Description of Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the
Kingdom of the Netherlands, a member of the European Union.
Administration is located in Hague, being the official seat of the
monarchy, as well as its executive, legislative and judicial
authorities. Its capital is Amsterdam. The provinces that make up
the Netherlands are located in northwestern Europe and border the
North and West with the North Sea, the South with Belgium and the
East with Germany. The special municipalities of Bonaire, Saint
Eustatius and Saba, located in the Caribbean, complete the Dutch
territory. The country is one of the most densely populated areas in
the world and is one of the most developed states: in 2011 it was
ranked third in terms of human development according to the Human
Development Index published by the United Nations. As its name
indicates, the territory of the country is formed by low land
(neder) of which approximately a quarter are situated at or below
Frequently, the country is known by the name of
its most influential or relevant historical region, Holland, located
in the western part of the country. In this sense, the panhispánico
Dictionary of doubts, published by the Royal Spanish Academy, does
admit its use as a synonym, but to a certain extent. Their language
is also traditionally known and for the same reason as Dutch, even
though their official name is Dutch; in fact, Dutch in the strict
sense is a dialect of Dutch; admissible by the RAE in the current
speech, but never in official texts where it must be referred to as
Dutch. His name is also known traditionally as Dutch, also
admissible according to the RAE in ordinary speech, but not in
official texts, where it must be referred to as Dutch. Often, the
Netherlands is also confused with the customs union known as Benelux
formed by Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg; The denomination
is based on the intergovernmental cooperation agreement that became
effective in 1944.
Travel Destinations in
Amsterdam in Netherlands is one of the most unique and
beautiful cities in the country and in Europe.
Fraeylemaborg Castle is a former medieval granary that was
turned into a private residence surrounded by 20 ha of
Heemskerk is famous for numerous
medieval structures as well as military fortification known
as Fort Veldhuis.
Huis Bergh is a medieval castle
situated in a town of 's-Heerenberg in the Province of
Gelderland in Netherlands. It was constructed in 1240 by
Lord Van den Bergh.
Medieval citadel of Muiderslot was
constructed at the mouth of river Vecht in 1370 by Albrecht,
Duke of Bavaria.
Medieval citadel of Radboud Castle
was constructed in 1288 by Count Floris V.
Slot Zuylen or Zuylen Castle is a
historic residence situated in a village of Oud- Zuilen in
the province of Vechtstreek.
Zuiderzeemuseum is a historic
settlement in the town of Enkhuizen in West-Frisia region of
The first archaeological evidence of the presence
of an ancient person in the territory of present-day Netherlands
refers to the Lower Paleolithic (about 800 thousand years ago). They
were engaged in hunting and gathering. At the end of the Ice Age,
the territory was inhabited by various Paleolithic groups. About
8000 BC e. a Mesolithic tribe lived on this territory, and in the
next several millennia the Iron Age with a relatively high standard
of living came.
At the time of the arrival of the Romans, the
territory of modern Netherlands was inhabited by Germanic tribes,
such as the Tubants, Canine-Fats and Friezes, who settled there
about 600 BC. Celtic tribes, such as the Eburons and the Menapies,
populated the south of the country. Germanic Frieze tribes are one
of the branches of the Teutons that came to the Netherlands around
the middle of the 1st millennium BC. e. At the beginning of Roman
colonization, the German tribes of Batavi and Toxandra also arrived
in the country. During the Roman Empire, the southern part of the
present Netherlands was occupied by the Romans and became part of
the province of Belgica (lat. Gallia Belgica), and later - the
province of Lower Germany (lat. Germania Inferior).
Middle Ages, the Lower Countries (approximately consisting of
present-day Belgium and the Netherlands) included various counties,
duchies, and dioceses that were part of the Holy Roman Empire. They
were united into one state under the rule of the Habsburgs in the
16th century. After the spread of Calvinism, the Counter-Reformation
followed, causing a split in the country. The attempts of the
Spanish King Philip II to centralize the state led to an uprising
against Spanish rule under the leadership of William I of Orange. On
July 26, 1581, the country's independence was proclaimed officially
recognized by other states only after the Eighty Years War
(1568–1648). During the years of the War of Independence, the
“Golden Age” of the Netherlands began, a period of economic and
cultural prosperity that lasted the whole of the 17th century.
After the end of the French occupation at the beginning of the
19th century, the Netherlands turned into a monarchy under the rule
of the House of Oran. In 1830, Belgium finally separated from the
Netherlands and became an independent kingdom; Luxembourg gained
independence in 1890. Under pressure from liberal politicians, the
country was transformed into a parliamentary constitutional monarchy
in 1848. This political structure has survived to this day, with a
brief break during the Nazi occupation.
During World War I,
the Netherlands remained neutral, but during World War II they were
occupied by Germany for five years. During the German invasion,
Rotterdam was bombarded, in which the city center was almost
completely destroyed. Holocaust victims during the occupation were
104,000 Dutch Jews (more than seventy percent of all Dutch Jews).
After the war, the country's rapid recovery began, helped by the
Marshall Plan, organized by the United States of America. Thanks to
this, the Netherlands quickly managed to restore the national
economy and achieve economic growth. The former colonies of
Indonesia and Suriname gained state independence. As a result of
mass immigration from Indonesia, Turkey, Morocco, Suriname and the
Antilles, the Netherlands became a country with many cultures and a
large share of the Muslim population.
In the sixties and
seventies, great social and cultural changes took place. Catholics
and Protestants began to communicate more with each other, and
differences between sectors of the population also became less
noticeable due to an increase in living standards and the
development of education. Women's economic rights expanded much, and
they increasingly began to occupy high positions in enterprises and
in government. They were also given passive suffrage, that is, the
right to be elected. The government began to care not only about
economic growth, but also about protecting the environment. The
population received broad social rights; pensions, unemployment and
disability benefits are among the highest in the world.
March 25, 1957, the Netherlands became one of the founders of the
European Union and later did a lot for European integration.
However, in a referendum on the European Constitution in June 2005,
more than half of the Dutch voted against its adoption. A negative
role was played by the ban on holding a referendum on the country's
transition from a guilder to the euro. Thus, the Netherlands became
the second country, after France, which rejected the draft of a
single EU constitution.
From July 22, 2002 to October 14, 2010, the leader
of the Christian Democratic Appeal, Jan-Peter Balkenende, was the
Prime Minister. On February 22, 2007, he formed his fourth cabinet
of ministers - a coalition of Christian Democratic Appeal, the Labor
Party and the Christian Union Small Party (6 seats in parliament).
The Balkenende deputies in the government were the leader of the
Labor Party, Wouter Bos and the leader of the Christian Union, Andre
On February 20, 2010, the fourth cabinet of
ministers, Jan-Peter Balkenende, collapsed due to disagreements
among coalition members over the participation of Dutch forces in
the anti-terrorist operation in Afghanistan. The leader of the Labor
Party, Wouter Bos, called for the speedy withdrawal of all Dutch
troops from Afghanistan, while coalition leader Jan-Peter Balkenende
insisted on extending the mandate in Afghanistan for another year
(the mandate expired in August 2010). In February 2010, 1,900 Dutch
soldiers were in Afghanistan. New elections were called.
the parliamentary elections of June 9, 2010, the ruling Christian
Democratic Party lost 20 of the 41 seats, and the best results were
achieved by the liberal People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy,
the center-left Labor Party and the Freedom Party, known for its
anti-Muslim views. On October 14, 2010, Mark Rutte, leader of the
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, became the new Prime
Minister of the Netherlands. The Freedom Party became part of the
ruling coalition with the NPSD and the Christian Democratic Party
without the right to ministerial posts. The parties of the ruling
coalition (NPSD, KDP and PS) had 76 deputy mandates of 150 seats in
the Second Chamber and 37 of 75 in the First.
On April 23,
2012, Rutte submitted a letter of resignation to Queen Beatrix. The
reason for such actions on the part of Rutte was unsuccessful
negotiations with the opposition on the 2013 budget and possible
measures to overcome the financial crisis. In particular, one of
these measures is to reduce public spending by 16 billion euros.
After the early parliamentary elections held in September 2012,
Rutte formed the coalition government of the People’s Party for
Freedom and Democracy and the Labor Party.