveler (4th century BC) who was the first to write about Attica, followed by Heliodorus who wrote a work of 15 books on the monuments of Athens.