Tyrnavos, or formerly Tournavos, is the fifth most populous city in Thessaly and is located in the Prefecture of Larissa. It is the capital of the homonymous province, known for the local tsipouro and ouzo, as well as for the carnival of Dionysian origins, and the only custom in the world, Bourani.
The Municipality of Tyrnavos belongs administratively to the Prefecture of Larissa and is the capital of the homonymous province. It consists of the municipal districts of Tyrnavos (seat of the municipality), Argyropouli, formerly Karatsoli, Damasi and Trees, covering an area of 370,600 acres, while its total population amounts to 16,923 inhabitants, according to the census of 1991. is located in the western part of the Prefecture of Larissa. In particular, it borders:
North with the Community of Karya
Northwest with the Municipality of Elassona
Southwest with the Prefecture of Trikala
South with the Municipalities of Koilada and Larissa and
East with the Municipalities of Ampelona, formerly Kazaklar and Giannoulis.
The seat of the municipality is located at an altitude of 90 m. At the foot of Mount Meluna and at a distance of 16 km NW from the city of Larissa, at the crossroads of highways that connect the plain of Larissa with Elassona. Also, another road axis, following the foot of lower Olympus, connects the municipality with the valley of Tempi.
The relative position of the municipality in the wider area of the prefecture and the immediate proximity to the large urban center of Larissa, are an important factor for its development. The wider area is characterized as lowland while it is surrounded by hills NE and NW.
The area of the municipality is crossed by the tributary of Pinios, Evropos or Titarisios (Xiria), formerly called "Kara deres". The city of Tyrnavos is built on the left bank of the river, which reaches into the city, after completing a complete circle, forming the valley of Potamia, as it descends from its sources to Titaros. From there it continues to the straits of Rhodia, formerly Moussalar and flows into Pinios.
In 1928 it had 7,158 inhabitants, it was a community, to which the settlement of the Mills of Bey belonged with 38 inhabitants. Special mention should be made of the special ethnological groups that live within the boundaries of the municipality.
Titarisios (Xeria) is one of the most important tributaries of the river Pinios in its main flow or its plain part. The river Titarisios, as mentioned above, originates from the western slopes of Olympus and, heading west, southwest, contributes to the river Pinios. Located 70 meters above sea level. The total length of the river is 70 km and for most of it it is permanently flooded, considered as a continuous flow.
The main physiognomic vegetation units that are encountered are the reed societies with the dominant species the wild reed (Phragmitis australis) and the coastal tree vegetation, with the dominant plant species the plane tree, the willows and the poplars. According to the Ramsar Convention Wetland Classification System, approved at the 4th Meeting of the Contracting Parties in Montreux in 1999, the Titaris River belongs to the category of inland wetlands and is characterized as a continuous flowing river, although often, after its outflow from the catchment area, does not show a continuous flow. The most important current values of the river are its irrigation importance which is great, but with declining efficiency due to the great decline of its water resources in recent years and recreation, which is of average value. The wetland has undergone drastic alterations in terms of its features (abiotic and biotic) with the main causes being the construction of water flow regulation works as well as the over-pumping of both the river and the groundwater aquifer, which is enriched almost exclusively by water. of the river.
The wetland of the Titarisi river is moderately burdened by the dumping of liquid and solid waste of the riparian settlements. A typical example is the existence of uncontrolled solid waste dumping sites of the municipal districts of Rodia, Vryotopou, Deleria as well as rubble inside the riverbed until recently. It also receives a low burden from the liquid waste of handicrafts - processing companies with the main example being the tomato paste production unit in the area of the settlement of Rodia. Also, 3 km outside Argyropouli is the lake "Mati Tyrnavou", which, together with Pinios, are the only wetlands in the prefecture. Mati is today the only natural lake in Thessaly and, despite its small area (250 acres), is the core of an ecosystem with rich flora and fauna.
The distinct ecosystem units that appear in the wider area of
the project are the rural areas with annual plants and the
community of wild animals and birds. Arable crops with annuals as
ecosystems are subject to quite intense interventions, since in
addition to the use of chemicals we also have the disruption of the
soil structure with deep plowing that allows leaching and drifting
of soils in sloping areas. The fact that the crops are mainly dry
(wheat, barley) reduces the tendencies of soil degradation. The
situation in areas with this type of agricultural interventions is
rather stable, but significant energy inputs are required to
maintain their reproductive capacity.
The animal biocommunity of wild mammals is very poor in species, as its enemies are many and the habitats are constantly fragmented by roads and reduced by the expansion of urban space. Seasonally there is an increase of some species or extinction of others, events that disrupt the food chain. The bird and fish fauna are also in an unstable state and with a rather declining course, since they show the same problems as the animal community. The study area is poor in important or rare elements of nature, so there is no protected site or element.
In the wider study area, the flora that grows in the riparian area of the Titarisi River, parallel to the curb of the slowly flowing river, is formed in the following different physiognomic vegetation units:
Reed vegetation: consists of succulent macro-plants that form the well-known reeds with the species reed (Arundo domax) and reed (Phragmites communis).
Alophytic / semi-algae vegetation: it is composed of species such as: juniper (Jungus maritimus), honeysuckle (Salicornia herbacea) and wild spinach (Chenopodium heinricus).
Vegetation of sand dunes and sandy shores: species such as Salvola (Salsola kali), Amaranthus retroflexuw and Portulaca oleracea are found.
Fir tree vegetation and evergreen broadleaf shrubs with the species Kavul (Populus nigra), plane tree (Platanus orientalis), poplar (Populus alba), elm (Ulmus campestris) and willow (Salix alba)
Vegetation of wet meadows: with main representatives the wild mint species (Mentha longifolia) and various species of clover (Trifolium spp.).
Phryganic vegetation: represented by the various species of milkweeds (Euphorbia spp.).
In parts of the perimeter zone of the wetland there are almond tree crops, while a significant area is covered by industrial crops of tomatoes, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris var. Altissima), cereals, watermelons (Citrulus lanatus as well as asparagus), asparagus (asparagus) from pastures, grasslands, etc.
There are no specific studies on mammal fauna in the wider area. After on-site visits and discussions with the locals, and in combination with the general reports and the existing lists concerning the wider area of the wetland (which is adjacent to the valley of Tempi, only 23 km away), there are 22 species of mammals. Six of them are protected by Presidential Decree 67/80 (Government Gazette 23 / A 30-1-1981), 11 by the Berne International Convention and six by Directive 93/43 / EU (EEL206 of 22-7-1992 ).
Regarding the mammal fauna, the importance of the area lies in the fact that the Tempi valley, with which the study area is adjacent, is the natural link of Olympus, Ossa and the Pinios Delta, particularly important areas for mammals. .
As observed, the populations of some species were severely disturbed by the work on the gas pipeline in the Tempe Valley.
There is no specific publication or research on the populations of amphibian and reptile species in the area. From general bibliographic reports and reports of inhabitants of the area as well as from the CORINE-BIOTOPES program of the European Union, which refer to the wider area of Kato Olympus, Ossa, Delta Pinios and the Valley of Tempi, the following results emerge: A total of 30 species of amphibians and (there may be many more). Of these, 21 species are protected by the P.D. 67/80, 17 of the Berne International Convention and 6 of Directive 92/73 EEC. Of the 30 species mentioned, 8 are endemic to our country.
The valley of Tempi is from an ecological point of view part of a
wider ecosystem that includes the aesthetic forest of Ossa, the
forest complex of Kato Olympus and the Delta and the aquatic habitat
of the river Pinios. The total number of bird species recorded in
the whole area is 254. Of these, 123 breed in the area while 131
visit the area in search of food or pass through it during migratory
periods. The Valley of the Temples, together with its Delta, at the
foot of the mountains Kato Olympus and Ossa (Kissavos) have been
included in the network of the most important areas for birds in
Greece. Many species of birds have been recorded in the Tempi
wetland, some of which nest in the area and other species visit it
on their food search journey or during migratory periods.
Of the above species, 118 are found in the wetland of Titarisi, due to its close proximity to the valley of Tempi throughout the year, 24 only in summer and 6 species only during winter.
No special studies have been done for the fish fauna of the Titarisi river. Nevertheless, from publications in EKBY and reports of fishermen of the area, it is concluded that: In the fresh waters of Titarisi it has been found that there are 37 species of fish, while the presence of another 11 species is probable. Titarisios, with its deposits and the sludge that it carries together with the Pinios river to the sea, creates a very rich food system which preserves many species of fish. Thus, in addition to river fish, in the large freshwater fish collection of this area appeared the retro species Acipenser sturio (cod-sturgeon) which spawns and grows in rivers to later descend to the coastal areas where it lives, and the pelagic , migratory species Alosa fallax nilotica (sardine), which also belongs to the category of retro, river urchins. The species Nemacheilus barbatulus (oilseed) and Sabanejewia aurata balcanica (gold needle), which is characterized as an endangered species, have also been observed.
The total population of Tyrnavos is 16,900 inhabitants, ie it is an urban area, it is the second most populous new municipality in the prefecture of Larissa and has 6.3% of the inhabitants of the prefecture. Most of them (12,451) live permanently in Tyrnavos, which was previously a municipality, while Dendra has the fewest inhabitants with only 1,072 inhabitants. The settlement of Kedra in the community of Damasi existed in the 1981 census with only 4 inhabitants and was then abandoned.
Population over the centuries
Tyrnavos was from the very old years a developed and numerous area. Evidence of the existence of habitation in the place of the present city exists from the late Byzantine period. During the 14th century, this settlement probably shrank a lot or was abandoned for a while, due to the successive raids of Serbs, Albanians, Catalans and Turks, which stopped in 1423 with the final conquest of Thessaly by the Turkish general Turahan. Turahan re-established the city and settled for a long time in the area, which was given to him as a gift by the Sultan.
This was followed by the great prosperity of Tyrnavos, which around the 17th and 18th centuries reached 4,000 houses, ie about 20,000 inhabitants. Most of them were Greeks. E. Brown, who visited the city in 1666, gave the impression that it was very important, as he had seen 18 churches and 3 mosques.
With the advent of the 19th century came the final decline of Tyrnavos. From the diary of the English traveler W. Leake we learn that in 1806 Tyrnavos included 1,500 families, of which 70 were Turkish. The reasons attributed to the desolation are: several consecutive years of plague, the First Russian War, which brought the Albanians en masse to Thessaly, and most recently, the rule of Ali Pasha, which forced the Turks to flee. The six (6) mosques that existed until then in Tyrnavos, show the size that the Turkish population had reached and then decreased. According to F. Puckeville's diary, in 1815 only 3,000 Greeks and some Turks lived in the city. Two years later, in 1817, Larissa Ioannis Oikonomou mentions that in Tyrnavos there were only 1,000 houses, 14-15 churches, 2 monasteries and 5-6 mosques.
In 1836, Ioannis Leonardos visited Tyrnavos, who states that
despite what the city suffered from the campaigns against the
Greeks, it always remains prosperous with 3,000 Greek inhabitants.
The remaining Turks were only 100, and of the six mosques that
existed 20 years ago, only 2 survived. In 1860, according to Nick's
tour. Magni, Tyrnavos numbered 4,500-5,000 inhabitants, of whom only
100 were Ottomans and the rest were Greeks. Twenty years later Nick.
Georgiadis states that 1,000 Greek families and 100 Ottoman families
lived in the city.
On September 1, 1881, Tyrnavos was liberated by the Turks. The municipality of Tyrnavos was formed with the NW. of March 31, 1883. It was classified in the 2nd class with a population of 8113 inhabitants and headquarters in Tyrnavos. With the B.D. of September 27, 1890, the municipality of Tyrnavos was classified in the first class with a population of 11,485 inhabitants. Population growth continued in the following years.