Tripoli (formerly known as Tripolitsa and Trompolitsa) is a city in the central Peloponnese, the largest city and capital of the Prefecture of Arcadia and the former province of Mantineia. Located in altitude 660 meters. It is also the seat of the Peloponnese Region. The population of the homonymous Municipality is 47,457 inhabitants.
Its original name was Dropolitsa or Dropoltsa or Dorvoglitza, this name either comes from the Greek "Hydropolitsa" (hydropolis) or possibly from a southern Slavic idiom and translates as "the city with the oaks". In a Patriarchal document of 1581 it is referred to as Hydropolitza, "Patriarchal and Stavropegian Land", and with the same name in the first edition of the Geography of the Bishop of Athens Meletios (1661-1714) in 1728. In the second edition of the same work it is referred to as "Tropolitza".
In the last years of the 17th century Tripoli is a large city with a population of over 20,000 inhabitants, only this time Turks and Albanian Muslims were in the majority. During this period Tripoli became Pasaliki.
In 1770, after the Orloff Revolution, the Ottomans punished the Christian inhabitants of the city, exterminating three thousand people and burning their homes on Holy Monday, March 29. Then Anthimos (Varvoglis) was assassinated and five other clergymen were killed. Immediately after the suppression of the revolution of 1770, hordes of Albanians descended on the Peloponnese, who had originally called for help from the Ottomans. They remained in Tripoli, and more generally in Moria until 1779, looting and slaughtering the population, almost deserting the Peloponnese. To restore order, the Sultan ordered an Ottoman army to campaign in the Peloponnese under Admiral Hassan Tzezairlis in 1779. In Tripoli, Hassan subdued the Albanians and erected a pyramid of 4,000 to the east of the city as a trophy. The Peloponnesians and especially the family of the Kolokotronians also took part in the operation against the Albanian robbers.
Later the Ottomans walled the city, erecting a low wall with 7 gates and 13 towers. In 1807 Velis Pasha, son of the legendary Ali Pasha of Ioannina, came and settled in Tripolitsa. He brought with him 12,000 troops and made Tripolitsa the strongest military base of the Turks in southern Greece.
The Fall of Tripoli
The siege of Tripoli began in April 1821 and ended on September 23 of the same year, when the Greeks launched a general attack and liberated the city. Theodoros Kolokotronis, who during the revolution considered the occupation of Tripoli necessary for the success of the revolution, states in his diary about its liberation: "The askeri where he was inside, the Greek, cut and killed, from Friday to "Sunday, women, children and men, thirty-two thousand. My horse from the walls to the slums did not tread on the ground. One hundred Greeks were killed."
The occupation of the Ottoman administrative and military center was more than necessary for the consolidation of the revolution in the Peloponnese. The siege of Tripoli, in which more than twenty thousand Muslim civilians and several thousand militants had gathered, lasted several months, until the last days of September.
Especially in the last month, when the siege had become suffocating and the city's supplies were exhausted, many Christians had gathered in the Greek camp looking forward to the loot they would gain from the conquest of the city. The fall of Tripoli was followed by scenes of blind violence. Thousands of Ottomans, mostly civilians, but also the Jews of the city fell victim to an indescribable massacre that lasted three days. The sources do not agree on the number of victims. It is most likely that during the three days of the conquest, about 16,000 Turks, Jews and Albanians were slaughtered, as well as about a hundred Greeks from the rebel army.
After the Fall
In 1825 it came under the rule of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, who made it his regional capital.
After the Battle of Navarino, Ibrahim arrived in the city on February 9, 1827, leading an army of 12,000 men, coming from Messinia. In order not to let his opponents use Tripolitsa as a base against his positions, but also as an act of revenge, he blew up its walls and set fire to all the houses and public buildings, mosques, boxes, churches, inns and fountains. . It is even said that Ibrahim himself started the destruction in a rage, while his characteristic action was that he ordered the Turkish patronage inscription to be taken down above the Gate of Nafplio, which he destroyed with his own hands. The chronicle of the destruction of the city was recorded by Rigas Palamidis, an eyewitness and fighter from Tripoli.
In 1830 the population of Tripoli was only 3,380 souls and the houses, along with the workshops, about 750, most of them single-storey. Between 1842-57 several Cretans settled in Tripoli. The first school was inaugurated in 1831, while the first High School in 1850. The first Mayor of Tripoli was Giannakos Petrinos in 1835.
Geography and climate
Tripoli has a Mediterranean climate, classified as category C in the Kepen climate classification. The city stretches on an extensive plateau, in the center of the Peloponnese, which is located at an altitude of 650 meters. It is surrounded on all sides by mountains with dense vegetation, of which the highest and closest is Mainalo to the northeast. The southwestern part of the plateau consisted of wetlands, which were gradually drained and used as arable land. Due to its continental location and high altitude, the climate of Tripoli is variable between the Mediterranean and the mainland, with hot dry summers and cold winters. Summer temperatures can exceed 38 degrees, while in winter temperatures have been observed even below -10 degrees Celsius. Snow or sleet can appear several times from late October to early April, as well as many foggy or frosty mornings during the same time period.
The detailed climatic data are summarized in the following table:
Metropolitan Church of St. Basil of Tripoli. Dedicated to St.
Basil, it was built on the site of the Bekir Pasha Mosque. The
inauguration of the church took place on 06-11-1855 and the
construction of the whole building lasted several decades with
various modifications of the original plan. It was deemed
appropriate to maintain several shops and workshops below and around
the temple in order to contribute through their rental to the
completion of the temple.
Areos Square. It was formed in the place where the serai was located. Its formation began in 1858 on the initiative of Sotirios D. Lagopatis and was completed after 1862 after the expropriation of properties. It got its name from the high schools of the infantry battalion, which were held in that area. There is also the marble column with the names of the heroes who played a leading role in the liberation of Tripoli and Greece from the Turks in 1821. Among the first class heroes was the last Moragianis (representative of all the representatives of the Peloponnese) of Peloponnese, Peloponnese Deligiannis, who, being held hostage by the Turks, was sacrificed in favor of the Greek Struggle and executed by the Turks before the Fall of Tripoli by the Greeks, because his brother General Kanellos Papagiannopoulos - Deligiannis did not end the siege of Tripoli but its fall.
Central Square of Tripoli or Agios Vassilios Square. It was formed during the period 1847-1848. The construction and tree planting of the central square is estimated to have been the work of the first mayor of Tripoli, Ioannis Petrinou (1835-1841).
Archaeological Museum of Tripoli. It is housed in the old "Evangelistria" hospital, founded by the nun Anastasia Demestiha, in a neoclassical building by the architect Ernest Ziller. The building operated as a hospital from 1913 to 1951. The establishment of the archaeological museum was decided in 1980 under the ministry of A. Andrianopoulos and was inaugurated in September 1986 by Melina Mercouri, under the mayorship of Theodoros Sechiotis.
The Malliaropoulio Municipal Theater of Tripoli
The Museum of Alexandros Papanastasiou
The Kapsia Cave
The Grove of Agios Georgios Tripoli extends to 185 acres, is located one kilometer from the center of Tripoli Arcadia and has trails for visitors. The church of Agios Georgios is located in the Grove, as well as the stone horseshoe of the exemplary theater. Performances take place in the theater in the summers under the auspices of the Municipality of Tripoli and there are musical evenings. The zoo, within the Grove, hosts a representative specimen of local fauna. There are also shops inside the wooded area.
The archeological site of ancient Mantineia includes an ancient theater, which is utilized by the Archaeological Service of the Prefecture.
The modern church of Agia Fotini in the area of ancient Mantineia stands out for its peculiar architecture.
The Grand Cafe, located in the central square of Agios Vassilios and is one of the oldest and most historic buildings of the Municipality of Tripoli.
Villa Tourkovasili, home of the politician Theodoros Tourkovasili.
The Synadinou House is the house where the playwright Theodoros Synadinos was born. It is a remarkable neoclassical, mansion, since his family was very prosperous. The house has two floors. The ground floor used to house shops and the house itself was on the 1st floor. This is a classic example of the old, Tripoli mansion.
The Court House of Tripoli is a historic building in Areos Square. The mansion was founded in 1914 and inaugurated in 1934. It still has excellent stonework, elegant columns, its gable and red windows, while its interior decoration is rich. The building is two-storey outside, with another basement. On its ground floor, the engraved messages from the future deaths of the resistance exist and are preserved. Undoubtedly, a large part of the history of Tripoli has been written in the courthouse
Zacharopoulos House. Zacharopoulos house is one of the oldest neoclassical buildings in Tripoli and is located on Ethnomartyron Street. It was built in 1843 by the architect Stamatis Cleanthis. It is a two-storey marble building that has lion heads on its balcony.
Mantzounio Foundation. The Matzounio or Mantzounio foundation was built on the ruins of the catholic church of the Virgin. It is located on Georgiou AD Street and it is a building that originally belonged to the Diocese of Hydropolitsa and Amyklon. It was built during the four years 1854-1856 during the mayoralty of D. Galanopoulos, on the site of the ruins of the katholikon of the old Hydropolitza and Amykla. In 1859 the girls' school operated there and in 1860 it housed the 2nd Primary School of Tripoli. Later, in 1927, the building was bought by brothers Andreas and Dimitrios Mantzounis, who were originally merchants in Tripoli, but from 1899 had moved their professional activities to Athens, where they developed into large industrialists. In 1929 the Mantzounio Foundation was inaugurated and operated, which until then was known as the Catholic. The library of the Panos Association was housed in the extreme western part of the building, while in the following years it housed the Public Library of the city and the Philharmonic Orchestra of the Municipality of Tripoli.
Costa Karyotaki House. The elegant two-storey building, located at the junction of Erythrou Stavrou and Kostas Karyotakis streets, was the paternal home of the poet Kostas Karyotakis. Konstantinos Karyotakis, grandson of Athanasios Skagiannis, was born in Tripoli on October 30, 1896. The house is a representative example of the neoclassical style. The building belonged to Karyotakis's mother, Aikaterini Skagianni. His mother's family was one of the most prominent families in Tripoli. Karyotakis followed his family to the many relocations, due to the transfer of his father, who was a civil engineer. The purchase of Karyotakis' house from the Peloponnese Region took place in 1994. In 1998 the building was renovated by the Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works. The plans envisaged the building to become the seat of services of the Region or a modern folklore museum or house of poetry. Finally, in 1999 it housed the Rector's Office of the University of Peloponnese based in Tripoli.
The Theological School of Tripoli is located in Tripoli, Arcadia.
The building that is housed belonged to the Galinos couple and was
built in 1857, while the establishment of the historical theological
school took place in 1858. The ecclesiastical education during the
Ottoman period was a requirement of the clergy to the palace. The
conditions of the revolution had deprived the church of educated
clergy and this gap had to be filled quickly. So, after persistent
consultations, it was decided in 1833 to establish the first three
hierarchical schools. But we had to reach 1858 to fulfill this
dream. As we read in the newspaper "Veltiosis" of January 1858:
"Every Greek heart, and orthodox Christian rejoiced for the
establishment of the Theological Schools in the free state of
Greece. Three Hierarchical Schools were decided by the Kingdom as
currently being established in the Mainland, the Islands and the
Peloponnese. And by Royal Decree each seat was appointed. The
Peloponnese is defined as the most central, most populous and
healthiest Mediterranean city, Tripoli… »
Tripoli Railway Station is a traditional station, a typical example of the 19th century. The film adaptation of Antonis Samarakis' short story "At a border station" was shot in this space, due to its completely preserved character. It has a stone overlay as well as a central gate. The railway union with Athens gave a great impetus to trade. The old company "Railways Piraeus - Athens - Peloponnese" inaugurated the train in 1892 and became a landmark for all of Arcadia. After the delivery of the line to Kalamata, Tripoli was a station throughout the southern axis of Greece. It became a commercial center of the Peloponnese and experienced a rapid rise. The train station is located at an altitude of 665 meters. It is kept in excellent condition, although nowadays it is inactive.
The building of the former Prefecture of Arcadia is located in Independence Square of Tripoli and is a building of neoclassical architecture that formerly housed the National Bank of Greece. It has two floors, like most 19th century buildings and has a tiled roof. The circular square seems to be an extension of the building and creates a harmonious ensemble with the Theological School of Tripoli. Independence Square is one of the corners of Tripoli that have kept the character of the old city.
The 11th Infantry Regiment, which is one of the most historic regiments in Greece, with a decisive contribution to the modern struggles of modern Greece.