Description of Amsterdam

Amsterdam is the official capital of the Netherlands. The city is located between the Bay of the IJ, to the north, and the banks of the Amstel River, to the southeast. It was founded in the 12th century as a small fishing village. However, at present it is the largest city in the country and a great financial and cultural center of international projection. It has a population of about 810 000 inhabitants and approximately 1.5 million reside in its metropolitan area. It should be noted that Amsterdam is part of the great Dutch conurbation called Randstad (together with the cities of The Hague, Rotterdam and Utrecht), which has more than 6.5 million inhabitants. This nucleus is one of the largest conurbations in Europe.

The historic center of the city was built largely in the 17th century and is nowadays one of the largest historical centers in Europe. At that time a series of semicircular canals were built around the existing old town. Then the new streets that had been created with houses and warehouses were built in a typical Dutch style that is one of the most famous images of Amsterdam and the country. Like other northern European cities with an abundance of water, such as Bruges, Hamburg and Stockholm, it is colloquially known as the "Venice of the North."

Although during almost all its history (except between 1808-1810) it has been the official capital of the Netherlands, it has never been the seat of justice, the government or the Dutch parliament, since all these bodies are in the city of The Hague, which is therefore the main city of the country with respect to politics and justice. Amsterdam is not the capital of the province of North Holland, which has always been Haarlem.


The settlement history of Amsterdam begins more than 4,600 years ago at the end of the New Stone Age. Excavations from the period 2005-2009 under Damrak and Rokin revealed utensils and bones of utility animals from that period.

Around the year 1000, the swampy area, then called Aemestelle, was reclaimed from the Utrecht region. Drain ditches were dug on both sides from various existing peat streams and a farming community of land reclaimers was created, as elsewhere in the peat area between the Gooi and the Dutch dunes. When the peat began to settle as a result of drainage, dikes had to be built to protect the now lower-lying land from the water.

In the 13th century this led to the construction of dikes along the Zuiderzee and the IJ, such as the Spaarndammerdijk and Diemerzeedijk. In the estuary of the Amstel, probably shortly after the floods of 1170 and 1173, the dam from which Amsterdam takes its name was constructed. Part of the Amstel could have been dug. The part of the river offshore, the Damrak, was the beginning of the Amsterdam harbor. The river on the other side of the Dam was partly drained, the Rokin. At the beginning of the 20th century, remnants of that dam were found on the spot between the National Monument and the De Bijenkorf building.

The oldest mention of Amsterdam is in a document of 27 October 1275, in which Count Floris V grants the residents toll-free. There is uncertainty about the exact date on which Amsterdam was granted city rights. One of the possibilities is that the Utrecht bishop Guy van Avesnes granted the place city rights in 1300-1301, because he speaks in a charter from that time about 'onsen poiteren van Aemstelredamme' (Onze Poorters van Amsterdam). He explicitly calls the citizens 'burgesses', which indicates that city rights had been granted. However, little more can be said about the exact time of the attribution than that the time is around or shortly after 1300. In 1342 Amsterdam received a new city charter from the Dutch count Willem IV.

Soon after, the toll on beer followed. The contacts around the beer trade with Hamburg were the springboard for the Baltic Sea trade and the beginning of Amsterdam as a trading city. In the 15th century, Amsterdam had grown into the most important trading city in Holland. As the city expanded, ring-shaped canals were dug for defense and water management. The houses were built on a foundation of long wooden poles that rested on the sand layer below the marshy soil layer. The use of wood as a building material made the city vulnerable to city fires during the Middle Ages. In 1421 this destroyed a third and in 1452 even three quarters of the city. In 1597 and 1679, somewhat smaller fires took place in Amsterdam.

The city soon acquired a tradition of civil administration, with an important role for the councilors: a college of prominent citizens who appointed the most administrators.

The city council joined the revolt against Spain (Alteration) in 1578, mainly because of trade interests. After the capture of Antwerp by the Spaniards in 1585, many Antwerp residents came to Amsterdam with their trade network. Among many other factors, their arrival and that of Portuguese Jews played an important role in what is called the Golden Age of Amsterdam and Holland.

The population of Amsterdam increased rapidly during that period due to an explosive influx of foreigners. Around 1570 Amsterdam had less than 30,000 inhabitants, by 1622 their number had grown to more than 100,000. By the end of the 17th century, the population exceeded 200,000 and Amsterdam, together with London, Naples and Paris, was among the largest cities in Europe. Population growth necessitated a large-scale expansion of the city, which is due to the concentric canal belt with its merchant houses and warehouses.

After that, the growth of the city slowed and construction activities came to an end around 1680. An abundance of ready-to-build land was available on the east side of the Amstel. Lots were given out to charities and the Plantage was used as a walking park. From the mid-18th century, the population declined again, reaching a low point around 1815 with approximately 140,000 inhabitants.

In the 19th century there was a slow recovery and around 1850 Amsterdam started to expand beyond the 17th century Singelgracht. In 1825 the water connection with Den Helder was established with the newly dug Noordhollandsch Kanaal. In 1839 the Amsterdam - Haarlem route was opened as the first railway in the Netherlands. Since 1876, the North Sea Canal has been the direct connection between the Amsterdam harbor and the locks at IJmuiden that provide access to the North Sea.


With the dawn of the industrial revolution, a new period of expansion began. Renewal of trade, new industry and a population explosion that was absorbed in the 19th century belt. The population doubled from about 250,000 around 1850 to 510,000 in 1900.

The social abuses that accompanied the industrial revolution made Amsterdam a center of Dutch social democracy and led to large-scale urban expansions (Plan Zuid, Plan West and AUP). During the Great Depression in the 1930s, the Amsterdamse Bos (Boschplan) was built by unemployed people. The reduction in unemployment benefits in 1934 led to the Jordan riot, which left five dead.

The Second World War took the lives of about 110,000 Amsterdammers. The majority of the sizeable Jewish community, about 75,000 Jews, did not survive the occupation. The resistance movement was extensive in Amsterdam, and produced groups such as Vrij Nederland and the artists' resistance with Gerrit van der Veen. Anne Frank went into hiding in the city and wrote her world-famous diary there. The Hunger Winter also took a high toll in the city, as in the whole of the western Netherlands. The physical war damage was ultimately limited compared to cities such as Rotterdam and The Hague. Most damage was caused in 1943 by the Allied bombing of Amsterdam-Noord, in which more than 200 people died.

After the war, the General Expansion Plan was largely implemented, as the Western Garden Cities and Buitenveldert emerged. Amsterdam-Noord also underwent a major expansion. The Western Docklands were also constructed as part of the AUP. The existing city was also changed: urban development plans in the 1960s and 1970s resulted in, among other things, the construction of a metro line and the demolition of large parts of the old Jewish neighborhoods and new construction. In 1966, mayor Ivo Samkalden dug the first pile for the construction of 5,000 homes into the ground in the Bijlmermeer polder.

The social face of the city also changed in the decades after the Second World War. In the 1950s, a liberal stance on the part of the city government had enabled an early rise of gay nightlife venues, which was later followed by the social emancipation of homosexuals, which made Amsterdam the gay capital of Europe for several decades.

The large number of protests and social movements in the city regularly caused riots and uprisings. In the wake of the Parisian student uprisings in the 1960s, the artistic anarchist Provo movement arose in Amsterdam, which fought against the authorities with playful actions, such as happenings around Het Lieverdje (Spui), but also with the lighting of a smoke bomb during the wedding of Princess Beatrix and Prince Claus in March 1966. In June of the same year, a construction workers' uprising took place. During these so-called Telegraph riots one person was killed and dozens injured, after which the mayor and the police commissioner had to resign. Riots also broke out on August 25, 1970 when the sleeping ban took effect at the National Monument on Dam Square. For three days it was restless in the city with scattered riots, injuries and vandalism, whereby a group of marines acted illegally against mainly alternative, long-haired youths. Later, the youngsters and hippies would no longer spend the night in the Dam, but in the Vondelpark. Citizens and local residents protested on a large scale against municipal plans for demolition of the former Jewish neighborhoods with replacement new buildings above the new metro line to be built. A major demonstration in 1975 resulted in the Nieuwmarkt riots.


In the 1970s and 1980s, many, especially young, new Amsterdammers from the middle classes resisted the great shortage of affordable housing, the high vacancy rate, the neglect of housing blocks and the impoverishment of 19th-century neighborhoods. As a protest and as a practical solution, they occupied vacant buildings, renovated and moved in. From the early 1980s, there were repeated demonstrations and widespread opposition to evictions. Many local residents sympathized with the squatters. In March 1980, tanks rolled through the city to demolish barricades against an eviction of buildings in Vondelstraat. Another climax was the Coronation Riot on April 30, 1980 ("No house, no coronation") around the inauguration of Princess Beatrix as the new queen of the Netherlands in the Nieuwe Kerk on Dam Square. There were mainly on and around the Rokin burning barricades and there was fighting between the Mobile Unit and demonstrators, with at least 400 injured. In the years that followed there were regular squatters' riots, but on a smaller scale. Peaceful was the great peace demonstration against cruise missiles on November 21, 1981 with 400,000 participants. On the other hand, victims were killed in a fire at Hotel Polen on the Rokin in May 1977, in which 33 people were killed. The building of the De Slegte bookshop next door also went up in flames, causing a large number of valuable antiquarian books to be lost.

In the 1970s and 1980s, urban renewal began in the city center and both families and companies moved out of the city center in search of more space. The arrival of highly educated and well-earning young people in their place strengthened support for the catering industry and all kinds of other service activities. From 1984 on, the number of inhabitants increased again after twenty years.

Since the 1990s, the edges of the city have also been transformed and expanded. In the Bijlmermeer, which has become notorious as a disadvantaged district and as the site of a plane crash in 1992, the characteristic honeycomb flats made way for renewal to improve the living environment. Another renewal operation is the transformation of the Eastern Docklands from a dilapidated port area into a modern residential area. At the same time, the city expanded outwards again, with, for example, the construction of the new neighborhoods De Aker and Nieuw Sloten in the southwest of the city and, more recently, the development of the IJburg neighborhood on a number of artificial islands in the IJmeer. With the start of the construction of the Zuidas business district, the city has also made a start on an important economic urban expansion.

Amsterdam is located in the province of North Holland, in the west of the Netherlands. It is located on the Amstel and the IJ. The port of Amsterdam is connected to the North Sea via the North Sea Canal. The water-rich city has many canals, the city center is divided into about 90 'islands'. There are 31 numbered locks. Of the 1,943 numbered bridges and viaducts in the municipality, 252 are located in the city center. Of these, 902 have a name. The city center is approximately one meter above sea level and, like the surrounding area, has a very flat (polder) landscape, which in some cases, such as at the Haarlemmermeer, Watergraafsmeer and the Beemster, was created by the reclamation of former lakes.

Amsterdam is located in an area with a moderate maritime climate, with weather patterns strongly influenced by the proximity of the North Sea to the west and the accompanying westerly-oriented winds and storms. Winter temperatures are mild; above zero on average, although frost is not uncommon during periods with easterly or northeasterly winds from the European interior, such as from Scandinavia and Russia, deep into Siberia. Summers are warm, but rarely hot.

Days with high rainfall are regularly observed, but the annual rainfall does not exceed 800 mm. Most precipitation falls as persistent drizzle or light rain. During a storm, for example, a large amount of precipitation can be supplied in one go, after which the pumps around the city must be used to transfer the water to higher ground and the sea. The presence of many water basins means that cloudy and humid days are common, especially in the cooler months from October to March.


Travel Destinations in Amsterdam

Amsterdam was first mentioned as Aemstelledamme ("dam on the Amstel river") in 1204. The city has been known as Aemsterdam since 1327. In 1421 and 1452, there were two major fires in the city, after which several wooden buildings remained. In 1558, the Dutch began an uprising against the Spaniards, the local nobility demanded more political power and freedom of religion. The inhabitants of Amsterdam sided with the Spaniards, but it hurt the development of trade. Amsterdam flourished in the XVII century. Worldwide trade and overseas possessions have made Amsterdam the center of shipping in Europe and the world's leading financial center. The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were turbulent. The city's economy suffered from the loss of trade opportunities with the colonies and from the ongoing wars with Britain and France. During world war II, Amsterdam was under German occupation. About 100 thousand Jews were deported from it. The diamond trade, which had been one of the leading industries of the city before the war, was almost completely destroyed, as these enterprises were mostly owned by Jews. The cultural revolution of the 1960s and 1970s revolutionized Amsterdam. Mass immigration from the former colonies and the tolerant attitude of the authorities to left-wing youth groups led to the spread of light drugs, the seizure of buildings and clashes with the police. By the beginning of the XXI century Amsterdam lost its "revolutionary charm" and became a popular place of residence for wealthy Europeans. Poor neighborhoods were built up with expensive housing, squats and coffee shops were closed, and prostitution was banned everywhere except in the red light district. Nevertheless, Amsterdam remained a progressive and tolerant city.

Tourist information
The I amsterdam City Card allows you to visit the museums and attractions of Amsterdam of your choice at no additional cost, as well as to use public transport without restrictions. The card costs € 55 for 24 hours, € 65 for 48 hours, € 75 for 72 hours and € 85 for 96 hours.

Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam)

Stadhouderskade 42

Tel. 020- 674 7047

Trolley: 2, 5, 6, 7, 10

Open: 9am- 6pm daily

Closed: Jan 1

The Rijksmuseum is the largest art museum in the city. It opened in 1885 and over time gathered a collection of over one million items including one of the most famous painters including Rebrandt, Ferdinand Bol, Albert Cuyp, Van der Helst, Frans Hals, Paulus Potter, Javob von Ruisdael and many others.


Museum Het Rembrandthuis (Amsterdam)

Museum Het Rembrandthuis is a former townhouse where Rembrandt (1606- 69) worked and lived.

Oude Kerk (Amsterdam)

Oudekerksplein 23

Tel. 020- 625 8284

Trolley: 4, 9, 16, 24, 25

Open: daily

Closed: Jan 1, Dec 25


Nieuwe Kerk (Amsterdam)


Tel. 020- 638 6909

Trolley: 1, 2, 4, 5

Museum Amstelkring (Amsterdam)



Anne Frankhuis (Amsterdam)

Prinsengracht 263

Tel. 020- 556 7100

Trolley: 13, 14, 17

Open: daily

Closed: Yom Kippur


A house where Anna Frank hid with her family from the Nazis until they were betrayed and arrested.


Amsterdams Historisch Museum (Amsterdam)

Kalverstraat 92
Tel. 020- 523 1822
Trolley: 1, 2, 4, 5, 9
Open: daily
Closed: Jan 1, Apr 30, Dec 25


Red Light District (Amsterdam)

Trolley: 4, 9, 14, 16, 24, 25

Koninklijk Paleis (Amsterdam)


Tel. 020- 624 8698

Trolley: 1, 2, 4, 5

Closed: public holidays


Joods Historisch Museum (Amsterdam)

Nieuwe Amstelstraat 1

Tel. 020- 531 0310

Trolley: 9, 14

Open: daily

Closed: Yom Kippur


Begijnhof (Amsterdam)


Trolley: 1, 2, 4, 5


Golden Band (Amsterdam)

Trolley: 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 14


How to get here

By plane
Amsterdam International Airport - Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (Schiphol) (IATA: AMS) (ICAO: EHAM) is one of the largest airports in the world. The airport is 15 kilometers southwest of the city. The airport is a major transit hub. It is the base for the national airline company KLM, currently merged with Air France.

From Russia to Amsterdam you can get direct regular flights of Aeroflot and KLM airlines from Moscow (4 direct flights per day) and St. Petersburg (1 flight per day).

Transavia,, Easyjet are low-cost airlines flying to Schiphol that can deliver passengers to almost anywhere in Europe.

Schiphol is a very large airport, so try to arrive at it in advance, especially when flying to the USA. If you have free time at the airport, visit the branch of the State Museum (Rijksmuseum), located between terminals E and F (non-Schengen area), which is free and is open daily from 7:00 to 20:00. There is free internet at the airport, which you can use for unlimited time.

Coin lockers are located at each airport terminal. The cost of one locker starts from € 6 for 24 hours. The maximum storage period for luggage is 7 days.

You can get from Schiphol to Amsterdam by various means of transport.

To Schiphol by train
You can get from the airport to the city by a direct train, which arrives at Amsterdam Central Station (Amsterdam Centraal). Travel time from 15 minutes (depending on the number of stops), cost from € 3.80. You can buy tickets at the box office or in the yellow machines, which are located on the entire floor near the box office. Not all machines accept coins; for the most part, machines accept credit or debit cards. Buying a ticket at the box office will cost € 0.5 more. During peak hours, trains run up to 5 times per hour, at night - once per hour. Also from Schiphol you can get to any city in the Netherlands and some cities in Germany and Belgium.

To Schiphol by bus
If you are staying near Leidseplein or Museumplein, you can take a bus from the airport to the southwest of Amsterdam's central area. Round-trip ticket price € 10, subject to a return trip on another day. Buses run every 15 minutes, and reach the final point in 30 minutes. The bus stop at the airport is located near the exit of the airport through a revolving door opposite the huge video walls. Buses from Routes No. 197 and No. 370 go to Leidseplein in Amsterdam. The first bus leaves at 5:13, the last at 0:00. From midnight to 5:00 a night bus (Nightline) follows between the city and the airport. The bus runs once an hour.

To Schiphol by taxi
If possible, refrain from taking a taxi from the airport to the city. Taxis are a very expensive form of transport and prices may vary. Prices for travel from the airport to Leidseplein start at € 46, and you will cover this distance in 25 minutes at best. If you do not have another choice of transport, it is better to pre-order a taxi on the sites, which will guarantee a fixed price for the trip.

Other types of transport
Comfortable minibuses (Schiphol Airport Hotel Shuttle) run between Schiphol Airport and over 100 Amsterdam hotels. Schedule from 6:00 to 21:00. Buses depart every 10 minutes from the A7 platform, located immediately outside the arrivals hall. For the return route to the airport, you must first book a minibus two hours before leaving the hotel. Tickets can be purchased at tour hotels. offices and at the checkout near arrival hall No. 4. The cost and time of departure of buses from the airport and hotel can be found here.

If you plan to rent a car in Schiphol there are several companies that provide this service. Car rental desks are at the same level as the arrival hall and work mainly from 6:00 to 23:00. The A4 motorway runs through the airport, connecting Amsterdam, Leiden, The Hague and Delft. The trip to the Amsterdam A10 ring road is about 10 minutes.

Other airports
Sometimes it is cheaper to fly to other Dutch cities, and from there from the airport get to Amsterdam by bus or train. You can rent a car or take a taxi (the fare will be more than € 130 from Rotterdam, and from Eindhoven even more expensive).


Eindhoven Airport - “Eindhoven Airport N.V.” (IATA: EIN) (ICAO: EHEH) is located from the center of Amsterdam at a distance of 107 kilometers in a straight line. To get from Eindhoven airport to Amsterdam, you must first get to the train station in Eindhoven by bus 401, which runs every 10 minutes on weekdays, every 15 minutes on Saturday and once every 30 minutes on Sunday. The fare to Eindhoven Central Station is € 2.03, the duration of the trip is 25 minutes. From the train station to Amsterdam, it is best to take a train. Direct trains run from 2 to 4 times per hour, travel time is about 1 hour 25 minutes. The fare is € 17.50. The schedule of buses and trains can be found on the website There are also direct buses to Amsterdam from the airport 3-4 times a day. Travel time is about 2 hours 15 minutes. Ticket price € 25.50.

Rotterdam Airport - “Rotterdam The Hague Airport” (IATA: RTM) (ICAO: EHRD) is located from the center of Amsterdam at a distance of 57 kilometers in a straight line. To get from Rotterdam Airport to Amsterdam, you must first get to Rotterdam Railway Station by bus number 33. The bus runs every 10-15 minutes, the duration of the trip is about 30-40 minutes. From the station in Rotterdam you can get to the central station in Amsterdam by train, which leaves every 20 minutes. The cost of the trip is € 13.60, duration - 1 hour 10 minutes.

Other airports you could use:

Groningen Elde Airport - Groningen Airport Eelde (IATA: GRQ) (ICAO: EHGG) is located 144 kilometers in a straight line from Amsterdam.
Maastricht Aachen Airport - “Maastricht Aachen Airport” (IATA: MST) (ICAO: EHBK) is located 173 kilometers in a straight line from Amsterdam.
Weeze Lower Rhine Airport - Verkehrsflughafen Niederrhein (IATA: NRN) (ICAO: EDLV) is located 121 kilometers in a straight line from Amsterdam.
Antwerp International Airport - Internationale Luchthaven Antwerpen (IATA: ANR) (ICAO: EBAW) is located 135 kilometers in a straight line from Amsterdam.
Brussels Airport - Luchthaven Brussel-Nationaal (IATA: BRU) (ICAO: EBBR) is located 167 kilometers in a straight line from Amsterdam.

By train
Most trains in Amsterdam arrive at the central station (Netherlands. Centraal Station), which is located in the city center. The train arrives mainly trains of the national railway operator, including express from the airport. Other important railway stations in Amsterdam are: Duivendrecht (Dutch Duivendrecht) and Beilmer ArenA (Nij. Bijlmer-ArenA) in the south-east of the city, Amstel (Nider. Amstel) and Muiderport (Nider. Muiderpoort) in the east, RAI (Nider. RAI) and Zuid PTS (Dutch. Zuid-WTC) in the south, Lelilaan (Dutch. Lelylaan) and Sloterdijk (Dutch. Sloterdijk) in the west. Schiphol Airport also has its own train station, from which trains depart for other cities in the Netherlands and surrounding countries.

Trains from the following companies arrive at Amsterdam Main Station:

Thalys is an international high-speed train operator connecting Amsterdam and Paris (travel time 3 hours 19 minutes), Brussels (1 hour 54 minutes), Antwerp (1 hour 12 minutes), Marseille (6 hours 58 hours), Avignon (6 hours 11 minutes), Aix-en-Provence (6 hours 39 minutes), Valence (5 hours 30 minutes). The cheapest tickets for these trains are sold long before the train leaves, so you need to book a ticket in advance if you want to save. If you eat first class, then food and drinks are included in the ticket price.
InterCity trains to Belgium - international trains. From Amsterdam you can get, for example, to Brussels (2 hours 51 minutes) or Antwerp (2 hours 9 minutes). These trains are cheaper than Thalys trains, but the travel time to the stations is longer. Tickets for these trains can be bought before departure at the station, or can be purchased online from the company’s website.
ICE International is a Frankfurt am Main - Amsterdam service company founded by German and Dutch Railways. With these trains from Amsterdam you can get to Cologne (travel time 2 hours 41 minutes), Frankfurt (3 hours 46 minutes), Dusseldorf (2 hours 16 minutes). There are also direct trains to Basel (6 hours 43 minutes).
InterCity trains to Berlin - international trains to Germany. With these trains you can reach Osnabruck (travel time 3 hours 8 minutes), Hanover (4 hours 20 minutes) and Berlin (6 hours 22 minutes). These trains leave Amsterdam Zuid Station from South Station, from where you can get to the city center by tram number 5 or metro line 51 towards the central station (Centraal Station). You can also go to the station Hilversum (Dutch. Hilversum) and transfer by train to the central station (Centraal Station).

Night trains from Amsterdam (CityNightLine / Euronight). These trains leave from the central station and travel to Copenhagen (1 night), Warsaw (1 night), Minsk (1 night and 1 day), Moscow (1 night and 1 day), Prague (1 night), Munich (1 night) and Zurich (1 night). By traveling on such trains, you can save money on a hotel. In these trains, you can spend the night in carriages with folding seats (only on trains to Warsaw, Munich and Zurich), or in 4- or 6-seater compartment cars, or 3, 2 or 1-seater separate compartments with your toilet and sink. Breakfast is included in the ticket price in compartment cars, but you can also buy food in special places on the train.
From Moscow to Amsterdam there is a direct train Moscow - Amsterdam (the distance between cities by rail is 2,596 kilometers). Departure from Moscow daily at 23:44, arrival in Amsterdam at 9:59 in a day (travel time 36 hours 15 minutes). The train leaves Amsterdam daily at 19:01, arriving in Moscow at 9:37 in a day (travel time 36 hours 36 minutes). The train goes through the cities: Smolensk, Minsk, Brest, Warsaw, Berlin, Cologne.

If you want to take a train to Amsterdam, you can find out the train schedules and plan your trip on this site. Most tickets are sold online, so it’s best to book a ticket in advance, which can be cheaper. Tickets can also be purchased at international ticket offices at the Centraal Station or Schiphol Airport, or visit the Treinreiswinkel train ticket sales office in Amsterdam at 393 Singel.

By car
The following freeways pass through Amsterdam:

A1: Amsterdam - Hilversum - Amersfoort - Apeldoorn - Deventer - Hengelo - Germany. Then the route follows to Germany, where it is called “Bundesautobahn 30” (which also has a short name: “Autobahn 30” and the abbreviations: “BAB 30” or “A 30”). The length of the highway in the Netherlands is about 186 kilometers.
A2: Amsterdam - Utrecht - Hertogenbosch - Eindhoven - Werth - Gehlen - Maastricht - Belgium. The route crosses the border between the Netherlands and Belgium between the cities of Eisden and Wiese. The length in the Netherlands is about 270 kilometers.
A4: Amsterdam - Schiphol Airport - Leiden - The Hague - Delft. The route follows the territory of the Netherlands to Delft, where it is interrupted, and then after Rotterdam, and then continues in the area of ​​the village of Halsteren and through Bergen-op-Zom leaves for Belgium, where it has the name "A12". The length of the highway with gaps of about 250 kilometers.
A6: Amsterdam - Almere - Lelystad - Emmelord - Jaure. The motorway branches off from the A1 motorway in the area of ​​Muiderberg and goes north to Jaure (province in Friesland).
A7: Amsterdam - Zaandam - Purmerend - Hoorn - Middenmer - Afslejtdeyk dam - Sneck - Jaure - Heerenveen - Drachten - Groningen - Niuschans - Germany. This motorway is part of the European route "E22". The highway branches off from the A8 in the Zaandam area and follows north. Through the Afslejtdeyk dam, the city of Groningen, the road leaves for Germany in the state of Lower Saxony to the city of Bremen. The length of the route in the Netherlands is 251 kilometers.
A8: Amsterdam - Zanstad. A 10-kilometer motorway from Amsterdam to the Zaanstad community.
A9: Amsterdam - Amstelveen - Haarlem - Beverwijk - Alkmaar. The highway is connected to the A1, passes around Amsterdam at a distance of about 10 kilometers from the city center parallel to the A10 ring highway, and after Schiphol Airport goes north through Haarlem to Alkmaar. The length of the highway is 70 kilometers.
A10: 32-kilometer-long Amsterdam ring road.

Speed ​​limits on freeways are 120 km / h, unless otherwise indicated. On the “A10” ring highway, the speed limit is 100 km / h, except for the western part, where the limit is up to 80 km / h. Speed ​​limits are strictly observed, and many cameras are installed on the tracks.

All motorways leading to Amsterdam abut the A10 ring road, from which you can reach the city center via radial roads.

But it is better not to drive to the city center without special need, but to leave the car in the parking lot. You can see signs for paid parking while moving along the Amsterdam "A10" ring highway. P + R parking lots: Zeburg (P + R Zeeburg) in the east, Arena (P + R ArenA) in the southeast, Olympic stadium (P + R Olympisch Stadion) in the south and Sloterdijk in the east . If you want to get free tickets for public transport to get to the center of Amsterdam, do not use a plastic card at the entrance to the parking lot. You can ask the parking attendant for a chip card for use in public transport (chip cards are not valid on night buses). For € 8 you will get 5 tickets for public transport. But in order to get a discount on parking, you must use these tickets and present them to the parking attendant when returning and paying for parking.


By bus
Most international buses arriving in Amsterdam are owned by EuroLines (29 Eurolines). Buses arrive at the terminal located near the Amstel Station metro station (metro lines 51, 53, 54). The maximum frequency of these routes is usually one bus per day. Mrtrans bus runs from Moscow to Amsterdam twice a week. The bus leaves from the Moscow airport on Tuesdays and Fridays at 7:00, departure from Amsterdam takes place from the Hotel Victoria on Tuesday and Saturday at 0:00. Travel time is about 47 hours. The cost of an adult one-way ticket is € 135, a round-trip ticket costs € 240.

On the ship
Amsterdam's passenger terminal in the city center is open only to cruise ships. The nearest seaport is IJmuiden, to which DFDS Seaways from Newcastle operate once a day.

At 125 kilometers is the port of Rotterdam, which can be reached by regular ferry service from Kingston upon Hull. 80 kilometers from Amsterdam is the port of Hook van Holland, which is connected by regular connections with the English port of Harwich. From Hook van Holland and Rotterdam to Amsterdam can be reached by train or by car....