's-Hertogenbosch (or Den Bosch)

 

's-Hertogenbosch, unofficially called Den Bosch, is the capital of the province of North Brabant. It is also the capital of the municipality of 's-Hertogenbosch. The city is nicknamed 'Swamp Dragon'. The city has acquired this name from its role in the Eighty Years' War. 's-Hertogenbosch was then a fortified city surrounded by marshes such as Het Bossche Broek and the Moerputten, which made the city' impregnable '.

The city is located on 4 rivers, De Maas, De Aa, De Dommel and De Dieze.

In 2019, the municipality had 154,220 inhabitants, making it the 4th city in North Brabant. 'S-Hertogenbosch, together with the other 4 large Brabant cities and surrounding areas, forms the Brabantstad metropolitan region. An area with about 1.8 million inhabitants that is strongly oriented towards the facilities and employment in the 5 cities.

In the twelfth century there were no large cities in the northern half of the Duchy of Brabant. To properly govern the growing duchy, a capital in the northern part was also needed. Around 1160 Den Bosch became the administrative center in the north of the Duchy. In 1184 it received city rights from Godfrey III.

The diocese of 's-Hertogenbosch is located in St. John's Cathedral. The city has been a popular pilgrimage site (at least) from 1380 onwards by the Sweet Lady of Den Bosch. As director of the Meierij, 's-Hertogenbosch became one of the four capitals of the Duchy of Brabant.

After the second wall was completed, it grew into the second city (after Utrecht) on the territory of the present-day Netherlands. The city functioned as a garrison city for a long time. The bastions, fortifications and the historic center are protected heritage.

Sights and attractions in 's-Hertogenbosch are the Museum Quarter, the St. John's Cathedral, the Zwanenbroedershuis, the Jheronimus Bosch Art Center, Museum Slager, the Moriaan, the Binnendieze, the Parade, the Sportiom, the Brabanthallen, the Dragon Fountain, the Bolwoningen, the Bossche Town Hall and the Fortifications of 's-Hertogenbosch.

The city has a University "The Jheronimus Academy of Data Science (JADS)" and several colleges.

 

Name
The name Den Bosch is older than the official name 's-Hertogenbosch, which literally means the duke's forest. With this duke was meant the Duke of Brabant. A comparable articulation can be found in the city of The Hague, of which the official name is The Hague, and can be understood as the Hague (= the forest) of the Count of Holland

In many other languages' s-Hertogenbosch is referred to by its translation: Bois-le-Duc in French, Boscoducale in Italian, Bolduque in Spanish and Herzogenbusch in German. Its Latin name is Silva Ducis or Buscum Ducis.

The Society for the Promotion of the Use of the Name 's-Hertogenbosch tries to promote the use of the official name, which was established by law on January 1, 1996.

History
's-Hertogenbosch received city rights in 1184 from Count Godfrey III of Leuven, who was also Duke of Lower Lorraine as Godfrey VII. Some time before that, it had originated on the territory of Orthen as a settlement of merchants at the confluence of the Aa and the Dommel, which now converge at the Citadel in the city. It was the fourth city of Duchy of Brabant. The earliest mention of 's-Hertogenbosch is in a document from 1196. It is one of the oldest cities in the Netherlands. At the time, it was not so common to establish such rights explicitly and many other (new) cities in the Netherlands took the Bossche written city law as an example.

In 1629 's-Hertogenbosch was captured by Frederik Hendrik after a siege.

From April 13 to May 17, 1809, Louis Napoleon made an inspection trip through the North Brabant department. During this trip, the Dutch king visited 's-Hertogenbosch. During his visit, he showed a lot of interest in infrastructure, poor relief, churches, culture and industry.

During the Second World War, the city was liberated by Allied troops in October 1944. after the city was ignored by the advance of the ground troops from the south during Operation Market Garden in September 1944, when Eindhoven and Nijmegen and areas in between on the route to Arnhem were liberated.

In November 2013, during works in a parking garage, a Neanderthal settlement was discovered that is dated between 40,000 and 70,000 BC. What is now Noord-Brabant was then a bare sandy plain, a tundra. There was then the Würm Ice Age.