Wageningen

 

Wageningen is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of Gelderland, in the Gelderse Vallei region. The city has 39,134 inhabitants (August 1, 2020, source: CBS), many thousands of whom are students. Wageningen University and related institutions have about 7,400 employees, of whom less than 40% live in Wageningen. The municipality has three residential areas: Wageningen, Wageningen-Hoog and Nude. Wageningen-Hoog and Nude do not have their own zip code and place name in the postcode book, which is why the postal addresses are 'in' Wageningen. Wageningen works together with the municipalities of Rhenen, Veenendaal, Ede, Barneveld, Nijkerk, Scherpenzeel and Renswoude in the regional partnership Region FoodValley.

 

History

At the bottom of the Wageningse Berg roof tiles with the stamp of a Roman legion have been found. However, there are no indications that there was a Roman stronghold on this north side of the Rhine. The Roman Vada probably meant a settlement near the North Brabant village of Kessel aan de Maas, and not Wageningen, as has long been thought.

The oldest known settlement in Wageningen as the predecessor of the city was probably at the bottom of the Holleweg. At the beginning of the full Middle Ages the settlement moved higher up; The remains of a tuff stone chapel and wooden farms have been found on the Wageningse Berg near the Holleweg. In the twelfth century a new settlement arose at the bottom of the mountain. After the construction of a quay as a connection between the flank of the Wageningse Berg and the higher situated hair to the west of the current city, the current Hoogstraat, the oldest part of the city was constructed to the south of it, around Heerenstraat (formerly Achterstraat) and church . Later, it was also built on the north side of Hoogstraat, in a regular pattern of side streets: Beuningstraat, Junusstraat, Rouwenhofstraat and Riemsdijkstraat. On June 12, 1263, Wageningen received city rights from Count Otto II of Gelre.

After the fortifications were dismantled in the nineteenth century, part of the former ramparts were built on, including buildings to the east of Schoolstraat and Molenstraat and buildings on the Emmapark. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the synagogue and the Baptist exhortation (church) were built on the former west wall. Both were destroyed in 1940 and not rebuilt on the same site. After the Second World War, the wall was excavated here for the construction of the Walstraat and student flats were built on a remaining part of the wall. These are still there today. Finally, in 2000, a monument was unveiled on the site of the former rampart, next to the road, in memory of the many Jewish victims of the Second World War from Wageningen.

Other parts of the former fortress were given a park-like structure, such as the former Noorderplantsoen. Part of this structure was sacrificed during the construction of a traffic road (Plantsoen). The street that connected the eastern Bergpoort and the western Nudepoort, the Hoogstraat, has been the street where retailers settled for many decades. From 1975 this street has been designed as a pedestrian zone. Many side streets of the Hoogstraat, such as Kapelstraat, Nieuwstraat and Junusstraat, also contain important concentrations of middle class. The catering industry is mainly concentrated on the Markt, Heerenstraat and Molenstraat.

 

Between about 350 and about 900, the burial field on the corner of Geertjesweg and Diedenweg was in use. Presumably the burials came from the various neighborhoods of Wageningen, which lay on the border of the flank of the moraine and the Binnenveld. The neighborhoods De Peppeld (Wildekamp area) and Leeuwen (area restaurant Het Gesroep, formerly De Keijzer) are still recognizable; the characteristic drinking pool or kolk is still present in both neighborhoods. The hamlet of Dolder was located around the Van Uvenweg / Churchillweg / Dolderstraat intersection. Dolder of Thulere was already mentioned in 838, as was Brakel (Bracola), on the corner of Julianastraat and Van Uvenweg.

The different neighborhoods were built according to the same principle: farms around a shared agricultural utilization space (brink), on the east side the arable land (on the Wageningse eng, which was much larger at the time) and to the west of the hamlets the meadows in the Binnenveld, very regularly. percelled. This Binnenveld was cultivated from the thirteenth century.

Important farms were the Stenen Kamer in Dolder (built 1597, demolished 1954) and the Tarthorst on the Tarthorsterweg, now Haverlanden (demolished 1969). The brinks were connected to the meadows in the Binnenveld by sheep drifts. The sheep drift of the Droevendaalsesteeg has remained relatively intact. Old alder trees can still be found along it.

For the counts and dukes of Guelders, Wageningen was not only important as a trading port, but also as a fortress against the bishops of Utrecht and later the dukes of Burgundy. The old canal (narrower than before) and parts of the (renovated) city wall can still be admired. The last duke, Karel van Egmond, therefore had the castle of Wageningen built within the fortress in 1526-1527. The foundations of three towers and part of the outer wall can still be visited. At the end of the nineteenth century, the residential area of ​​Bowlespark, built with mansions, was built on the former castle grounds. Most of it still exists and is protected as a municipal monument.