Location: Athens, Attica Region Map


Travel Destinations in Athens

Athens is the capital of Greece. Athens is the most populous and largest city in the country. The municipality of Athens in the center of the metropolitan area of the same name is relatively small with an area of around 39 km². The metropolitan area includes the area of the regional districts Athens-Centre (88.1 km²), Athens-North (133.9 km²), Athens-South (70.2 km²), Athens-West (67.7 km²) and Piraeus (51st district). .3 km²) with a total of almost 3.1 million inhabitants (2011). According to Eurostat, the also relatively compact agglomeration, the core of which is the municipality of Athens, has around 3.8 million inhabitants, but other estimates assume at least 5 million inhabitants due to the lack of registration requirements.

As the cultural, historical and economic center of the country, Athens is also the most important metropolis in Greece. The airport is the most important in the country and the port of Piraeus, eight kilometers from the center of Athens, is the largest in Greece. Ship traffic to the numerous Greek islands is also handled from here and from the smaller Rafina. Athens has national but no international importance in rail transport.

The city has been inhabited continuously since the Neolithic Age and is therefore one of the oldest settlements and cities in Europe. In 1985 Athens became the first European Capital of Culture. The Acropolis was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1987 and the Daphni Monastery in 1990.

In classical times, Athens was the site of the Attic polis. The Attic democracy that emerged during this period (5th century BC) is considered to be the founder of a political order based on the principle of popular sovereignty.



Getting here

Athens can be easily reached by all means of transport. Road and rail connections lead to Athens.

By plane
Athens International Airport, named Eleftherios Venizelos, is located 27km east of the city center. This well-equipped airport opened in 2001 and significantly increased the convenience of travel to Athens and Greece. The airport is served by the metro every half hour. Driving to Monastiraki takes 44 minutes. The last train to the airport leaves Monastiraki at approximately 23:30.

The airport bus X95 runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year to and from Syntagma Square. Costs: €6 for a single journey (as of 11/2017), duration depending on the time of day from around 50 minutes (Sunday morning 4:00 a.m.). Tickets are available at a kiosk at the airport. To the right of Exit 4 as you exit. It's easy to overlook the second kiosk, but it's usually emptier. For the return trip, the kiosk is at Syntagma Square, when these are closed or when you board at one of the many stops along the route, with the driver. The normal bus day or week tickets are not valid for the airport buses. The ticket must always be validated on the bus, no matter when and where it was bought. Electronic cancellation, not the punch.

Athens Airport is a major hub serving the Aegean, the Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean. Delta and Olympic Airways offer non-stop flights to and from North America, and many European airlines offer such flights from Europe. One of the main airlines is Aegean Airlines, which offers many connections within Greece and to destinations across Europe.

By train
Traveling by train from the German-speaking Bahn is particularly nice, but very time-consuming. With multiple changes, it takes two to three days to drive through the Balkans. International long-distance trains first reach Thesaloniki, from where you can continue to Athens.

By bus
In Athens there are two bus terminals for interregional transport of the company KTEL, Terminal A and Terminal B, from which the wider area is served. Terminal A is at Kifissou 100 and Terminal B is at Liossion 260.

Terminal B (38° 0′ 37″ N 23° 43′ 21″ E), e.g. B. for a trip to Delphi is not so easy to find. It's in the middle of a residential area, about 20 minutes walk from Attiki metro station, but you can also catch a bus e.g. B. Take 024, 701 and more from the metro station right at the Liossion exit. It takes about 30 minutes from Syntagma metro station by metro and bus to Terminal B. Tell the bus driver where you want to get off. Different descriptions, that the 024 runs from Syntagma Square to Terminal B, have turned out to be incorrect (as of 05/2012). You buy the ticket in the terminal at the counter.

Regional buses depart from a "terminal" (37° 59′ 32″ N 23° 43′ 57″ E) near the Viktoria metro station. It's on the corner of a park about 3 blocks north of the National Archaeological Museum. Just get on these buses, eventually someone will come for the ticket.

By boat
The port of Piraeus is about 10km from the center of Athens and is connected to Athens by metro and buses. At the Port of Piraeus you will find luggage storage, as well as a bank, currency exchange office, bars, restaurants, a taxi rank and much more. From Bari (Italy), Crete (Greece), Istanbul and other port cities, there are scheduled connections from various providers. Another port is in Rafina (80km away). Piraeus is in the southwest and is predestined for the Italy route, Rafina in the east, from where it goes towards the Aegean Sea.



car / motorcycle / scooter
Driving in Athens should be treated with great respect; the unusually high traffic density and the seemingly chaotic driving behavior require the driver to concentrate and react quickly, think ahead (where does the other person want to go...) and above all the art of stubbornly insisting on his right of way.
On a motorized two-wheeler it is probably easier to get through rush hour traffic and weave past columns on the left and right, but there is no crumple zone in "direct contact" with another road user and even a small touch can lead to injuries, especially if you are only in the holiday rented a motorbike. You can rent scooters everywhere (compare prices!); one should give preference to scooters with large wheels, as they have greater driving stability, which can be crucial in dusty Mediterranean countries.
But nobody should be frightened: relatively few accidents happen and these are often not minor due to the low average speed.

Since the taxi prices in the city are very low (guide value: Syntagma-Glyfada, i.e. about 20 minutes drive, about 10 euros), attempts by drivers to give a "cheap" flat rate are usually meant differently. You should only drive on taximeters unless you know your way around. Also, at taxi ranks, one should take a taxi from the line/pulk, and not the one in front, even if it is the first taxi within reach. Attempts by taxi drivers, especially in the area of tourist attractions, to get more than double the fare, occur. If overcharged, one should ask for an invoice, take note of the driver's number and report the incident to the Tourist Police 171.

Tipping is not a must.

Tram/ Tραμ
Although the tram (tram) is significantly slower than the metro, it has the distinct advantage of going all the way to Voulas. More on that in the 'Going out' section. You have to use the tram, because you can see a lot of Athens in a relaxed way. For example, it drives through Neos Kosmos ("New World"), a former immigrant district. You can easily change between tram and metro z. B. at the fix station. The tram travels west from Athens and turns south at Piraeus where the "Athens Recreation Area" (beaches, beach clubs etc.) is located. The final stop is the town of Voulas. The three lines have the routes Voulas ↔ Piraeus, Voulas ↔ Neos Kosmos (Syntagma) and Piraeus ↔ Neos Kosmos (Syntagma). Due to current structural problems, the section between Neos Kosmos and Syntagma has been closed since November 2018[1], so that the practical possibility to change trains between the metro and tram at Syntagma Square is no longer available. These lines create an approximate 7.5 minute cycle on all branches.

A ticket for the streetcar (tram) costs €1.40 and €0.6 for children (as of 08/2017). Further information on the homepage,

By bus
In the city, trolleybuses (trolleybuses) run very quickly and normal buses (usually every 20 minutes) go almost everywhere, but the bus stops very often. Ideal for the city area. But you have to study the plans at the stations carefully, which is often difficult because graffiti or stickers make them unreadable. In Athens alone there are 450 bus lines in urban operation. Of course, there are also intercity buses that serve the Attica region. (KTEL)

If you want to get on a bus at a bus stop, you have to give the driver a hand signal. Only the bus numbers are listed at the bus stops, but no departure times. If you are lucky there will be an electronic display. Due to the high volume of traffic and the delay, these are only of limited help.

A ticket just for the bus costs €1.20, when combined with tram or metro (90 min) €1.40 (as of 2022). A special rate of € 6.00 applies to the airport (as of 08/2018).

Metro/ Μετρο
The Athens Metro currently consists of three lines:
Line 1 - M1 - green line, from Omonia Square via Monastiraki and Thissio to Piraeus or from Omonia Square to Kifissia, oldest route, only a few kilometers underground
Line 2- M2 - red line, it goes from Anthoupoli through the city center and on to Elliniko.
Line 3 -M3 - blue line, from Nikea to Athens airport continue to Nikaia. (Continuation to Piraus under construction).

Some of line 1 has existed for more than 100 years, the other lines were put into operation before the 2004 Olympics, and other lines are in planning or under construction. For tourists, the metro is probably the most important means of transport: it is clear, fast and reliable, and many stations are attractively designed. Announcements are made in two languages (Greek, English). All touristically interesting places and places such. B. the Acropolis are easy and cheap to reach. Since a lot of valuable material was found during the tunnel construction work in such a historic city as Athens, it has been exhibited in the metro stations (e.g. the Syntagma metro station is worth a visit). Some stations are accompanied by quiet lounge music and z. T. completely lined with white marble.

Tickets are available in the metro stations at counters and also at machines (Greek, English), the machines also take notes of 5, 10 and 20 €. However, for security reasons, it is advisable to have coins handy. A single ticket for the metro (90 min) costs €1.40, to the airport it costs €9 (as of 2022). For the airport ticket, pay attention to whether it's a one-way trip or a round trip (it's translated a little strangely in German). The metro runs every 10 minutes during the day and every 4 minutes during rush hours. The tickets must be validated before the start of the journey. This usually happens when you walk through the control station. At smaller stations, on the other hand, you have to actively "clock in" and "clock out."

day ticket
A day ticket for all local transport (metro, tram, bus and trolley) costs €4.50 (as of 08/2018), is not available everywhere, but is usually available from the machines in the metro stations. It is not valid on the route to and from the airport and some other routes where it is not valid, it says on a sticker in English on the machine. The ticket must be validated before the first use.

5-day ticket
A 5-day ticket (5x24h) for all local transport (metro, tram, bus and trolley) costs €8.2 (as of 2022), is not available everywhere, but is usually available from the machines in the metro stations. It does not apply to the airport, the X80 bus line and certain regional trains. The exceptions where it does not apply are written on a sticker in English on the machine. This ticket must also be validated before it is used for the first time.

tourist ticket
A 72-hour ticket including a return trip to Eleftherios Venizelos Airport costs €20 [as of 11/2021]. It does not apply to the X80 bus line and certain regional trains.



Ancient buildings
The most important buildings in the modern city of Athens date back to ancient times. Thanks to a far-sighted architect and urban planner, after the Greek seat of government and the king's palace was moved to Athens in 1834, large areas around the surviving historic buildings were kept free, which has helped Athens to become a "green lung" and a historic center that is well worth seeing today. Admission to most attractions is free for EU students upon presentation of student ID.

1 Acropolis (Ακρόπολις). The Acropolis with the Parthenon is the most important sight in Athens for most visitors, so it received a separate article. If you don't want to or can't walk up, use bus line 230, which leaves very close to the Syntagma Square tram stop to the Acropolis (final stop).

2 Roman Agora (Ρωμαϊκή Αγορά της Αθήνας). The Roman Agora was built under Emperor Augustus and enlarged under Hadrian. The site is located in Plaka. The most striking building is the octagonal tower of the winds, which was equipped with sundials in Roman times. Otherwise you can see numerous remains of columns. There are numerous taverns in the vicinity.

3 Agora (Αρχαία Αγορά της Αθήνας) . A visit is worthwhile for the view of the nearby Acropolis, even if not too many buildings have survived. Once upon a time, this square was the central square in Athens, where markets were held, festivals, sporting events and gatherings were held. This is where the citizens of Athens debated and, by the way, this was also the birthplace of democracy. Across the square ran the Panathenaic Way lined with statues, administrative buildings such as the Buleuterion stood here, and there were several porticos called stoa. The Attalos Stoa was rebuilt around 1950 and today houses the Agora Museum. antique vases and children's toys made of clay. Behind the actual agora stands the Hephaestus temple on a hill, often also referred to as Theseion. One of the best preserved Greek temples, it served as a church in Christian times until King Otto I made Athens the capital in 1834. The site with the museum is open daily from 8:00 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. in summer and from 8:30 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. in winter. Anyone who has purchased a combination ticket for the Acropolis can use it here.

4 Kerameikos (Κεραμεικός). The name refers to the pottery workshops that were located here. There was also a cemetery here, where important Athenian personalities were buried. Today the excavation site resembles a parkland with two streets lined with monuments leading through it, but the originals are in the museum. The complex includes a museum, inscriptions also in German. It is open Tue – Sun from 8am to 3pm, entry with the Acropolis combo ticket. In the vicinity you will find the "Benaki Museum" and the Ceramics Museum.

5 Philopappos Monument (Μνημείο Φιλοπάππου). The monument stands on the Muse Hill southwest of the Acropolis. It was built in honor of a Roman senator who had rendered services to the city. The view of the Acropolis is particularly worth seeing.

6 Olympieion (Ναός του Ολυμπίου Διός). The Temple of Olympian Zeus. Completed under Hadrian, the building once had over 100 columns 17m high, of which only a dozen remain. At the edge of the complex are the remains of Hadrian's Gate, which marked the transition from old Athens to the part of town laid out under the Romans.

7 Hadrian's Library (Βιβλιοθήκη Αδριανού). Well-preserved Corinthian columns at the entrance, which can give a small impression of the building at that time. Quite an extensive complex with isolated remains of the library.

8 Prison of Socrates (Φυλακές Σωκράτους). Cave said to have been the prison of the philosopher Socrates. A little off the beaten track, in the middle of a beautifully designed park with the Philopappos monument, with a view of the Acropolis, far inland, all the way to Piraeus and the sea.

The Parthenon (Παρθενών)

The Erectheion

The Beule Gate and Propylea

Temple of Athena Nike

Odeon of Herodes Atticus

Theatre of Dionysis

Panagía Spiliótissa (Our Lady of the Cave)

Temple of Hephaestus


Other structures

1 Zappeion (Ζάππειον Μέγαρο) . is a classical building inaugurated in 1888, which is planned and used as a multifunctional building.
2 Hellenic Parliament (Βουλή των Ελλήνων) Amendment:
3 Panathenaic Stadium (Παναθηναϊκό Στάδιο), Vasileos Konstantinou Avenue, Λεωφόρος Βασιλέως Κωνσταντίνου . Its predecessor already existed in antiquity. Part of the competitions of the Panathenaic Games were held here in honor of the goddess Athena. In Roman times the stadium was used as an arena. The new building was erected on the original site for the 1896 Olympic Games, and competitions were also held here at the 2004 Olympics.
4 Athenian Trilogy (Οθώνειον Πανεπιστήμιον) . This term includes the three structures:
5 University (Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών), 30 Panepistimiou Ave, 106 79 Athens facebooktwitter.
6 Academy of Sciences (Ακαδημία Αθηνών), Panepistimiou 28, 106 79, Athens.
7 National Library (εθνική βιβλιοθίκη της ελλάδος), panepistimiou 32, athina 106 79, λεωφόρος ανδρέα συγγρού 364. They arose in the middle of the 19th century and form an extraordinary harmonious unit. The monuments in front of the buildings contribute to this, the most striking being the columns with the statues of Pallas Athena and Apollon.
8 Athens Olympic Swimming Pool (Ολυμπιακό Κέντρο Υγρού Στίβου Αθηνών) . the outdoor facilities are particularly worth seeing.



At Explore you will find a list of museums with further links

9 National Archeological Museum (Εθνικό Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο), 28is Oktovriou (Patission) 44. The National Archaeological Museum is the largest archaeological museum in Greece with over 11,000 exhibits. The classicist building was erected between 1866 and 1889 and has since been adapted to the needs several times. The collections span a period from 6,800 B.C. to 400 AD, they are usually exhibited in showcases in the old tradition and are divided into a) prehistoric collection (EG), b) bronze and metal sculptures (EG), c) ancient Egyptian art (EG), d) vases and other smaller objects (1st floor), e) frescoes and other ancient paintings (1st floor). In the basement you will find a shop and toilets. The museum is open. In the museum it is allowed to take photos without a flash for private purposes. Nearest tube station: Victoria. Open: In summer Mon 1.30pm-8pm, Tues-Sun 8am-8pm, in winter Mon 1.30pm-8pm, Tues-Sun 8.30am-3pm. Price: 7 euros.

10 Acropolis Museum (Μουσείο Ακρόπολης), Διονυσίου Αρεοπαγίτου 15. Tel.: +30 21 0900 09 00, fax: 21 (0)924 16 43, email: info.theacropolismuseum The interior of the museum is clean, modern and elegant. Most of the exhibits consist of antique marble sculptures. Features: free WiFi, wheelchair accessible, audio guide, cloakroom, reading room, photography allowed, no touching, no loud speaking. Open: Daily 8am-10pm (1 Nov-31 Oct); closed: 1 Jan, Easter, 1 May, 25 Dec, 26 Dec. Price: 10€. Accepted forms of payment: cash, credit card, debit card.

11 Byzantine Museum (Βυζαντινό και Χριστιανικό Μουσείο), 22 Vas. Sofia, 106 75 Athens. Tel: +30 213 213 9572. The museum was founded in 1914 and is part of the National Museums. Over 30,000 exhibits from the 3rd century til today. Metro station Evangelismos or Syntagma Square. Open: May-Oct Mon 1:30pm-8pm, Tue-Sun 8am-8pm, Nov-Apr Tue-Sun 8:30am-3pm. Price: entry €4.

12 Museum of Cycladic Art (Μουσείο Κυκλαδικής τέχνης), 4, Neopytou Douka Str. (new building) or 1, Irodotou Str. (Stathatos Mansion). Tel: +30 210 7228 321-3, Email: The museum in the new wing is spread over 4 floors: 1 - Cycladic culture, 2.4 - Ancient Greek art, 3 - Cypriot culture. Metro station Evangelismos or Syntagma Square. Open: Mon, Wed, Fri, Sat 10am-5pm, Thu 10am-8pm, Sun 11am-5pm, Tue closed.

13 Benaki Museum (Μουσείο Μπενάκη), 1 Koumbari Str. & Vas. Sofia's Ave. Tel.: 210 367 1000, email: Private museum, from prehistoric to contemporary art. The museum has several branch offices. Open: Mon, Wed, Fri, Sat 9 a.m. - 7 p.m., Thu 9 a.m. - midnight, Sun 9 a.m. - 3 p.m., Tue closed. Price: Admission €7, Thurs free.

14 Numismatic Museum (Νομισματικό Μουσείο Αθηνών), Eleftheriou Venizelou St Athens. Tel: 210 3843 774. The museum is housed in the Iliou Melathron house, it was once the home of Heinrich Schliemann. It has an elevator (barrier-free). Nearest metro station: Syntagma Square. Open: Winter: (except Mon) 8:30am-3pm, Summer Mon 1:30pm-8pm, Tue-Sun 8am-8pm. Price: entry €3.

15 Frisiras Museum (Μουσείο Φρυσίρα), 3 Monis Asteriou, Plaka, Monis Asteriou 3 & 7. Tel: +30 210 3234 678. The only museum for contemporary painting, the private collection has over 3000 paintings, mostly European painters. Syntagma Square metro station. Open: Wed-Sun 11am-5pm, closed Mon, Tue. Price: Entry €6.

16 Museum of Ancient Greek Technology (Μουσείο Αρχαίας Ελληνικής Τεχνολογίας «Κώστας Κοτσανάς») . A fantastic museum not to be missed. Excellent demonstration of some fantastic inventions of the ancient Greeks. Most models are functional and can be interacted with. It's a relatively small museum, but if you take the time to read everything, it will take several hours.

17 Kerameikos Archaeological Museum (Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο Κεραμεικού), 148 Ermou street .

18 Athens Railway Museum (Σιδηροδρομικό Μουσείο Αθηνών). Phone: +30 21 0512 62 95, +30 21 0529 75 48, Fax: +30 21 0524 13 23, +30 21 0529 74 52, Email: The Athens Railway Museum (or Greek Railway Museum) was founded in 1979 and is the largest railway museum in Greece. On display are: steam locomotives, passenger cars, manual fire pumps and fire extinguishers, various rail vehicle models, and a variety of equipment. Open: Tue-Fri: 09:00-13:00; every 2nd and 4th Saturday of the month from 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. Price: free.

19 Hellenic Maritime Heritage Park (Ναυτικό Μουσείο Ελλάδος) . Park and museum with a faithful replica of one of the famous ancient triremes and the armored cruiser Averof. The ship served as the Greek flagship for most of the first half of the century and is the only ship of this type still in existence.

20 War Museum (Athens) (Πολεμικό Μουσείο), Vasilissis Sofias Street 2, Βασιλίσσης Σοφίας & Ριζάρη 2. Weapons of the Greek armies throughout the millennia.

National Historical Museum

National Gallery of Art


Squares and streets

1 Syntagma Square (Πλατεία Συντάγματος) . Translated, the name means Constitution Square. It was created when the palace for King Otto I was built between 1834 and 1838. This castle has been the seat of the Greek Parliament since 1935. In front of the Parliament is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. It is guarded during the day by the Evzones, originally the Royal Guards, now part of the Presidential Guard. These are soldiers with a minimum height of 1.80 m, they are dressed in a uniform that is based on the costumes customary in the Balkans. The uniforms vary between summer, winter and gala uniform. The soldiers stand motionless for minutes and are a popular photo opportunity for tourists. The changing of the guard on the hour is worth seeing. Every Sunday (before 11:00 a.m., rather a few minutes earlier) there is a big changing of the guard with a marching band and flag detail.
2 National Garden (Εθνικός Κήπος). begins right next to Syntagma Square, bordered by Zappeion, a neoclassical-style exhibition hall surrounded by a large green area. Behind it is the New Castle, today the official residence of the Greek Prime Minister.
3 Omonia Square (Πλατεία Ομονοίας). Unity Square is an important traffic junction, where several main traffic arteries converge on a large roundabout. Underground lines 1 and 2 of the metro intersect here. Unfortunately, this square has a very bad reputation for petty crime and drug abuse, and the streets to the southwest are no better.
4 Monastiraki Square (Μοναστηράκι). It lies at the foot of the Acropolis, is surrounded by countless small shops and borders on the famous old town district of Plaka. From here, many streets to the east and west invite you to stroll and eat. In the immediate vicinity of the square are the Pantanassa Church, the ruins of Hadrian's Library and the Tsidarakis Mosque, now a ceramics museum. Lines 1 and 3 intersect at Monastiraki metro station.
5 Likavittos (Λυκαβηττός). The Athenian city hill, also known as Licabettus, lies north-east of the Acropolis and at 277m is the highest point in the old town. The best way to get there is to walk north along Ploutarchou Street and then the funicular (Funicular train, operating hours Mon-Sun 09:00-03:00, €5 one-way, €7.50 return ) that goes about 150m steeply uphill. On the hill are the church of Agios Georgios, visible from afar, and an open-air theatre. You get a good overview of the old town from here. It is advisable to enjoy the view with a drink in the café. A little further west of the cable car there is also a possibility to climb the mountain on foot amidst cacti. There is a café halfway up.



1 Monastery of Kesariani (Μονή Καισαριανής) . Small monastery complex on Mount Hymettos from the 12th century that is well worth seeing. with a beautiful view of the city. Also nearby are the Taxiarches Hill viewpoint, the Church of the Ascension and the Asteriou Monastery of the Taxiarchs. It can be reached by taxi or with a little adventurous spirit from the university via several secret paths and beautiful hiking trails up the mountain. The great views, the gardens and the relaxed nature make up for it.
2 Pentelis Monastery
3 Daphni Monastery (Μονή Δαφνίου)


Agios Nikolaos Ragavas



1 Koutouki Cave (Σπήλαιο Κουτούκι). Worth seeing stalactite cave. Difficult to reach. Possibly closed.
2 Davelis Cave (Σπήλαιο Νταβέλη) . The cave of the famous bandit "Ntavelis". A place known for its urban legends. Small, photogenic church at the cave entrance. Fantastic views of the area.


What to do

City tours of Athens and/or Piraeus
Some operators, such as Athens Walking Tours, offer walking tours of the city, mostly in English.
Visit to Attica Park on the outskirts of the city in Spata near the airport
In many places in the city, e.g. B. Hotel receptions, free guides Athens Guide (English) are available, they are reissued monthly.

You can also go swimming in Athens, although you cannot expect the same quality from the city beaches as on the islands. The further away from Athens you go, the better the water quality gets. The best beaches are on the east side of Atika and around Cape Sounion. But they are quite far for a day trip. Almost all have beach bars, umbrellas and sunbeds.

The easiest way is to get on the tram that runs right on the beach between Piraeus and Glyfada. There are smaller and bigger beaches, more expensive ones and some that are free. If a beach pleases, hop off; otherwise go to the next one. Go further south than Glyfada with buses departing from Glyfada. From Athens you can get to Glyfada by Metro M2 and then by bus.

1 Votsalakia beach. Popular pebbly beach in Piraeus area, mostly crowded but clean. It is surrounded by many cafeterias and restaurants and is easily accessible by bus from Piraeus center or Neo Faliro.
2 Alimos beach. The fine sandy beach is located in the immediate vicinity of the city center and is very well connected by public transport and accordingly crowded. The beach offers showers and umbrellas and water sports such as jet skiing and windsurfing. It is also ideal for children as there is a water slide and a play area. Other attractions of Alimos are the marina and several cafes.
3 Glyfada Beach (Γλυφάδα) . There are several small beaches in Glyfada. The area is full of trendy cafes, cozy restaurants and lively bars. The area is easily accessible by many local buses from the city center and the tram.
4 Voula beach. One of the most popular sandy beaches in the Athens suburbs.
5 Kavouri beach. Around the sandy coast there are many beautiful coves with free access, others with sand and others with small pebbles. Kavouri is an excellent choice for swimming and sunbathing with nice beach facilities and many seafront cafes. The beach is good for beach games like beach volleyball and other activities. Mikro and Megalo Kavouri are the main beaches in the region and both popular destinations during the summer season. Megalo Kavouri has a large sandy bay with shallow water. There are a few fish taverns on one side of the beach, while Mikro Kavouri is surrounded by greenery and has a cafeteria with nice rental facilities. Kavouri is a top family beach due to the clean water and open space of the beach. There is ample parking on the coast. It's crowded on the weekends. Kavouri is easily accessible by public bus or car.
6 Lomvarda beach. This small beautiful beach is located about 30km from Athens near Vouliagmenis. A part of the beach is organized with some umbrellas and sunbeds, while the other part is free. The beach consists of soft sand and small pebbles that reach the shore. The water is usually calm except when there is a strong north wind. Vouliagmenis is one of the well-developed coastal areas in Athens with a cosmopolitan atmosphere, hence the beach is very crowded in summer. There is a wide range of restaurants and taverns, as well as night bars for an evening stroll. It is easily accessible by public bus or car.
7 Vouliagmeni beach (Βουλιαγμένη Αττικής) . One of the best organized beaches with all kinds of beach facilities. Tennis and volleyball courts, a children's play area, a water slide, individual beach chairs and a restaurant are some of the features that make the area very popular among Athenians. Still easily accessible by local buses. In the wider region you will find many cafes and restaurants by the sea.
8 Vouliagmeni Lake. 12m deep natural lake, ideal for swimming in the cool water and having a drink in the lovely cafe right on the lake shore. Admission €15.
9 Varkiza beach (Βάρκιζα Αττικής) . Varkiza's sandy beach is quite far from the city center. It is one of the less crowded beaches with all beach facilities such as volleyball courts, snack bars and a children's play area. The beach can be reached by bus directly from the city center. The city of Varkiza is one of the most popular areas in the southern suburbs, which is quite lively during the summer season. The area is very developed with many cafes and nice restaurants on the seafront and is a popular weekend destination for Athenians.
10 Lagonisi beach (Λαγονήσι Αττικής). Langonisi is a popular resort where many Athenians like to go swimming, especially on weekends.



For tourists, the trade triangle, Emporiko Trigono, is probably the first choice, even if it has lost some of its importance in recent years. It lies between the three endpoints of Omonia Square, Syntagma Square and Monastiraki. Here you can find everything, from absolutely chic and expensive branded items to the cheapest imports from the Far East. The latter, unfortunately, with an increasing tendency.

Shop opening hours vary greatly. Some shops are open late (until 9:00 p.m.), which is very convenient, but you have to consider a lunch break, which can go from 1:30 to 3:30. In the other extreme case, the shops are open at lunchtime and close at 7 p.m. in the evening, and on Saturdays as early as 2 p.m.

The big chains are more likely to be found on the periphery, such as IKEA, Praktiker, etc. Likewise, the extremely large shopping center in Spata (with outlet "Εκπτωτικό Χωριό Αθήνα").

The old city of Athens, just north of the Acropolis. Narrow alleys, odds and ends and tourist shops, apparently detached from all shop closing laws. Cafes and restaurants line the streets.

The pedestrian zone with brand shops. It begins at the bottom of Syntagma Square and stretches west to Monastiraki. Parallel to this runs the Mitropoleos, quasi 1b layer.

From Syntagma Square head east along Vassilissis Sofias Street, past the Parliament building to the left/north. This is where a very chic area begins, in which many embassy buildings and institutions have settled. North of Sofia Street there are many boutiques, designer shops etc. It also gives access to Lykavittos Hill, which offers a very nice view.

Near the Olympic Stadium. The Mall Mall Athens. A mall as known from the USA or Oberhausen. Very easy to get to by metro. Line 1 Neratziotissa station, from the platforms there is a direct bridge to the Mall. Not far from there is the Golden Mall with luxury brands.

Formerly plastered with cigarette advertising - not since the 2004 Olympics - these light brown little booths characterize the cityscape. There is at least one in each district that is open late into the night. The range is extremely varied and inexpensive: 0.5 l of water usually costs €0.50 (as of 2020).



The number of restaurants and fast food is unmanageable and you can find almost all well-known international cuisines.


Night life

Going out in Athens is fun! It's been warm for a long time, southern Europeans enjoy partying and the club scene is diverse. Athens is one of the liveliest cities (or even the liveliest). It's amazing how many Athenians you see on the streets at any time of the day or night.

1 Psyri (Ψυρρή) . is the name of the quarter in which the new nightlife takes place. It is best reached via the Monastiraki metro station, alternatively you can walk west from beautiful Syntagma Square through the pedestrianized Ermou Street. You will then automatically reach the above-mentioned metro station. Of particular interest are the area immediately south of Monastiraki, or the stretch between Monastiraki and Thiseio further west, as well as Plateia Iroon north of Monastiraki and the Aioloy Strait north-east of Monastiraki. A bit outside there are also typical large discos, which are similar throughout Europe. In Psirri you will find lounge bars, restaurants, music taverns and much more.
2 Glyfada (Γλυφάδα) . The "young" nightlife takes place above all in the countless clubs and bars in Glyfada (tram stop Paralia Glyfadas, almost an hour's tram ride south from Syntagma).

If the tip is not already included in the bill in restaurants, a 10% tip is usual, otherwise it is simply rounded up. You can either simply leave the money or pay it directly to the operator.



It is best to look for accommodation within the square of Metaxourgeio - Omonia Square - Plaka - Monasteraki. Then you can walk to most attractions and there are also plenty of subway stations to get to destinations further afield.

In the low-price range, only the youth hostel is actually available (Victor Hugo Straße).

1 Mirabello, Geraniou 49, Athens, 10431, Greece. Tel.: +30 21 05223657, email:
2 Polis Grand Hotel, 19 Patision and 10 Veranzerou St, Athens 104 32, Greece. Tel.: +30 210 5243 156-9, Email: The house is near Omonia Square, the main sights can be reached on foot. The staff is friendly and partly speaks German. But it is better to eat in the Plaka.
3 Omiros Hotel, 15 Apollonos St , Athens 105 57, Greece. Tel.: +30 210 32 35 486-7, email: The hotel is located about 5 minutes from Syntagma Square. The staff is friendly, free wifi in the room and computers and printers in the lobby. Drinks at reasonable prices.



1 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Οθώνειον Πανεπιστήμιον
2 National Technical University of Athens (Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο)



What seems very inhuman to outsiders, namely the high residential density and the Greek chaos, proves to be very advantageous for locals and those who want to become one. It's very easy as a neighborhood resident to socialize and meet people. This openness to fellow human beings has drawn many foreigners to Greece, despite the often difficult opportunity to earn money.



The Athenians' close ties to their district (actually it should be called sub-district, because there are dozens) has so far prevented the emergence of slums (see the number of inhabitants in the info box!). You know each other, greet each other and exchange a few words. The "quarters" remain small, but not anonymous. Indeed, many Athenians live in their neighborhood for life and are thus an integral part of life there.

You can safely stroll through the streets at night. There are so many brothels on the Sygrou in the direction out of town (suburb "Kallithea") that one likes to walk through the neighborhoods next to the road so that the bouncers don't constantly chatter with them. Although these "talkers" are not dangerous (after all, they see the potential customer :)), they are annoying - and after a few clear words, they are also calm.

Since life here goes late into the night anyway, certain spots are never empty. So if you get lost at night, it's a good idea to ask your way to Syntagma - or take one of the cheap taxis - and move on from there.

The area between Omoniaplatz (which is actually a big roundabout) and the train station doesn't have the best reputation, but that also means that this corner isn't really pretty (compared to many other spots in the city). But the classic train station clichés such as drug dealing and pickpocketing, which also exist in otherwise peaceful Athens, also contribute to the reputation.

The metro - not exactly a safe place in many cities - was also planned with safety aspects in mind due to its relatively young age. You can say it was a success. The camera surveillance (to be viewed critically) and the bright, clear design do not leave any feeling of discomfort. In addition, the metro is locked at night.



It's harder to get sick in Athens than stay healthy! The chlorinated tap water is of drinking water quality, even if the color does not always suggest it. There are enough doctors of all specialties. As you would expect from a European capital, hospitals are also plentiful. The pharmacies sometimes seem a bit run down - especially away from the center - but pharmacists don't earn nearly as much as in Germany. However, since there is a similar medicine delivery service, all medicines are actually available in a very short time. If a drug is not sold under the same brand name, there is definitely an alternative with a different name. The medicines are very inexpensive, so it is worth buying standard medicines such as aspirin or similar "in advance".


Practical hints

One cannot assume that to be able to communicate well in English with taxi drivers. Especially if the trip should lead to the outskirts of Athens, a map is recommended to make the destination clear. A street name is then generally not sufficient, especially since there are streets with the same name in the previously independent parts of the city. There are often several Latin spellings for Greek words, e.g.. the Αίολου street as Aiolou, but also as Eolou.
Public toilets are extremely rare in Athens and in Greece as a whole, in an "emergency" you go to a café and order a little something.
There is free WiFi in most cafes and restaurants, and often in hotels too.
Greeks are usually very accommodating when met with a few basic Greek words. A friendly "Yassas" as a greeting often works wonders. If, for example, the waiter starts to speak Greek afterwards, a short hint is enough and you can continue speaking in English.
Since the financial crisis, every purchase and every service has to be documented with a receipt. As a result, you often get a receipt for the purchase of chewing gum at kiosks. On the other hand, you should insist on a receipt, especially for larger amounts, to make sure that the shopkeeper is not committing tax evasion. If you're denied the receipt, the law says you don't have to pay.



Cape Sounion (Σούνιο). The Temple of Poseidon at Cape Sounion on the Attica Peninsula. Outward journey from the regional bus station near the Viktoria metro station from the "Terminal" (37° 59' 32″ N 23° 43' 57″ E). Another boarding option in the city center at Filellion 10 (37° 58′ 26″ N 23° 44′ 2″ E), next to a kiosk, near Syntagma Square. The bus may be full by then. Just get in, at some point someone will come for the ticket. As always in Athens, give the bus driver a hand signal when you want to get on. The KTEL buses are usually orange/white. Trip 2 times a day return at 10:30 and 14:30. Return around 1:30 p.m. and 5:30 p.m. On weekends there is an additional later trip back around 8:30 p.m. At Cape Sounion is the temple (entrance 10 €), a museum shop and a restaurant.
Eleusis (Ελευσίνα, Elefsína) . is a place about 30km northwest of Athens. It gained its importance through the Eleusinian Mysteries, one of the important cults of ancient Greece. Today the city is a suburb of Athens under the name of Elefsina. The archaeological site is worth seeing. Eleusis was a center of pilgrimage. The devotees of the goddess Demeter would meet here every October and follow a set ritual of worshiping the mysteries surrounding the goddess. Among other things, they follow the footsteps of the goddess to the "Plutonion", a cave entrance that is somewhat hidden from the large temple that leads to the underworld, where Demeter was desperately looking for Persephone. The temple itself forms the center of the complex with the "Telesterion" and the holy of holies, the "Anaktoron", where the pilgrims experienced the climax of the mysteries.
Saronic Islands like Aegina or Hydra from Piraeus by boat
Peloponnese - in the Peloponnese to Corinth, Mycenae or Epidaurus
Delphi day trip by bus. Departure 07:30 a.m. at KTEL Terminal B 38° 0′ 37″ N 23° 43′ 21″ E), costs 16.40 EUR, for one direction (as of 11/2019). The ticket is available at the counter (1st on the left) in the terminal. You can also buy the ticket for the return journey in Athens. Travel time approx. 3 hours, after 2 hours the bus makes a break at a hotel where there is a snack bar and you can go to the toilet. Return from Delphi at 1.30pm or 4.30pm. (only 4.15pm in winter) 1.30pm is easily doable when the museum and archaeological site are not busy. On the way there you can also tell the bus driver that you want to get off at the "Archaeological site" and then save yourself the trip through Delphi (about 15 minutes). The place is little more than a collection of restaurants and hotels. It is advantageous to go to the excavation site first and then to the museum, in the excavation site it takes more time. Museum and excavation site €12 (winter €6) (as of 05/2019). The Delphi bus station (a souvenir shop) is at the very end of the town on the right when coming from Athens. The bus back to Athens stops across the street next to a kiosk.



Ancient Athens
The founding of Athens is lost in the mists of myth, as it is generally accepted that it pre-existed in the Mycenaean Era. It is known that there were indeed prehistoric findings in Attica, but since when exactly the name "Athens" was first used for at least one of them is unknown.

According to Plato in Timaeus, Egyptian priests of Isis revealed to Solon who visited them that according to their records, there was a prosperous city called "Athens" before 9600 BC. Of course the accuracy of the report is questionable, as is the calculation of the year, but in the absence of more accurate data and reports, it retains some indicative value.

The first inhabitants of the area are considered to be the Pelasgians. The first king of the city, according to mythology, was Kekropas, from whom the text section between the Acropolis, Acharnes and Eleusis was named "Kekropia".

The myth of Theseus and the Minotaur reveals the existence of a subordinate relationship of Athens to Minoan Crete, after the death of Minos' son, Androgeos. Theseus's father was Aegeas, king of Athens until his death, when the throne passed to his son Theseus. The throne was challenged by the Pallantides sons of Pallantos, brother of Aegeas, but slaughtered by Theseus, who remained king and regained the favor of his citizens.

During the Trojan War, Athens sided with Mycenae, mobilizing against Troy led by Menestheus and a significant military and naval force of 50 ships (estimated at 1,650-2,750 men) as mentioned in the list of ships mentioned in the Iliad. These events classify Athens, which then occupied Attica, without Megarida (which belonged to Salamis), and Oropos (which belonged to Boeotia), as a very important Greek city. However, they operated as early as 3000 BC. the Lavrio mines supplying the city with lead and silver (later the Iron Age and iron). The production of ceramics, oil, honey and wine, as well as marble from Penteli, in combination with the commercial activity, mark an economically prosperous city. Its degree of independence, however, due to the hegemony of Mycenae, was rather small, until the decline of this civilization

Athens, however, escaped destruction or enslavement by the Descent of the Dorians. According to legend, the Dorians asked the oracle of Delphi if they could conquer Athens. The oracle replied that they would conquer it only if they did not kill its king, Kodros. Kodros, when he learned about this oracle, dressed like a villager and left the city. There, after meeting soldiers from the opposing camp, he killed one, and the other soldier reacted, not knowing his true identity, killing him. When the Athenians demanded the body of their king, the Dorians were frightened and withdrew from the area of ​​Athens, holding only Megara.

In 632 BC, the Olympian of Kylon, wanted to become tyrant of Athens. He captured the Acropolis but Alkmeonidis Megaklis, reacted and besieged the Acropolis, forcing him and his brother to take refuge in Megara while his followers begged at the altars. According to this custom, a person who begs for alms is considered a protector of the gods, so no one has the right to harm them. Megacles' followers, however, killed them in violation of this custom, with the result that the Alcmeonides were exiled from Athens. They returned with the general amnesty of Solon.

The first legislator of the city was the Dragon, who enacted in 621 BC, the Draconian Laws, written on marble slabs. Traditionally, the laws were so strict that the term "Draconian measures" meant relentless and harsh measures, even today. The law of the Dragon was succeeded by the laws of Solon. Most important of all were the "Seisachtheia", the abolition of the enslavement of free citizens for debts and the land reclamation.

From 561 BC. until 527 BC, Athens was ruled, at intervals, by Peisistratos. He did many works for Athens and honored his special homeland, Vravrona. It would not be an exaggeration to say that Peisistratos laid the foundations for the future greatness of Classical Athens. After his death, power passed into the hands of Hippias and Hipparchus. The second was assassinated in 514 BC, and the first was overthrown, with the help of Sparta, in 510 BC.


In 508 BC, Cleisthenes, as a reformer of Athens from the genus Alcmeonides, applied equality and equality, abolishing the old tribes and founding artificial ones, with names derived from the local hero of each region. He divided the Attic land into urban, Mediterranean and coastal, dividing the population of each tribe equally into municipalities from all three zones, while at the same time legislating in favor of the punishment of ostracism. Thus, Democracy was born.

Athens sent aid to 20 ships (4,000 men) during the Ionian Revolution (499 - 493). This was the occasion for the Persian Campaigns against mainland Greece. Athens successfully repulsed, together with Plataea, the second campaign of Datis and Artafernis, during which it was the main Persian objective. The city deployed 10,000 hoplites in the battle of Marathon led by Miltiades. During Xerxes' campaign, the city deployed 8,000 hoplites in the battle of Plataea led by Aristides and 200 triremes in the naval battle of Salamis led by Themistocles.

In 478/477 BC, the Delian alliance was founded, based on the sacred island of Delos, which later became the "Athenian hegemony".

A few years later, Miltiades' son Kimon managed to exile Themistocles and become the leader of Athens. Thanks to his military genius, he managed to expand the alliance but he himself was exiled by Pericles in 461 BC.

The politician Pericles took the leadership of Athens and removed from the, oligarchic deviations, Arios Pagos the supervision for the administration and the employees and assigned it to the Parliament of the Five Hundred. Pericles's policy consolidated the Athenian hegemony, which practically began a little earlier with Kimon, who continued the war with the Persian Empire after the withdrawal of the Spartans from him. The Parthenon was built on his own initiative and, rightly, his era was named "Golden Age of Pericles", although it lasted only 32 years. He is, however, largely responsible for the Peloponnesian War.

Indeed, in 431 BC. The Spartans invaded Attica and destroyed the countryside, starting this painful war.

In 430 BC, the plague of Athens broke out, destroying 1/3 (or 2/3) of the population of Athens and, among them, Pericles, resulting in the city falling victim to demagogues, whose policy proves to be catastrophic, not only for Athens, but for the whole of Greece. During its maximum military power, Athens deployed (excluding foreign mercenaries) 14,000 hoplites, 2,000 archers, 1,000 cavalry, 400 cavalry and 470 triremes. Based on these data and similar calculations, a total population of 400,000 souls (including women, a reasonable number of minors, migrants, foreigners and slaves) during the Classical era is estimated. Athens, after 27 years, finally lost the war.

In 395 BC, the Corinthian War broke out which lasted until 387 BC. Konon, with the help of the Persians, formed a new navy and rebuilt the Long Walls and the walls of Piraeus that were demolished in 404 BC.

In 377 BC, the Second Athenian Alliance was founded but dissolved in 355 BC. In the meantime, a new rising force emerged, Macedonia, which, after the Battle of Chaeronia, managed to impose its hegemony over all of Greece (except Sparta).

Hellenistic Era (323 BC - 146 BC)
In 323 BC, after the death of Alexander the Great, Athens and the other Greek cities revolted but were defeated by Antipater. The government of Athens became tyrannical and a Macedonian guard was established. Although the city had lost its political independence and military strength, it continued to be a large and important city and an important cultural center. Many rulers of the Hellenistic Kingdoms studied in Athens and made donations to her and were honored by the Athenians.

Roman Age (146 BC - 395 AD)

In 146 BC, Athens was conquered by the Romans, who respected the city and did not disturb it. In 87 BC, in the First Mithridatic War, the Athenians called on Mithridates to liberate their city, but when Sulla found out, he went to Athens and besieged it. When his army entered Athens, he ordered that it be destroyed, ignoring the Athenians' pleas, and many of her works of art were transferred to Rome. Athens, however, began to recover quite quickly due to the admiration of the Romans for its history and culture. Many Romans (Hadrian, Cicero, Antoninus, Augustus, Philopappos, etc.) visited the city, studied there, benefited it with great works (many survive today) and were initiated into the Mysteries. In fact, in honor of Hadrian, a tribe was named after him, the Hadrian tribe. Athens regained its former glory and became the cultural center of the empire, famous for its universities. From the 3rd century, the empire was attacked by barbaric peoples. In 267, the Heracles destroyed Athens and its area was considerably reduced. The Valerian Wall failed to save her. It retained, however, its need as the cultural center of the empire. In 330, New Rome became the new capital of the state. Constantine the Great moved several monuments of Athens to New Rome, but did not cause disaster in the city and respected it. In 395, the empire was divided into Western and Eastern and Athens became part of the latter.

Byzantine Era (395 - 1204)
In 395, Alaric attacked Athens and besieged it but did not harm it. According to Zosimos, Alarichos saw Achilles and the Goddess Athena on the city walls, so he panicked and left. According to another version, the Athenians raised a large sum of money and gave it to Alaric. He accepted it and asked them to enter the city to admire her. He thus escaped destruction. At the same time, however, with the penetration of Christianity, Athens was considered the "Capital of Paganism" and was marginalized. In Athens, a large Christian community had not been created as in Alexandria or Thessaloniki. The city was completely connected to the ancient religion, so Christianity could not have strong roots in the city. In 529, Justinian closed the philosophical schools of Athens and transformed from a city into an insignificant and forgotten village with 2,000-3,000 inhabitants, far from the state centers of the empire. In fact, its ancient name disappeared and was called by its few inhabitants, simply "Castle". The Parthenon was consecrated and became a church, like all the other monuments of Athens. Many times, the village was deserted as its few inhabitants abandoned it due to raids. Irene the Athenian, was empress of Byzantium, from 780 to 802, and came from Athens. Basil II visited Athens in 1018. In 1182 Michael Choniatis became metropolitan of Athens. An archaeologist and lover of Classical culture, he was disappointed with Athens and likened it to "Scythian wilderness".

Athens during the Latin occupation
In 1204, Athens was conquered by the Franks. The Athenians accepted them as liberators. After 675 years of decline, Athens is entering a new phase. Its fame and strategic position contributed to Athens becoming the capital of the Frankish Duchy of Athens, with the Acropolis being transformed into a palace. During this period (1204-1456) Athens was occupied in order: Boniface the Momferratic, the Frankish House de la Ross, the Catalan Society and finally the Italian house of the Atsagioli Family of Florence. Boniface handed over Athens to Otto, who took the name "Dominus Athenarum" or "Sire D 'Athenes". This period (1204 - 1311) is characterized by relative prosperity and calm. In 1311, the Duchy came under the control of the Catalans. The capital was moved to Thebes. The Catalan policy (1311 - 1388) was catastrophic and oppressive for the Orthodox citizens, who accepted Nerio Azagioli with relief. Athens became the capital of the Duchy again. After a course of 252 years, the Duchy was dissolved on June 4, 1456 with the occupation of Athens by the Turks.

Ottoman era (1456 - 1830)
In 1456 the city was conquered by the Turks and came under the Ottoman Empire. Muhammad the Conqueror visited the city and was fascinated by it, especially by the Acropolis. The Parthenon became a mosque and gave many privileges to the Athenians. Athens was the fourth largest city in the Balkans with 20,000 inhabitants and Christians and Muslims lived harmoniously. In the 17th century, during the operations of the Fifth Venetian-Turkish War, it was besieged by the Venetians and suffered heavy damage, including the blowing up of the Parthenon by General Francesco Morosini.


In the 18th century, Athens experienced a series of upheavals, mainly due to the mismanagement of the Turks and the rivalries between them for the appropriation of tax collection rights or the ownership of land. In 1771-1772 the city was raided by the Lempesides, rebels of Salamis who had raised the Russian flag under Mitros-Mara. The period 1775-1795 is characterized by the tyrannical administration of Hatzis Ali Hasekis. He was originally a servant in the sultan's palace in Constantinople, where after having an affair with Esme Sultana, the sister of Sultan Selim III, he managed to be appointed voivode of Athens, ie responsible for collecting the tithe tax. In his day Athens was walled off with a rudimentary wall to protect itself from the invasions of the Turkalvans. Around 1789, epidemics of smallpox and plague broke out in the city, as well as food shortages. Many residents died while others were dispersed. In 1795 Haseki was beheaded after a series of protests against him by Turks and Greeks to the sultan.

At the beginning of the 17th century and especially from the 19th century, Athens, due to its archeological interest, had gathered the interest of various foreign artists, archaeologists, etc. and a large community of Europeans had formed in the city and the first consulates were established. Among them was the mission of Lord Elgin who made the famous removal of the sculptures from the Acropolis. Other celebrities who passed through Athens were Chateaubriand, Lord Byron, the British ambassador to the city, Lord Strangford, François Pouqueville, the Princess of Wales Caroline and others. In 1812 the "Philathina Academy" was founded in Athens and then the "Philomous Society".

The revolution of 1821 and the liberation of Athens
Beginning of the Revolution
Due to the action of the Philomous Society, the Friendly Society did not have much penetration in the city, with the exception of some priests. At that time, the Athenians were divided into the "Gagarians" and the "Xotarides". The first were the bourgeois and the lords included in the archontology, while the second were the farmers who lived in the villages and estates around Athens, many of whom were Arvanitophones. The Turks were a minority in Athens and had gradually come under the control of the Greek lords or "Gagaras". Strong families were that of Logothetis Chomatianos and Prokopios Benizelos. Ypsilantis' revolt in Romania left the bourgeois Athenians almost indifferent. However, at that time the chief of Hassia, the "xotaris" Hatzi-Meletis Vassiliou, formed a corps of armed Hasiotes and Menidiates with the permission of the zambit (policeman) of Athens, ostensibly to protect the city from raids. It is believed that Vassilios was initiated into the Friendly Society, because Athanasios Diakos did a similar act shortly before the Revolution in Livadia, but also because he agreed to be placed under the orders of the Friendly Municipality of Antonios from Livadia.


On the night of March 25, 1821, a messenger came from Hydra and warned the Athenians to prepare for an uprising. But because no preparation had been made, the whole of March passed almost without any action. Spyridon Trikoupis states that the Athenians did not revolt because they did not have leaders. The Turks of Athens had been informed of the events in the Peloponnese but had the impression that these were actions of Ali Pasha, who called him "Karali". They trusted the defense of the city wall to the armed corps of Hatzis-Meletis Vassilios. The latter was reinforced with other chiefs such as Mitros Skevas from Menidi, the "Arvanitovlachos" Hatzi-Anagnostis Kiourkakiotis, Ioannis Davaris from the Mediterranean. The Turks called the metropolitan of Athens Dionysios, nephew of the patriarch Gregory V, who had taken refuge in Boeotia where with the metropolitans of Talanti Neophytos and Salonias Isaiah he proclaimed the Revolution in the monastery of Agia Paraskevi outside Livadia and Livadia. In early April, incidents broke out in Athens, and many Athenians sought refuge in foreign consulates to protect themselves from the Turks, with the exception of the Austrian consul who was helping the Turks. On the night of the 9th to the 10th of April, the night of the Resurrection, many lords were taken hostage and imprisoned on the Acropolis, while the Turkish mob demanded a general massacre of the Christians. Due to the hostage-taking, the city remained quiet, while in the countryside, attacks and kidnappings against the Turks began. The first major war episode took place on April 18 in Kalamos where Hatzi-Meletis Vassiliou repulsed a body of 300 Turks coming from Chalkida to help the Turks of Athens. Thus the Revolution was openly proclaimed and in Livadia the Municipality of Livadi, Antoniou, was appointed military leader of Athens. In the ecclesiastical ceremony, Athens Dionysios and Talantiou Neophytos surrounded Antonios with military equipment as the knights needed in the Middle Ages. Antoniou, wearing helmets and epaulets of the British military corps of the Ionian Islands, went down to Hasia where with his imposing appearance he gave the armed leaders the feeling that there was indeed Russia's support in the uprising. On April 24, the Turks of Athens, after learning of the hanging of the patriarch and the massacres of the Greeks in Constantinople, feared retaliation. They asked the Imam to bless their own flag of the holy war and took to the streets, demanding the slaughter of Christians. Then the Athenians called for help the military corps of Hassia, from which, however, only about 500 people moved and they were also lightly armed, many with agricultural tools and improvised spears. On April 26, the Turks fortified themselves on the Acropolis while the Greeks entered the city shouting "Christ is Risen" and "Freedom or death". Hatzi-Meletis raised the flag of freedom in Athens on April 28th. The next day, Bishop Dionysios arrived in the city and after an ecclesiastical ceremony in the small square of Agios Panteleimon under the Acropolis (the so-called Auction House), a political administration and "deputies" settled in the city. At that time, the armed forces of bourgeois Athenians increased, while others came from Salamis, Aegina, Kea, etc.


The besieged Turks, knowing that they could not last long without help, decided and attempted a night out. On the night of May 15, 1821, 15 Turks, led by Mehmetakos Turalis, managed to cross the Greek lines and reach Chalkida, where they reported their difficult situation. For their part, more and more Greeks gathered - mainly from the neighboring islands - to help the Athenians in the siege. On June 8, the Turks killed 8 of the 12 Athenian nobles they held hostage on the Acropolis and threw their heads off the walls of the Acropolis. According to tradition, the head of the monk Filaretos Triantaphyllis was stuck in a rock and the next day there was a battle between Athenians and Turks for its meditation, while the events ignited the hatred of the Athenians.

Around the middle of June, the Municipality of Antoniou, which had the general headquarters, was killed and due to a disagreement between gangsters and trawlers, Dimitris Ypsilantis appointed Liberios Liveropoulos from Russia, who had no military experience, as the leader of Athens. Liveropoulos arrived in Athens dressed in the tight black uniform of Ierolochitos. The Turks, seeing several of the besiegers wearing "straits" (European uniforms), were convinced that the rebels had the support of European forces and despaired.

In mid-July 1821, a Turkish army led by Omer Vryonis and Omer Bey of Karystos descended to the Eastern Mainland. The Athenians, fearing, solved the siege of the Acropolis and left the city. Those who managed to escape, left for Aegina, Salamis, even in the Greek camp of the Isthmus. Thus, the Turks broke the first siege of Athens. Omer Vryonis showed that he wanted to stay in Athens and in fact he married the daughter of a Turkish priest. But around mid-October 1821 he was forced to leave Athens to help Khurshid Pasha in Epirus. But Omer Bey was also forced to return to Evia. So Athens stayed again, only with the guard of the Acropolis. All this time the Greeks continued to harass the Turkish troops, and as soon as they learned that Vryonis had left, they began to gather in the city again, to besiege the Acropolis again. It was quickly realized that Liveropoulos could not have the leadership of Athens. Among various claimants, the leadership was finally assigned to Ilias Mavromichalis, son of Petrobei. On November 3, 1821, the Greeks recaptured the city and besieged the Acropolis again, while the families who had left returned from the islands. The besiegers initially deprived the Turks of the water they took from a well near the Herodian theater, the so-called "Skerpetze". On the 13th of November, the feast of John Chrysostom, the chief Panagis Ktenas after the sanctification of the weapons called on his men to fight bravely, shouting to them "Dirty dogs, we will take her out with a clean face" (using the insult with which the Turks called the Greeks). They attacked the Turkalvans guarding the well and pushed them to the rocks of the Acropolis. The siege was later reinforced with a cannon fired from the Arios ice while a sewer specialist managed to blow up part of the Acropolis walls. Finally, the Turks surrendered the Acropolis on June 9, 1822. Dionysius sent people to give water to the thirsty Turks, but many of them died drinking an insatiable amount. The Turks safely left the Acropolis, in the presence of the Austrian ambassadors, on June 10, 1822 after handing over the keys to the fortress to Panagiotis Ktenas. Ktenas was unfortunately killed when the cannon he fired to celebrate the capture of the Acropolis exploded. Thus the Athenians were liberated for the first time.

The continuation of the Revolution
After the occupation of the Acropolis, the surrendered Turks continued to live in Athens, while the women and children remained under the protection of the consulates of France and Austria. When it became known in Athens that Dramalis was coming down with a strong army to crush the revolution, the Turks became discouraged and began to provoke and threaten the Christians. The reason for the clashes was when Chians who had survived the massacre of Chios and Kefalonians attacked Turks on June 27 and 28, 1822.


In the meantime, the Athenians, before the danger of Dramalis, had not taken care of the defense, while many fled again to Salamis. Puckeville accuses French sailors in Piraeus of preventing the Greeks from leaving for Salamis while supporting the Turks. At the invitation of the commissioners, several young people rushed to supply and fortify the Acropolis. While in the Peloponnese battles were fought against Dramalis, in Athens a dispute broke out between the chiefs over the domination of the Acropolis. Eventually one faction called Androutsos to occupy the Acropolis. He entered on August 21, 1822, followed by his deputy, Ioannis Gouras, and 150 hoplites. Odysseus fortified the Acropolis and asked the Athenians to sign a bond with him for the value of the supplies he had paid. He temporarily left the Acropolis, leaving Gouras as guardian and de facto master of Athens. The families of Androutsos and Goura, as well as other people from Roumeli, had settled on the Acropolis in order to have a personal interest in the defense of the city. A rivalry broke out between the wives of the two leaders for the first place, which was the reason for the enmity between the two men. Many registrars were also involved in the dispute, including the philhellene Stanhope, who came to Athens in the fall with the returning Odysseus.

The Athenians took part in the struggle against the occupied enemy. In Tithorea (Velitsa) 350 hoplites fought under Odysseus and the chiefs N. Saris, Mitros Lekkas, N. Argyris, Meleti Vassiliou and I. Davari. At first they stopped the enemy but eventually dispersed. N. Saris was arrested and escaped while on his way to Larissa, to be killed later in Athens, a victim of the rivalry between Androutsos and Goura. In the summer of 1823 Athens was surrounded from everywhere by Ottoman troops and the fleet. Yusuf Berkoftsalis was coming down from the north with the commander of Edirne, Selim Salih Pasha, while Karystinos Omer Bey was campaigning from Chalkida. The families took refuge again in Salamina while at the same time the place was plagued by an epidemic. Gouras had supplied and fortified the Acropolis. The enemies reached Ampelokipi but then withdrew, taking women and children captive. Berkoftsalis became seriously ill and many died of the plague. In the autumn, Odysseus returned from Evia. Stanhope also brought with him a printing press with which various publications were printed, including the "Efimeris ton Athinon", the first Athenian newspaper under Georgios Psylas. The Philomous Society of Athens was also re-established, excavations were carried out and some schools began to operate, with financial assistance from the monasteries of Attica. Life in Athens was beginning to recover. Teaching through the peer-to-peer method and the learning of foreign languages ​​was introduced in schools.

In the summer of 1824 a new campaign was launched led by Ibrahim or Dervis Pasha. He ordered Omer Vryonis to attack from Western Greece and Omer Karystinos bey from the East, while he would attack the Peloponnese from Fokida and Aegialia. Omer Karystinos with 4,000 men, including 2,000 janissaries sent from Constantinople, disembarked from Chalkida to Marathon and began looting the countryside. Gouras decided to defend with only 300 men against Sourmelis or 600 against Trikoupis. The historicity of the area and the civil rivalries that had preceded made Goura encourage his few men, recalling the ancient battle of Marathon. The few Athenians fortified in makeshift drums effectively resisted from the 3rd to the 6th of July, forcing the enemies to disperse and invade Attica from other routes. On the last day, the whole body of Goura was endangered and he was saved thanks to the auxiliary operation under D. Evmorfopoulos. The enemies withdrew and the Greeks sent thirty heads and two flags as trophies to Athens. Among the Ottomans killed were the leader of the Janissaries, Ibrahim, and Abedin Bey, a nephew of Omer Karystinos and leader of the Delis.


The victorious Athenians, preoccupied with plundering the dead, did not pursue the retreating Ottomans who gathered at Kapandriti in order to invade through Kaza and Fili.

In October 1824, a census was taken in revolted Athens, according to which the city had 9,040 inhabitants and 1,605 houses, divided into 35 parishes.

Athens, capital of the independent Greek state
Athens was a small semi-deserted and half-ruined city (from the successive sieges during the Independence Struggle), when it became the capital of the new Kingdom of Greece in 1834.

After the liberation, on the initiative of King Otto, Athens was designated a new capital. In 1834, it was rebuilt to the standards of major European capitals and its extension to the north of the old city was planned by architects Stamatis Cleanthes, Edward Saubert and Royal Councilor Leo von Clenche, and imposing buildings were erected as (now the parliament), the Old Parliament, the Academy, the Zappeion, etc. As the capital of the new Greek state and the center of political developments, Athens has been a place of landmark events in modern Greek history. This is where the Revolution of September 3, 1843 took place, which reshaped the state physiognomy of the state. In the following decades, Athens was rebuilt according to the standards of a modern city. The next phase of great expansion was in 1923 after the Asia Minor Catastrophe, when many neighborhoods were created, mainly anarchically, by refugees from Asia Minor, such as Nea Smyrni, Nea Ionia, Attica, Byron, etc.

The city became the scene of numerous movements and coups for more than 50 years, from the military movement in Goudi, the numerous movements of the Greek interwar period to the coup of April 21, 1967. The first act of the Greek Civil War was played here, in December, as well as Parliamentary democracy was restored after the fall of the junta in 1974.

After World War II
During World War II the city in particular suffered greatly, mainly from famine and suffered great damage. After the war, the city began to grow again, especially in the 1960s, as a result of internal migration from small towns and villages to Athens. The housing problem that was created, was solved by the consideration with the uncontrolled and uncontrolled construction of many apartment buildings in the center and in the suburbs. Unfortunately, many neoclassical buildings were demolished to make way for apartment buildings and buildings of modern architecture. The problems created by the consideration are still perceived, such as the anarchic construction, the minimal green spaces. The population of the refugee settlements created after the Asia Minor Catastrophe moved to apartment buildings in the surrounding areas and soon, neighborhoods such as Dourgouti (New World) changed their appearance, while others, such as Asyrmatos (over which the Philopappos ring road passed) and Polygono or Perdikari (which was turned into a Moustoxydi bridge) were deleted from the map.

Greece's entry into the European Union in 1981 brought new investments to the city, but with problems of traffic and air pollution. The use of catalytic converters has greatly improved the quality of the atmosphere, but without definitively solving the problem that in the 21st century mainly concerns pollutants, such as ozone and suspended subatomic particles. The construction of the sewage treatment center on the islet of Psyttalia, where the wastewater of Athens is treated, improved the quality of the seas and beaches of Attica in the short term, before a problem arose with the disposal of sewage sludge.

The center of the ancient city is located around the hill of the Acropolis, in Thissio and Plaka. These areas today, in addition to their tourist character, are the most expensive zones of the center (along with Syntagma and Kolonaki below the hill of Lycabettus). The historic center of Athens is located in this zone, along with Monastiraki, which is a popular tourist and commercial destination for visitors. Characteristic is the train in Plaka for the tour of tourists, as well as the tourist bus line that goes around the center.


The center of the modern city is Syntagma Square, where the old royal palaces are housed, which now house the Parliament, as well as other 19th century public buildings. During the 3 decades that followed the Second World War, many new high-rise buildings were built, which characterize the current image of the city.

Athens is the host city of the first Olympic Games of the modern era (1896) and the Mid-Olympic Games of 1906. In recent years it has also organized the 2004 Olympic Games that last from 13 to 29 August 2004.

The old building of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens on Panepistimiou Avenue is one of the most elegant buildings in Athens along with the building of the National Library and the Academy of Athens. These three buildings, the so-called "Athens Trilogy", were built in the late 19th century. Several of the educational activities of the universities have been transferred today to the University Campus of Zografou. Another great academic school in Athens is the National Technical University of Athens, one of the most important technical institutions in Europe. The Athens University of Economics and Business is located in the same area as the Polytechnic, while the Agricultural University of Athens is located in the area of ​​Votanikos. Other schools are located on the outskirts of the city, such as the Gymnastics Academy of Athens (TEFAA) in Daphne, the School of Pedagogy and Technology Education in Maroussi and others.




Athens is located in the largest plain of Attica with the Ilisos and Kifisos rivers and is surrounded on three sides by mountain ranges, Hymettos (1026 m), Pentelikon (1107 m), Parnitha (1413 m) and Aegaleo (468 m) , the fourth side opens to the sea, the Saronic Gulf.



The urban climate of Athens is a very special one in Greece and also in Europe and was considered one of the best in the world before the development of the city into a “water head” that overgrown almost the entire Attic basin and is still dry and largely mild today. The name Attica derives from Akte (Greek for "coast" or "promontory"), it is a peninsula.

Quite a few therefore moved to Athens or spent a long time there, for example Sophie de Marbois-Lebrun, who had a villa built on the northern edge of the city and spent the rest of her life there. In 1906, Rainer Maria Rilke wrote to Ernst Hardt, who was living in Athens, to “go to Athens for two or three months” in order to spend the winter there. Walther Judeich wrote in his 1931 Topography of Athens

"The climate of Athens seems on the whole to have changed as little as the picture of the landscape since antiquity."

Josef von Ow wrote in 1854 that locals and foreigners alike leave the city for a few days in midsummer and

"spend the hottest time in the mountains or on the islands"

Due to the location of Athens, surrounded by mountains to the west, north and east, and the prevailing winds in Greece, the climate in Athens is even drier and warmer than in other regions of the country. Summer temperatures can reach over 40°C in the shade during hot spells that last three to four days and can occur from June to September. Due to the dense population and the lack of inner-city green spaces, it hardly cools down at night. Temperatures of 25°C at midnight are the norm in summer, 30°C not uncommon. Only towards morning does the thermometer drop below 25 °C for a short time. In winter, on the other hand, there are frequent cold air rushes from the north, which can then lead to snow cover at regular intervals, especially in the northern districts. By Central European standards, the days of November in particular are still surprisingly warm. While it is already "winter temperatures" in other southern European cities, in Athens it is often still 20 to 25 °C during the day until mid-November. On the other hand, spring starts later, and March and April are still surprisingly cool. The mean temperatures in the cold season (December to February) are between 9.6 °C and 11.4 °C. Occasionally there are also frosty days with low temperatures down to -5 °C. In the warm season (May to September), the average temperature ranges between 20.5 °C and 29 °C. In Athens over 2800 hours of sunshine and no fewer than 348 sunny days are counted per year. On some days, sand and dust from the Sahara blows all the way to Athens, covering the streets.

Overall, the annual amount of precipitation in Athens remains at a very low level of 402 mm per year. Most precipitation falls from late October to early February. The summer months from June to September are particularly low in precipitation.

The industrialization and urbanization of the Attica peninsula, on which Athens is located, as well as increasing private transport since the 1950s, have led to increasing air pollution, especially from smoke and sulfur dioxide. In the high-pressure weather conditions typical of the region with a high risk of inversion (summer smog), smog (Greek το νέφος, to nefos, "the cloud") was formed more and more frequently.

Although measures to reduce air pollution were taken as early as the 1970s, it increased due to increasing mass motorization as a result of the economic boom in the 1970s and 1980s. The situation came to a head in 1987 when numerous people died from smog and the press reported increasing damage to the ancient monuments. The authorities reacted with sometimes drastic measures. In order to reduce the volume of traffic, since 1981 cars with odd and even numbers have been banned from entering the city center on weekdays from 6:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. with narrow exceptions, for example for doctors, journalists and tourists.

Far-reaching measures by the authorities and the expansion of local public transport have been successful since the 1990s and have reduced air pollution. However, on very hot days, especially before the holiday season, air pollution is still an issue. The Greek Ministry of the Environment publishes the current air measurement values for Athens on its website every day.


City outline

Ancient Athens of the 18th century roughly encompasses the quarters south and north of the Acropolis, the extension to the east and north-east (Syntagma to Omonia) has been the center of the city since the 19th century.

Although the inhabitants of the Attica Peninsula identify themselves as Athenians, the city of Athens is administratively limited to an area of less than one million inhabitants.


Founding myths and naming

According to legend, the goddess Athena and the sea god Poseidon vied for the favor of the inhabitants of the then nameless city. Both should give the inhabitants a gift - whoever gave the city the best gift should be chosen as the namesake. The competition, which has been handed down many times, can be found, among other things, in Herodotus, in the library of Apollodorus, in Pausanias and Plutarch. Poseidon gave the city a well or spring that he opened with his trident, but only salt water gushed out. In Ovid he gave the city a horse. Athena's gift was an olive tree. He donated food, olive oil and wood. Athena won and the city was named after her.

According to another tradition, Athens was founded by King Cecrops, which is why Kekropia (Κεκροπία) is an ancient name of Athens.

The name Athens was once always in the plural (Athēnai), but since the 1960s at the latest the singular form has prevailed in Greek (Athína), officially the plural form is still to be found today. In most languages, Athens is still rendered in the plural.



Mycenaean Athens (1,600 - 1,100 BC) may have reached the size of Tiryns. This limits the population to 10 to 15 thousand. the Geometric era in 1,000 BC. the population of Athens was up to 4,000 people. In 700 BC. the population had grown to 10,000. In 500 BC. the state of Athens probably had 200,000 people. And in the classical period in 431 BC. showed a population with different estimates ranging from 150,000 to 350,000 and up to 610,000 according to Thucydides. When Demetrius Falireus conducted a population census in 317 BC. the population was 21,000 free citizens, 10,000 allied settlers and 400,000 slaves, a total of 431,000 in greater Athens.

The municipality of Athens has an official population of 664,046, while together with the four Regional Units (Central, North, South and West Sector of Athens) it has a total population of 2,640,701 (2011 census). Together with the Peripheral Unit of Piraeus, they constitute the Urban Complex of Athens with a population of 3,074,160.

The ancient city of Athens had its center on the rocky hill of the Acropolis. The port of Piraeus was a separate city, but today it has been absorbed by the Athens Urban Complex. The rapid expansion of the city, which continues even today, began in the 1950s and 1960s, due to the evolution of Greece from a rural to an industrial country. The extension today is particularly to the East and Northeast (a trend that is very much related to the new Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport and the Attiki Odos, the highway that crosses Attica). With this process, Athens has integrated many former suburbs and villages in Attica and continues to do so. The table below shows the history of the population of Athens in recent years.

The center of the Greek capital is located in the Municipality of Athens, which is the largest in population in Greece. Piraeus also forms an important center in its own city, within the Urban Complex of Athens, and is the second most populous municipality in it, with Peristeri and Kallithea following.

The Urban Complex of Athens currently consists of 40 municipalities, 35 of which are the municipalities of Greater Athens, integrated into 4 regional units (North Athens, West Athens, Central Athens, South Athens) and 5 more, which are the municipalities of Major Piraeus, belonging to the Regional Unit of Piraeus. The densely populated Urban Complex of the Greek capital is spread over 412 sq.m. throughout the Attica Basin and has a total population of 3,090,508 (in 2011).

The Metropolitan Area of ​​Athens covers 2,928,717 sq.m. in the region of Attica and includes a total of 58 municipalities, which are organized in 7 regional units (the above together with Eastern Attica and Western Attica with a population of 3,753,783. Athens and Piraeus are the two Metropolitan Centers of the Metropolitan Area of ​​Athens There are also some Inter-Municipal Centers, which serve specific areas, for example Maroussi, Kifissia and Glyfada operate as Inter-Municipal Centers for the North, Far North and South suburbs of Athens respectively, while Peristeri serves the Western suburbs.


Cityscape and architecture

19th Century Architecture in Athens
The layout of today's center was created in the 19th century based on the city plan by Eduard Schaubert and Stamatios Kleanthis. A closed cityscape can only be found in the much older Plaka district. Almost all important public buildings such as the theatre, the Supreme Court, the Parliament, the Zappeion exhibition hall, the cathedral, the town hall, etc. are classicist buildings. Prominent examples are the "Athens Trilogy" with the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (1841, design: Hans Christian Hansen), the National Library and the Academy of Sciences (1891, both by Theophil Hansen). The Catholic Bishop's Church (design: Leo von Klenze) and the old eye clinic are in the immediate vicinity. Worth mentioning is the parliament building (former palace) on Syntagma Square by Friedrich von Gärtner. Numerous expatriate Greeks settled in Athens in the 19th century, resulting in numerous villas that were often designed by Ernst Ziller, who became George I's court architect and realized over 600 buildings throughout Greece.

20th Century Architecture in Athens
The architecture of the 19th century in Athens was largely influenced by classicism and the restoration of the Greek state; this continued into the early years of the 20th century. Early Greek modernism was all the more radical. Driven by the housing shortage after the Greeks were expelled from Turkey in 1921, renewed building activity began. The Athens Charter, the manifesto of modern architecture, was signed in 1933.

To this day, districts such as Kypseli and Exarchia are dominated by apartment buildings from the 1920s to 1940s.

During the late 1940s and early 1960s, luxurious apartment buildings equipped with all the sophistication of the time were built in the finer parts of Athens. They had a concierge, servants' entrance, and large marble-clad entrance halls. The Athenians left the old neoclassical city villas to move into a coveted, modern apartment. Since these apartments were intended for the upper class, most of them are no smaller than 160 square meters. Such "splendid apartment buildings" can be found on Victoria Square, along Patission Avenue, on the street of the third of September and on the magnificent promenade and once the most expensive street in Athens, Mavrommataion Street.

Large public buildings emerged again from the 1960s, such as the East Terminal at the former Hellenikón Airport in Athens by Eero Saarinen (1960-1963), the US Embassy on Vassilis-Sophias-Avenue by Walter Gropius (1961) or the Athens Hilton (1963). During the time of the junta, many second-class apartment buildings were built for speculative reasons, which characterize the image of some suburbs.

Important transport and infrastructure structures have been built since the 1980s, including Santiago Calatrava's Athens Olympic Sports Complex and Bernard Tschumi's New Acropolis Museum (2001-2007, opened in 2009). Also worth mentioning are the numerous subway stations and related structures such as the footbridge at the Katechaki station by Santiago Calatrava.

In general, the construction of landmarks or conspicuous solitary buildings is not permitted in order not to endanger the outstanding position of the Acropolis in the cityscape of Athens. Few exceptions were granted during the Junta period, but only relatively far from the center. Exceptions include the Athens Tower or the President Hotel in the Ambelokipi district.