Athens

 

Location: Athens, Attica Region Map

 

Travel Destinations in Athens

Athens is rightfully considered a birthplace of the European and Western Civilization. First settlement on a sire of modern Athens date back 7000 years ago, although it reached the height of its power in the 5th century BC. Ships with settlers set sail from Athens to all corners of the known World establishing new colonies from Spain in the West to Russia and Georgia in the East. Citizens of the city spread not only their trade routes, but also architecture, literature, democracy and other achievements of their culture. Greek temples still influence many government and cultural buildings around the World.
 
Most of the historic buildings from the time of the antiquity are located in the Southern part of Athens. The Northern part of Athens contains mostly newer buildings. The city expanded northward in the 19th century. North Athens contains most of the most important museums in the city. It might be a good idea to buy a map or a travel guide to have an idea of which destinations you would want to visit. Missing some of them might very disappointed.

 

Acropolis (Athens)

Acropolis (Ακρόπολις) (Athens)

The Parthenon (Παρθενών) (Athens)

 

The Erectheion (Athens)

 

The Beule Gate and Propylea (Athens)

 

Temple of Athena Nike (Athens)

Odeon of Herodes Atticus (Athens)

 

Theatre of Dionysis (Athens)

 

Panagía Spiliótissa (Our Lady of the Cave) (Athens)

 

New Acropolis Museum (Athens)

Makryanni

Subway: Acropolis

Entrance fee: 5 Euro

 

Ancient Agora (Athens)

 

Temple of Hephaestus (Athens

 

North (Athens)

 

National Archeological Museum (Εθνικo Αρχαιολογικo Μουσεiο) (Athens)

 

National Historical Museum (Athens)

 

War Museum (Athens)

 

Byzantine Museum (Athens)

 

Theatrical Museum (Athens)

Akadimias 50

Tel. 210 362 9430

Subway: Panepistimio

Trolley: 3, 8, 13

Open: 10am- 3pm Mon- Fri, 10am- 1pm Sun

Closed: Aug, 17 Nov, public holidays

 

Kolonaki Square or Plateia Kolonakiou

Trolley: 3, 7, 8, 13

National Gallery of Art (Athens)

 

Museum of Cycladic Art (Athens)

 

Kapnikarea (Athens)

 

Benaki Museum (Athens)

Koumpari & Vasilsis Sofias, Syntagma

Tel. 210 367 1000

Subway: Syntagma

Tram train: 3, 7, 8, 13

Open: 9am- 5pm Mon, Wed, Fri, Sat

9am- 12pm Thu

9am- 3pm Sun

Closed: 1 Jan, 25 Mar, Good Fri, Easter, May 25, Dec 26

www.benaki.gr

 

Gennadeion (Athens)

American School of Classical Studies, Souidias 54, Kolonaki

Tel. 210 723 6313

Subway: Evangelismos

Trolley: 3, 7, 8, 13

Open: 8:30am- 9pm Mon- Fri, 9am- 2pm Sat

Closed: Aug, public holidays

 

Museum of the City of Athens (Athens)

Paparrigopoulou 7, Syntagma, Plateia Klafthmonos

Tel. 210 323 1397

Subway: Panepistimio

Trolley: 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, 15, 18

Open: 9am- 4pm Mon, Wed- Fri 10am- 3pm Sat, Sun

Closed: public holidays

 

South (Acropolis) (Athens)

 

Kerameikos (Athens)

 

Municipal Art Gallery (Athens)

Peiraios 51, Plateia Koumoundourou, Omonoia

Tel. 210 324 3022

Subway: Omonoia

Open: 9am- 1pm and 5- 9pm Mon- Fri, 9am- 1pm Sun

Closed: 3 Oct, public holidays

 

Russian Church of the Holy Trinity (Athens)

Filellinon 21, Plaka
Tel. 210 323 1090
Trolley: 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18
Open: 7:30- 10am Mon- Fri, 7- 11am Sat, Sun
Closed: public holidays
 
Kallimarmaro Stadium (Athens)
Archimidous 16, Pagkrati
Tel. 210 752 6386
Trolley: 3, 4, 11
Open: 8am- sunset daily
 
Greek Folk Art Museum (Athens)
Kydathinaion 17, Plaka
Tel. 210 321 3018
Bus: 2, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15
Trolley: 1, 5
Open: 9am- 2pm Tue- Sun
Closed: public holidays

www.melt.gr

 

Jewish Museum of Greece (Athens)
Nikis 39, Syntagma
Tel. 210 322 5582
Subway: Syntagma
Trolley: 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18
Open: 9am- 2:30pm Mon- Fri, 10am- 2pm Sun
Closed: public holidays, Jewish holidays
 
Ilias Lalaounis Jewellery Museum (Athens)
Karyatidon and P.Kallisperi 12, Akropoli
Tel. 210 922 1044
Subway: Akropolis
Open: 8:30am- 4:30pm Thu- Sat, 9am- 9pm Wed, 11am- 4pm Sun
Closed: public holidays
 
Kanellopoulos Museum (Athens)
Theorias and Panis 12, Plaka
Tel. 210 321 2313
Subway: Monastiraki
Open: 8:30am- 3pm Tue- Sun
12- 3pm Good Friday
Closed: 1 Jan, 25 March, Easter Sunday, 25, 26 Dec
 
Museum of Greek Popular Musical Instruments (Athens)
Diogenous 1- 3, Plaka
Tel. 210 325 0198
Subway: Monastiraki
Open: 10am- 2pm Tue- Sun, 12- 6pm Wed
Closed: 17 Nov, public holidays

 

Plaka (Athens)

 

Temple of Olympian Zeus (Athens)

Amalias and Vasilissis Olgas, Plaka
Tel. 210 922 6330
Trolley: 2, 4, 11
Open: Apr- Oct: 8:30am- 7pm daily
Nov- Mar: 8:30am- 3pm daily
Closed: public holidays
Free admission: Sun, Nov- Mar
 
Panagia Gorgoepikoos (Athens)
 
Plateia Mitropoleos, Plaka
Subway: Monastiraki
Open: 7am- 7pm daily
 
Mitropoli (Athens)
Plateia Mitropoleos, Plaka
Tel. 210 322 1308
Subway: Monastiraki
Open: 7am- 7pm daily

 

Agios Nikolaos Ragavas (Athens)

 

Tower of the Winds (Athens)
Roman Agora, Plaka
Tel. 210 324 5220
Subway: Monastiraki
Open: Apr- Oct 8am- 7pm daily; Nov- Mar 8:30am- 3pm daily
Closed: public holidays
 
Kyriazopoulos Folk Ceramic Museum (Athens)
Tzistarakis Mosque, Areas 1, Monastiraki
Tel. 210 324 2066
Subway: Monastiraki
Open: 9am- 2:30pm Mon, Wed- Sun
Closed: public holidays
 
University of Athens Museum (Athens)
Tholou 5, Plaka
Tel. 210 368 9502
Subway: Monastiraki
Open: Apr- Oct 5- 9pm Mon, Wed 9:30am- 2:30pm Tue, Thu, Fri
Nov- Mar 9:30am- 2:30pm Mon- Fri
Closed: public holidays

 

History

Ancient Athens
The founding of Athens is lost in the mists of myth, as it is generally accepted that it pre-existed in the Mycenaean Era. It is known that there were indeed prehistoric findings in Attica, but since when exactly the name "Athens" was first used for at least one of them is unknown.

According to Plato in Timaeus, Egyptian priests of Isis revealed to Solon who visited them that according to their records, there was a prosperous city called "Athens" before 9600 BC. Of course the accuracy of the report is questionable, as is the calculation of the year, but in the absence of more accurate data and reports, it retains some indicative value.

The first inhabitants of the area are considered to be the Pelasgians. The first king of the city, according to mythology, was Kekropas, from whom the text section between the Acropolis, Acharnes and Eleusis was named "Kekropia".

The myth of Theseus and the Minotaur reveals the existence of a subordinate relationship of Athens to Minoan Crete, after the death of Minos' son, Androgeos. Theseus's father was Aegeas, king of Athens until his death, when the throne passed to his son Theseus. The throne was challenged by the Pallantides sons of Pallantos, brother of Aegeas, but slaughtered by Theseus, who remained king and regained the favor of his citizens.

During the Trojan War, Athens sided with Mycenae, mobilizing against Troy led by Menestheus and a significant military and naval force of 50 ships (estimated at 1,650-2,750 men) as mentioned in the list of ships mentioned in the Iliad. These events classify Athens, which then occupied Attica, without Megarida (which belonged to Salamis), and Oropos (which belonged to Boeotia), as a very important Greek city. However, they operated as early as 3000 BC. the Lavrio mines supplying the city with lead and silver (later the Iron Age and iron). The production of ceramics, oil, honey and wine, as well as marble from Penteli, in combination with the commercial activity, mark an economically prosperous city. Its degree of independence, however, due to the hegemony of Mycenae, was rather small, until the decline of this civilization

Athens, however, escaped destruction or enslavement by the Descent of the Dorians. According to legend, the Dorians asked the oracle of Delphi if they could conquer Athens. The oracle replied that they would conquer it only if they did not kill its king, Kodros. Kodros, when he learned about this oracle, dressed like a villager and left the city. There, after meeting soldiers from the opposing camp, he killed one, and the other soldier reacted, not knowing his true identity, killing him. When the Athenians demanded the body of their king, the Dorians were frightened and withdrew from the area of ​​Athens, holding only Megara.

In 632 BC, the Olympian of Kylon, wanted to become tyrant of Athens. He captured the Acropolis but Alkmeonidis Megaklis, reacted and besieged the Acropolis, forcing him and his brother to take refuge in Megara while his followers begged at the altars. According to this custom, a person who begs for alms is considered a protector of the gods, so no one has the right to harm them. Megacles' followers, however, killed them in violation of this custom, with the result that the Alcmeonides were exiled from Athens. They returned with the general amnesty of Solon.

The first legislator of the city was the Dragon, who enacted in 621 BC, the Draconian Laws, written on marble slabs. Traditionally, the laws were so strict that the term "Draconian measures" meant relentless and harsh measures, even today. The law of the Dragon was succeeded by the laws of Solon. Most important of all were the "Seisachtheia", the abolition of the enslavement of free citizens for debts and the land reclamation.

From 561 BC. until 527 BC, Athens was ruled, at intervals, by Peisistratos. He did many works for Athens and honored his special homeland, Vravrona. It would not be an exaggeration to say that Peisistratos laid the foundations for the future greatness of Classical Athens. After his death, power passed into the hands of Hippias and Hipparchus. The second was assassinated in 514 BC, and the first was overthrown, with the help of Sparta, in 510 BC.

 

In 508 BC, Cleisthenes, as a reformer of Athens from the genus Alcmeonides, applied equality and equality, abolishing the old tribes and founding artificial ones, with names derived from the local hero of each region. He divided the Attic land into urban, Mediterranean and coastal, dividing the population of each tribe equally into municipalities from all three zones, while at the same time legislating in favor of the punishment of ostracism. Thus, Democracy was born.

Athens sent aid to 20 ships (4,000 men) during the Ionian Revolution (499 - 493). This was the occasion for the Persian Campaigns against mainland Greece. Athens successfully repulsed, together with Plataea, the second campaign of Datis and Artafernis, during which it was the main Persian objective. The city deployed 10,000 hoplites in the battle of Marathon led by Miltiades. During Xerxes' campaign, the city deployed 8,000 hoplites in the battle of Plataea led by Aristides and 200 triremes in the naval battle of Salamis led by Themistocles.

In 478/477 BC, the Delian alliance was founded, based on the sacred island of Delos, which later became the "Athenian hegemony".

A few years later, Miltiades' son Kimon managed to exile Themistocles and become the leader of Athens. Thanks to his military genius, he managed to expand the alliance but he himself was exiled by Pericles in 461 BC.

The politician Pericles took the leadership of Athens and removed from the, oligarchic deviations, Arios Pagos the supervision for the administration and the employees and assigned it to the Parliament of the Five Hundred. Pericles's policy consolidated the Athenian hegemony, which practically began a little earlier with Kimon, who continued the war with the Persian Empire after the withdrawal of the Spartans from him. The Parthenon was built on his own initiative and, rightly, his era was named "Golden Age of Pericles", although it lasted only 32 years. He is, however, largely responsible for the Peloponnesian War.

Indeed, in 431 BC. The Spartans invaded Attica and destroyed the countryside, starting this painful war.

In 430 BC, the plague of Athens broke out, destroying 1/3 (or 2/3) of the population of Athens and, among them, Pericles, resulting in the city falling victim to demagogues, whose policy proves to be catastrophic, not only for Athens, but for the whole of Greece. During its maximum military power, Athens deployed (excluding foreign mercenaries) 14,000 hoplites, 2,000 archers, 1,000 cavalry, 400 cavalry and 470 triremes. Based on these data and similar calculations, a total population of 400,000 souls (including women, a reasonable number of minors, migrants, foreigners and slaves) during the Classical era is estimated. Athens, after 27 years, finally lost the war.

In 395 BC, the Corinthian War broke out which lasted until 387 BC. Konon, with the help of the Persians, formed a new navy and rebuilt the Long Walls and the walls of Piraeus that were demolished in 404 BC.

In 377 BC, the Second Athenian Alliance was founded but dissolved in 355 BC. In the meantime, a new rising force emerged, Macedonia, which, after the Battle of Chaeronia, managed to impose its hegemony over all of Greece (except Sparta).

Hellenistic Era (323 BC - 146 BC)
In 323 BC, after the death of Alexander the Great, Athens and the other Greek cities revolted but were defeated by Antipater. The government of Athens became tyrannical and a Macedonian guard was established. Although the city had lost its political independence and military strength, it continued to be a large and important city and an important cultural center. Many rulers of the Hellenistic Kingdoms studied in Athens and made donations to her and were honored by the Athenians.

Roman Age (146 BC - 395 AD)

In 146 BC, Athens was conquered by the Romans, who respected the city and did not disturb it. In 87 BC, in the First Mithridatic War, the Athenians called on Mithridates to liberate their city, but when Sulla found out, he went to Athens and besieged it. When his army entered Athens, he ordered that it be destroyed, ignoring the Athenians' pleas, and many of her works of art were transferred to Rome. Athens, however, began to recover quite quickly due to the admiration of the Romans for its history and culture. Many Romans (Hadrian, Cicero, Antoninus, Augustus, Philopappos, etc.) visited the city, studied there, benefited it with great works (many survive today) and were initiated into the Mysteries. In fact, in honor of Hadrian, a tribe was named after him, the Hadrian tribe. Athens regained its former glory and became the cultural center of the empire, famous for its universities. From the 3rd century, the empire was attacked by barbaric peoples. In 267, the Heracles destroyed Athens and its area was considerably reduced. The Valerian Wall failed to save her. It retained, however, its need as the cultural center of the empire. In 330, New Rome became the new capital of the state. Constantine the Great moved several monuments of Athens to New Rome, but did not cause disaster in the city and respected it. In 395, the empire was divided into Western and Eastern and Athens became part of the latter.

Byzantine Era (395 - 1204)
In 395, Alaric attacked Athens and besieged it but did not harm it. According to Zosimos, Alarichos saw Achilles and the Goddess Athena on the city walls, so he panicked and left. According to another version, the Athenians raised a large sum of money and gave it to Alaric. He accepted it and asked them to enter the city to admire her. He thus escaped destruction. At the same time, however, with the penetration of Christianity, Athens was considered the "Capital of Paganism" and was marginalized. In Athens, a large Christian community had not been created as in Alexandria or Thessaloniki. The city was completely connected to the ancient religion, so Christianity could not have strong roots in the city. In 529, Justinian closed the philosophical schools of Athens and transformed from a city into an insignificant and forgotten village with 2,000-3,000 inhabitants, far from the state centers of the empire. In fact, its ancient name disappeared and was called by its few inhabitants, simply "Castle". The Parthenon was consecrated and became a church, like all the other monuments of Athens. Many times, the village was deserted as its few inhabitants abandoned it due to raids. Irene the Athenian, was empress of Byzantium, from 780 to 802, and came from Athens. Basil II visited Athens in 1018. In 1182 Michael Choniatis became metropolitan of Athens. An archaeologist and lover of Classical culture, he was disappointed with Athens and likened it to "Scythian wilderness".

Athens during the Latin occupation
In 1204, Athens was conquered by the Franks. The Athenians accepted them as liberators. After 675 years of decline, Athens is entering a new phase. Its fame and strategic position contributed to Athens becoming the capital of the Frankish Duchy of Athens, with the Acropolis being transformed into a palace. During this period (1204-1456) Athens was occupied in order: Boniface the Momferratic, the Frankish House de la Ross, the Catalan Society and finally the Italian house of the Atsagioli Family of Florence. Boniface handed over Athens to Otto, who took the name "Dominus Athenarum" or "Sire D 'Athenes". This period (1204 - 1311) is characterized by relative prosperity and calm. In 1311, the Duchy came under the control of the Catalans. The capital was moved to Thebes. The Catalan policy (1311 - 1388) was catastrophic and oppressive for the Orthodox citizens, who accepted Nerio Azagioli with relief. Athens became the capital of the Duchy again. After a course of 252 years, the Duchy was dissolved on June 4, 1456 with the occupation of Athens by the Turks.

Ottoman era (1456 - 1830)
In 1456 the city was conquered by the Turks and came under the Ottoman Empire. Muhammad the Conqueror visited the city and was fascinated by it, especially by the Acropolis. The Parthenon became a mosque and gave many privileges to the Athenians. Athens was the fourth largest city in the Balkans with 20,000 inhabitants and Christians and Muslims lived harmoniously. In the 17th century, during the operations of the Fifth Venetian-Turkish War, it was besieged by the Venetians and suffered heavy damage, including the blowing up of the Parthenon by General Francesco Morosini.

 

In the 18th century, Athens experienced a series of upheavals, mainly due to the mismanagement of the Turks and the rivalries between them for the appropriation of tax collection rights or the ownership of land. In 1771-1772 the city was raided by the Lempesides, rebels of Salamis who had raised the Russian flag under Mitros-Mara. The period 1775-1795 is characterized by the tyrannical administration of Hatzis Ali Hasekis. He was originally a servant in the sultan's palace in Constantinople, where after having an affair with Esme Sultana, the sister of Sultan Selim III, he managed to be appointed voivode of Athens, ie responsible for collecting the tithe tax. In his day Athens was walled off with a rudimentary wall to protect itself from the invasions of the Turkalvans. Around 1789, epidemics of smallpox and plague broke out in the city, as well as food shortages. Many residents died while others were dispersed. In 1795 Haseki was beheaded after a series of protests against him by Turks and Greeks to the sultan.

At the beginning of the 17th century and especially from the 19th century, Athens, due to its archeological interest, had gathered the interest of various foreign artists, archaeologists, etc. and a large community of Europeans had formed in the city and the first consulates were established. Among them was the mission of Lord Elgin who made the famous removal of the sculptures from the Acropolis. Other celebrities who passed through Athens were Chateaubriand, Lord Byron, the British ambassador to the city, Lord Strangford, François Pouqueville, the Princess of Wales Caroline and others. In 1812 the "Philathina Academy" was founded in Athens and then the "Philomous Society".

The revolution of 1821 and the liberation of Athens
Beginning of the Revolution
Due to the action of the Philomous Society, the Friendly Society did not have much penetration in the city, with the exception of some priests. At that time, the Athenians were divided into the "Gagarians" and the "Xotarides". The first were the bourgeois and the lords included in the archontology, while the second were the farmers who lived in the villages and estates around Athens, many of whom were Arvanitophones. The Turks were a minority in Athens and had gradually come under the control of the Greek lords or "Gagaras". Strong families were that of Logothetis Chomatianos and Prokopios Benizelos. Ypsilantis' revolt in Romania left the bourgeois Athenians almost indifferent. However, at that time the chief of Hassia, the "xotaris" Hatzi-Meletis Vassiliou, formed a corps of armed Hasiotes and Menidiates with the permission of the zambit (policeman) of Athens, ostensibly to protect the city from raids. It is believed that Vassilios was initiated into the Friendly Society, because Athanasios Diakos did a similar act shortly before the Revolution in Livadia, but also because he agreed to be placed under the orders of the Friendly Municipality of Antonios from Livadia.

 

On the night of March 25, 1821, a messenger came from Hydra and warned the Athenians to prepare for an uprising. But because no preparation had been made, the whole of March passed almost without any action. Spyridon Trikoupis states that the Athenians did not revolt because they did not have leaders. The Turks of Athens had been informed of the events in the Peloponnese but had the impression that these were actions of Ali Pasha, who called him "Karali". They trusted the defense of the city wall to the armed corps of Hatzis-Meletis Vassilios. The latter was reinforced with other chiefs such as Mitros Skevas from Menidi, the "Arvanitovlachos" Hatzi-Anagnostis Kiourkakiotis, Ioannis Davaris from the Mediterranean. The Turks called the metropolitan of Athens Dionysios, nephew of the patriarch Gregory V, who had taken refuge in Boeotia where with the metropolitans of Talanti Neophytos and Salonias Isaiah he proclaimed the Revolution in the monastery of Agia Paraskevi outside Livadia and Livadia. In early April, incidents broke out in Athens, and many Athenians sought refuge in foreign consulates to protect themselves from the Turks, with the exception of the Austrian consul who was helping the Turks. On the night of the 9th to the 10th of April, the night of the Resurrection, many lords were taken hostage and imprisoned on the Acropolis, while the Turkish mob demanded a general massacre of the Christians. Due to the hostage-taking, the city remained quiet, while in the countryside, attacks and kidnappings against the Turks began. The first major war episode took place on April 18 in Kalamos where Hatzi-Meletis Vassiliou repulsed a body of 300 Turks coming from Chalkida to help the Turks of Athens. Thus the Revolution was openly proclaimed and in Livadia the Municipality of Livadi, Antoniou, was appointed military leader of Athens. In the ecclesiastical ceremony, Athens Dionysios and Talantiou Neophytos surrounded Antonios with military equipment as the knights needed in the Middle Ages. Antoniou, wearing helmets and epaulets of the British military corps of the Ionian Islands, went down to Hasia where with his imposing appearance he gave the armed leaders the feeling that there was indeed Russia's support in the uprising. On April 24, the Turks of Athens, after learning of the hanging of the patriarch and the massacres of the Greeks in Constantinople, feared retaliation. They asked the Imam to bless their own flag of the holy war and took to the streets, demanding the slaughter of Christians. Then the Athenians called for help the military corps of Hassia, from which, however, only about 500 people moved and they were also lightly armed, many with agricultural tools and improvised spears. On April 26, the Turks fortified themselves on the Acropolis while the Greeks entered the city shouting "Christ is Risen" and "Freedom or death". Hatzi-Meletis raised the flag of freedom in Athens on April 28th. The next day, Bishop Dionysios arrived in the city and after an ecclesiastical ceremony in the small square of Agios Panteleimon under the Acropolis (the so-called Auction House), a political administration and "deputies" settled in the city. At that time, the armed forces of bourgeois Athenians increased, while others came from Salamis, Aegina, Kea, etc.

 

The besieged Turks, knowing that they could not last long without help, decided and attempted a night out. On the night of May 15, 1821, 15 Turks, led by Mehmetakos Turalis, managed to cross the Greek lines and reach Chalkida, where they reported their difficult situation. For their part, more and more Greeks gathered - mainly from the neighboring islands - to help the Athenians in the siege. On June 8, the Turks killed 8 of the 12 Athenian nobles they held hostage on the Acropolis and threw their heads off the walls of the Acropolis. According to tradition, the head of the monk Filaretos Triantaphyllis was stuck in a rock and the next day there was a battle between Athenians and Turks for its meditation, while the events ignited the hatred of the Athenians.

Around the middle of June, the Municipality of Antoniou, which had the general headquarters, was killed and due to a disagreement between gangsters and trawlers, Dimitris Ypsilantis appointed Liberios Liveropoulos from Russia, who had no military experience, as the leader of Athens. Liveropoulos arrived in Athens dressed in the tight black uniform of Ierolochitos. The Turks, seeing several of the besiegers wearing "straits" (European uniforms), were convinced that the rebels had the support of European forces and despaired.

In mid-July 1821, a Turkish army led by Omer Vryonis and Omer Bey of Karystos descended to the Eastern Mainland. The Athenians, fearing, solved the siege of the Acropolis and left the city. Those who managed to escape, left for Aegina, Salamis, even in the Greek camp of the Isthmus. Thus, the Turks broke the first siege of Athens. Omer Vryonis showed that he wanted to stay in Athens and in fact he married the daughter of a Turkish priest. But around mid-October 1821 he was forced to leave Athens to help Khurshid Pasha in Epirus. But Omer Bey was also forced to return to Evia. So Athens stayed again, only with the guard of the Acropolis. All this time the Greeks continued to harass the Turkish troops, and as soon as they learned that Vryonis had left, they began to gather in the city again, to besiege the Acropolis again. It was quickly realized that Liveropoulos could not have the leadership of Athens. Among various claimants, the leadership was finally assigned to Ilias Mavromichalis, son of Petrobei. On November 3, 1821, the Greeks recaptured the city and besieged the Acropolis again, while the families who had left returned from the islands. The besiegers initially deprived the Turks of the water they took from a well near the Herodian theater, the so-called "Skerpetze". On the 13th of November, the feast of John Chrysostom, the chief Panagis Ktenas after the sanctification of the weapons called on his men to fight bravely, shouting to them "Dirty dogs, we will take her out with a clean face" (using the insult with which the Turks called the Greeks). They attacked the Turkalvans guarding the well and pushed them to the rocks of the Acropolis. The siege was later reinforced with a cannon fired from the Arios ice while a sewer specialist managed to blow up part of the Acropolis walls. Finally, the Turks surrendered the Acropolis on June 9, 1822. Dionysius sent people to give water to the thirsty Turks, but many of them died drinking an insatiable amount. The Turks safely left the Acropolis, in the presence of the Austrian ambassadors, on June 10, 1822 after handing over the keys to the fortress to Panagiotis Ktenas. Ktenas was unfortunately killed when the cannon he fired to celebrate the capture of the Acropolis exploded. Thus the Athenians were liberated for the first time.

The continuation of the Revolution
After the occupation of the Acropolis, the surrendered Turks continued to live in Athens, while the women and children remained under the protection of the consulates of France and Austria. When it became known in Athens that Dramalis was coming down with a strong army to crush the revolution, the Turks became discouraged and began to provoke and threaten the Christians. The reason for the clashes was when Chians who had survived the massacre of Chios and Kefalonians attacked Turks on June 27 and 28, 1822.

 

In the meantime, the Athenians, before the danger of Dramalis, had not taken care of the defense, while many fled again to Salamis. Puckeville accuses French sailors in Piraeus of preventing the Greeks from leaving for Salamis while supporting the Turks. At the invitation of the commissioners, several young people rushed to supply and fortify the Acropolis. While in the Peloponnese battles were fought against Dramalis, in Athens a dispute broke out between the chiefs over the domination of the Acropolis. Eventually one faction called Androutsos to occupy the Acropolis. He entered on August 21, 1822, followed by his deputy, Ioannis Gouras, and 150 hoplites. Odysseus fortified the Acropolis and asked the Athenians to sign a bond with him for the value of the supplies he had paid. He temporarily left the Acropolis, leaving Gouras as guardian and de facto master of Athens. The families of Androutsos and Goura, as well as other people from Roumeli, had settled on the Acropolis in order to have a personal interest in the defense of the city. A rivalry broke out between the wives of the two leaders for the first place, which was the reason for the enmity between the two men. Many registrars were also involved in the dispute, including the philhellene Stanhope, who came to Athens in the fall with the returning Odysseus.

The Athenians took part in the struggle against the occupied enemy. In Tithorea (Velitsa) 350 hoplites fought under Odysseus and the chiefs N. Saris, Mitros Lekkas, N. Argyris, Meleti Vassiliou and I. Davari. At first they stopped the enemy but eventually dispersed. N. Saris was arrested and escaped while on his way to Larissa, to be killed later in Athens, a victim of the rivalry between Androutsos and Goura. In the summer of 1823 Athens was surrounded from everywhere by Ottoman troops and the fleet. Yusuf Berkoftsalis was coming down from the north with the commander of Edirne, Selim Salih Pasha, while Karystinos Omer Bey was campaigning from Chalkida. The families took refuge again in Salamina while at the same time the place was plagued by an epidemic. Gouras had supplied and fortified the Acropolis. The enemies reached Ampelokipi but then withdrew, taking women and children captive. Berkoftsalis became seriously ill and many died of the plague. In the autumn, Odysseus returned from Evia. Stanhope also brought with him a printing press with which various publications were printed, including the "Efimeris ton Athinon", the first Athenian newspaper under Georgios Psylas. The Philomous Society of Athens was also re-established, excavations were carried out and some schools began to operate, with financial assistance from the monasteries of Attica. Life in Athens was beginning to recover. Teaching through the peer-to-peer method and the learning of foreign languages ​​was introduced in schools.

In the summer of 1824 a new campaign was launched led by Ibrahim or Dervis Pasha. He ordered Omer Vryonis to attack from Western Greece and Omer Karystinos bey from the East, while he would attack the Peloponnese from Fokida and Aegialia. Omer Karystinos with 4,000 men, including 2,000 janissaries sent from Constantinople, disembarked from Chalkida to Marathon and began looting the countryside. Gouras decided to defend with only 300 men against Sourmelis or 600 against Trikoupis. The historicity of the area and the civil rivalries that had preceded made Goura encourage his few men, recalling the ancient battle of Marathon. The few Athenians fortified in makeshift drums effectively resisted from the 3rd to the 6th of July, forcing the enemies to disperse and invade Attica from other routes. On the last day, the whole body of Goura was endangered and he was saved thanks to the auxiliary operation under D. Evmorfopoulos. The enemies withdrew and the Greeks sent thirty heads and two flags as trophies to Athens. Among the Ottomans killed were the leader of the Janissaries, Ibrahim, and Abedin Bey, a nephew of Omer Karystinos and leader of the Delis.

 

The victorious Athenians, preoccupied with plundering the dead, did not pursue the retreating Ottomans who gathered at Kapandriti in order to invade through Kaza and Fili.

In October 1824, a census was taken in revolted Athens, according to which the city had 9,040 inhabitants and 1,605 houses, divided into 35 parishes.

Athens, capital of the independent Greek state
Athens was a small semi-deserted and half-ruined city (from the successive sieges during the Independence Struggle), when it became the capital of the new Kingdom of Greece in 1834.

After the liberation, on the initiative of King Otto, Athens was designated a new capital. In 1834, it was rebuilt to the standards of major European capitals and its extension to the north of the old city was planned by architects Stamatis Cleanthes, Edward Saubert and Royal Councilor Leo von Clenche, and imposing buildings were erected as (now the parliament), the Old Parliament, the Academy, the Zappeion, etc. As the capital of the new Greek state and the center of political developments, Athens has been a place of landmark events in modern Greek history. This is where the Revolution of September 3, 1843 took place, which reshaped the state physiognomy of the state. In the following decades, Athens was rebuilt according to the standards of a modern city. The next phase of great expansion was in 1923 after the Asia Minor Catastrophe, when many neighborhoods were created, mainly anarchically, by refugees from Asia Minor, such as Nea Smyrni, Nea Ionia, Attica, Byron, etc.

The city became the scene of numerous movements and coups for more than 50 years, from the military movement in Goudi, the numerous movements of the Greek interwar period to the coup of April 21, 1967. The first act of the Greek Civil War was played here, in December, as well as Parliamentary democracy was restored after the fall of the junta in 1974.

After World War II
During World War II the city in particular suffered greatly, mainly from famine and suffered great damage. After the war, the city began to grow again, especially in the 1960s, as a result of internal migration from small towns and villages to Athens. The housing problem that was created, was solved by the consideration with the uncontrolled and uncontrolled construction of many apartment buildings in the center and in the suburbs. Unfortunately, many neoclassical buildings were demolished to make way for apartment buildings and buildings of modern architecture. The problems created by the consideration are still perceived, such as the anarchic construction, the minimal green spaces. The population of the refugee settlements created after the Asia Minor Catastrophe moved to apartment buildings in the surrounding areas and soon, neighborhoods such as Dourgouti (New World) changed their appearance, while others, such as Asyrmatos (over which the Philopappos ring road passed) and Polygono or Perdikari (which was turned into a Moustoxydi bridge) were deleted from the map.

Greece's entry into the European Union in 1981 brought new investments to the city, but with problems of traffic and air pollution. The use of catalytic converters has greatly improved the quality of the atmosphere, but without definitively solving the problem that in the 21st century mainly concerns pollutants, such as ozone and suspended subatomic particles. The construction of the sewage treatment center on the islet of Psyttalia, where the wastewater of Athens is treated, improved the quality of the seas and beaches of Attica in the short term, before a problem arose with the disposal of sewage sludge.

The center of the ancient city is located around the hill of the Acropolis, in Thissio and Plaka. These areas today, in addition to their tourist character, are the most expensive zones of the center (along with Syntagma and Kolonaki below the hill of Lycabettus). The historic center of Athens is located in this zone, along with Monastiraki, which is a popular tourist and commercial destination for visitors. Characteristic is the train in Plaka for the tour of tourists, as well as the tourist bus line that goes around the center.

 

The center of the modern city is Syntagma Square, where the old royal palaces are housed, which now house the Parliament, as well as other 19th century public buildings. During the 3 decades that followed the Second World War, many new high-rise buildings were built, which characterize the current image of the city.

Athens is the host city of the first Olympic Games of the modern era (1896) and the Mid-Olympic Games of 1906. In recent years it has also organized the 2004 Olympic Games that last from 13 to 29 August 2004.

The old building of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens on Panepistimiou Avenue is one of the most elegant buildings in Athens along with the building of the National Library and the Academy of Athens. These three buildings, the so-called "Athens Trilogy", were built in the late 19th century. Several of the educational activities of the universities have been transferred today to the University Campus of Zografou. Another great academic school in Athens is the National Technical University of Athens, one of the most important technical institutions in Europe. The Athens University of Economics and Business is located in the same area as the Polytechnic, while the Agricultural University of Athens is located in the area of ​​Votanikos. Other schools are located on the outskirts of the city, such as the Gymnastics Academy of Athens (TEFAA) in Daphne, the School of Pedagogy and Technology Education in Maroussi and others.

Demography
Mycenaean Athens (1,600 - 1,100 BC) may have reached the size of Tiryns. This limits the population to 10 to 15 thousand. the Geometric era in 1,000 BC. the population of Athens was up to 4,000 people. In 700 BC. the population had grown to 10,000. In 500 BC. the state of Athens probably had 200,000 people. And in the classical period in 431 BC. showed a population with different estimates ranging from 150,000 to 350,000 and up to 610,000 according to Thucydides. When Demetrius Falireus conducted a population census in 317 BC. the population was 21,000 free citizens, 10,000 allied settlers and 400,000 slaves, a total of 431,000 in greater Athens.

The municipality of Athens has an official population of 664,046, while together with the four Regional Units (Central, North, South and West Sector of Athens) it has a total population of 2,640,701 (2011 census). Together with the Peripheral Unit of Piraeus, they constitute the Urban Complex of Athens with a population of 3,074,160.

The ancient city of Athens had its center on the rocky hill of the Acropolis. The port of Piraeus was a separate city, but today it has been absorbed by the Athens Urban Complex. The rapid expansion of the city, which continues even today, began in the 1950s and 1960s, due to the evolution of Greece from a rural to an industrial country. The extension today is particularly to the East and Northeast (a trend that is very much related to the new Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport and the Attiki Odos, the highway that crosses Attica). With this process, Athens has integrated many former suburbs and villages in Attica and continues to do so. The table below shows the history of the population of Athens in recent years.

Details
The center of the Greek capital is located in the Municipality of Athens, which is the largest in population in Greece. Piraeus also forms an important center in its own city, within the Urban Complex of Athens, and is the second most populous municipality in it, with Peristeri and Kallithea following.

The Urban Complex of Athens currently consists of 40 municipalities, 35 of which are the municipalities of Greater Athens, integrated into 4 regional units (North Athens, West Athens, Central Athens, South Athens) and 5 more, which are the municipalities of Major Piraeus, belonging to the Regional Unit of Piraeus. The densely populated Urban Complex of the Greek capital is spread over 412 sq.m. throughout the Attica Basin and has a total population of 3,090,508 (in 2011).

The Metropolitan Area of ​​Athens covers 2,928,717 sq.m. in the region of Attica and includes a total of 58 municipalities, which are organized in 7 regional units (the above together with Eastern Attica and Western Attica with a population of 3,753,783. Athens and Piraeus are the two Metropolitan Centers of the Metropolitan Area of ​​Athens There are also some Inter-Municipal Centers, which serve specific areas, for example Maroussi, Kifissia and Glyfada operate as Inter-Municipal Centers for the North, Far North and South suburbs of Athens respectively, while Peristeri serves the Western suburbs.