Oss, Netherlands


Oss is a city in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant, located between 's-Hertogenbosch and Nijmegen. It is the capital of the municipality of Oss. The city plays a regional role as a working, residential and shopping city. The city is surrounded by different landscapes and geologically is situated on the edge of higher, dry sandy soils and lower, moist clay soils, with the river Maas nearby. Although Oss has a rich history - in the past it was the capital of the Kwartier van Maasland of the Meierij van 's-Hertogenbosch - few remnants of the past have been preserved. There are still a number of monuments that bear witness to the industrial past.



The meaning of the name Oss, spelled Os until the late Middle Ages and again later - until 1906 - spelled Osch, is not unambiguously defined. The historian Jan Cunen assumed in 1932 that there was a connection with cattle: the ox has adorned the coat of arms since the Middle Ages. Other experts made a connection with the Germanic Asen (or: Osen). Today it is believed that the name means higher place on the water. This water was the Maas and the higher place was the Heuvel, the core of the habitation.



Oss has been inhabited for more than 2000 years before Christ. The oldest mention of the place dates from 1161. Oss was granted municipal rights in 1286 by Duke Jan I of Brabant. Oss Castle was built around 1374. In 1399 Oss received city rights. The city suffered greatly from the conflicts between Brabant and later the Habsburg Netherlands with Gelre, until Gelre was annexed to the Habsburg Netherlands in 1543 by Charles V.

The late nineteenth and early twentieth century was a turbulent period for the city: Oss was burdened by serious crime, which evoked associations with the crime practices in Chicago in North American throughout the country. The so-called "Gang van Oss" was notorious and feared. The terms knife handler and knife puller, which are often used with a wink in popular speech to indicate a resident of Oss, still refer to this. The film De gang van Oss (André van Duren, 2011) is based on the events of this time.

In 1881 Oss got its own railway station, which was of great importance for the industry present. In the Second World War, Oss had a NSB mayor from 1943. During the war, 252 Jewish civilians were deported and murdered. Oss was liberated on September 19, 1944.

The city was given a port in 1968, which was connected to the Maas via the Burgemeester Delen Canal. In 1994 the municipality of Oss was further expanded, and in 2003 the municipality of Ravenstein merged with Oss.

At the end of 2019, Operation Alfa, as mentioned by the police and the Public Prosecution Service, will take place. At the end of 2019, the operation focuses on organized crime with a series of major raids on caravan camps in Oss and the surrounding area.



The Water Tower, affectionately referred to by some as "the cigar of Oss", is currently used as a mosque.
Remains of the Castle of Oss, near the Gelderse Poort shopping center.
Royal Tomb, reconstruction of a seventh century BC royal tomb on the spot where an iron sword was found by archaeologists. The burial mound is located on the industrial estate near the A50, where the Brierstraat crosses the Vorstengraflaan. Several other burial mounds have also been reconstructed on this site.
The neo-Gothic Grote Kerk, from 1859, designed by architect Hendrik Jacobus van Tulder and restored in 1982. The church, listed as a national monument and dedicated to Our Lady Immaculate Conception, was built to replace the demolished Willibrord Church. The rich interior was made possible by donations from Catholic Osse industrialists, including Anton Jurgens. In 1999 the tower was fitted with a carillon.
Stellingmolen Zeldenrust, from 1860.
Stellingmolen Nieuw Leven, from 1895.
Villa Constance, a neoclassical residential villa, built in 1888 by order of margarine manufacturer Arnold van den Bergh and named after his daughter. From 1921 to 1974 the building served as a town hall. It is currently in use as a museum (Museum Jan Cunen) and named after the first city archivist of Oss.
The Willibrordusput, near the junction of the Willibrorduslaan and the Munlaan. The well was first mentioned in sources in the 14th century, but is probably older. A log pit has been excavated on site, dating from the period 900-1250. There was also a stone structure above, which is said to have been removed in the 18th century. The current well dates from 1926. Its construction was made possible by a donation from Sidney van den Bergh and is located 12 meters from the original well. There was also a (Willibrordus) chapel here, which was already mentioned in sources in 1400 and 1485 and was probably destroyed in 1748. An ancient oak, the St. Willibrord tree, is said to have also stood here. This was felled in 1845. The devotion to Saint Willibrord, originating from the Middle Ages, is described by Stephanus Hanewinkel in 1799 as follows: Many Roman Catholics, especially those who have the fever, do to this Hill, which is also called St. Willebrord, Pilgrimages, crawl up their knees, with a Rosary in their hand, under the exhalation of Father-Nosters and Ave-Maria's, around that cairn, usually throw some Stones, to keep them essentially, on them, drink the water from that miracle spring or wash. herself with it, and then the fever goes away or it is swept away.

The office building the "Groene Engel" of Anton Jurgens' Margarine factories, designed in 1912 by Charles Estourgie (1884-1950) in the art nouveau and art deco styles, taken into use by Philips in 1930 and acquired by the municipality of Oss in 1979 . The building is a national monument, was renovated in 1999 and then used as a cultural venue.
The old office building of Gebr. v / d Bergh (later Bergoss carpet factory). The building, dating from 1919, was designed by the Nijmegen architect Oscar Leeuw and is located on Bram van den Berghstraat. The building contains Art Nouveau-style ornaments and is listed as a national monument.