Sparta was a city-state in Ancient Greece that was built on the banks of the river Evrotas in Laconia in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese. It was a colony of peoples of Boeotia who due to overpopulation left central Greece and colonized the Peloponnese. It has become known in world history for its military strength, discipline and large number of slaves. It is also known in Greek Mythology, mainly for the myth of the Beautiful Helen. The military power of Sparta was due to the system of Education that had been imposed by the legislation of Lycurgus, something that was unique in Ancient Greece. The historical period of Sparta begins after the Descent of the Dorians around 1100 BC (although archeology claims that the descent of the Dorians took place later) and ends during the Roman occupation. The region has been a colony of the peoples of Boeotia since prehistoric times, which explains the political institutions and traditions of Ancient Sparta. In fact, as evidenced by ancient traditions, its inhabitants never forgot their origin from Boeotia.

During Classical Antiquity, Sparta was one of the two most powerful city-states in Ancient Greece, along with Athens. Sparta began to emerge as a political-military force in Greece at the beginning of the Archaic Age after the end of the dark years of the Geometric Age and reached its peak after its victory in the Peloponnesian War over Athens and its allies, when and succeeded in imposing its hegemony and influence on most of the ancient Greek world. Its hegemony did not last long and after its defeats by the Thebans in 371 BC. in Lefkra and in 362 BC. in Mantineia lost its old power, at the same time with the rise of the Kingdom of Macedonia began to play a minor role in Greek affairs. Some flashes in the 3rd century BC. they did not prevent its decline following the fate of the rest of the Greek world conquered by the Romans. However, even during the Roman occupation, it continued to be a pole of attraction due to its rich history.