Eindhoven

 

 

Eindhoven is a city and municipality in the south of the Netherlands, and in the southeast of the province of North Brabant. It has been the fifth largest municipality in the Netherlands by population since 1961. It has 233,983 inhabitants (August 1, 2020) on an area of ​​88.84 km². In addition to the eponymous city of Eindhoven, it also includes the village of Acht and the expansion location Meerhoven.

The municipality of Eindhoven experienced explosive growth in the first half and the middle of the twentieth century. In 1920 the city - at the beginning of the century a small Kempen town, actually more of a village - annexed five surrounding municipalities, which suddenly enlarged the municipality enormously, both in terms of surface area (from 75 to 6300 ha) and in terms of population (from 6,500 to 46,000). On January 1, 1940, Eindhoven already had 113,126 inhabitants. It thus already ranked high on the ranking of the largest municipalities in the Netherlands. In the next 75 years this population doubled. Decisive for this development was the growth of the Philips group, from light bulb factory to multinational and global player in the field of electronics.

The municipality welcomed its 225,000th resident on November 24, 2015. The city is still growing: the forecast is that the number of inhabitants of the municipality will increase to 248,000 by 2040. The municipality is part of the Eindhoven Metropolitan Area (MRE) and the BrabantStad urban network. The conurbation of Eindhoven (not to be confused with the metropolitan region), consisting of, among others, the municipalities of Eindhoven, Veldhoven, Best, Nuenen and Geldrop-Mierlo, has almost 420,000 inhabitants on an area of ​​approximately 540 km². About 750,000 people live in the MRE.

 

Name

The second part of the word can refer to Hof (fenced plot of land, garden, earth) or Hoeve (hofstede). The origin of both words is different, but later they roughly coincided in their usage and took on the meaning we know today: a building with surrounding grounds for exploitation. The origin of the first word is much less clear. End presumably meant the boundary between the cultivated land of a settlement and the wasteland beyond. The place name can therefore be interpreted as 'the court or farm on the border between cultivated land and wasteland'.

 

History

The city of Eindhoven originated in a swamp delta of five rivers: the Dommel, the Gender, the Laak, the Tongelreep and the Rungraaf. It received city rights and market rights from Duke Henry I of Brabant in 1232. Eindhoven should be seen as an established (and not gradually grown) settlement within the urban policy of Hendrik I. Villa Ravensdonck is now located on the site of the old castle from the 15th century, close to the Augustinian monastery Mariënhage. In 1583 the walls were demolished again after the Siege of Eindhoven. Within the ramparts was the medieval Saint Catherine's Church, which was demolished in 1860 and replaced by the current neo-Gothic church. The current church from 1867 was designed by Pierre Cuypers and is notable for a choir to the west. Between 2004 and 2006, the choir of the medieval St. Catherine's Church with the remains buried in and around it was excavated under the guidance of the Eindhoven city archaeologist Nico Arts.

As a result of industrial development, the Eindhoven factories attracted more and more employees around 1900. These included the textile factories of Elias, De Haes, de Bara (derived from Baekers and Raymakers), tobacco processors (Mignot & De Block, Henri van Abbe and Lurmans), steam leather factory Gebroeders Keunen, the Royal match factories Mennen & Keunen, cigar box maker Brüning and (especially from 1891) the Philips incandescent lamp factory. The city benefited economically from the factories and manufacturers. Afterwards, next to Philips, the DAF became the largest and internationally most famous Eindhoven industrial company.

In 1920, the current municipality of Eindhoven, then also called Groot-Eindhoven, was created from a merger of the original municipality of Eindhoven, which did not comprise much more than the current city center, with the surrounding municipalities of Strijp, Woensel, Gestel, Tongelre and Stratum. Since then, there have been some minor annexations and border corrections, adding part of the former municipality of Geldrop and later part of the municipality of Veldhoven, the latter before the construction of the Vinex district of Meerhoven.

In the interwar period there was a large housing shortage for the many workers. This was also the case for the surrounding municipalities.

On September 18, 1944, Eindhoven was liberated by the Allies. The liberation was part of Operation Market Garden. The liberation is celebrated every year with the Lichtjesroute. According to the records of the Jewish Historical Museum, approximately 430 Jews lived before the war and 200 in 1950.

After the Second World War, the DAF car factory, although founded before the war, contributed significantly to the expansion. In 2003, more than 9,500 companies in the region employed nearly 130,000 people.

 

Geography

Administrative division
The current municipality was created on January 1, 1994 when part of Veldhoven, including the airport, was added to Eindhoven. Several business parks and residential areas were built here. The entire area is called Meerhoven and is part of the Strijp district. The church village Acht and hamlets such as Bokt and Riel also fall under the municipality of Eindhoven, each in their own district. The biggest change occurred in 1920 when the small municipality of Eindhoven (not much bigger than the center with its former walls) annexed the neighboring municipalities of Woensel, Strijp, Stratum, Tongelre and Gestel. After that annexation the population was about 45,000, before that about 4000. On February 15, 1999 Eindhoven reached the population of 200,000.

 

Culture and recreation

Nightlife
The Markt is centrally located, with mainly grand cafes and large terraces. On the south side of the center is the Stratumseind, the longest café street in the Netherlands with more than fifty connected (dance) cafes, bars and discotheques, and by extension the Stratumsedijk, where gay entertainment venues are located. De Danssalon nightclub was transformed by catering magnate Sjoerd Kooistra in 2006-2008 into an ultimately flopped establishment of his Drie Gezusters chain.

 

At the station on the Stationsplein you will find grand cafes, terraces, restaurants, a disco and a cinema, as well as in the Dommelstraat, an entertainment area adjacent to the Stationsplein with cafes, restaurants and a disco. At the end of that street is the pop venue Effenaar. In the De Bergen area, to the west of the center, you will find the Wilhelminaplein with mainly brown bars (often with live performances) and terraces and the Grote Berg and the Kleine Berg with brown bars, cafes, grand cafes and restaurants.

Architecture
Eindhoven has more than 140 national monuments, including a large number of historic buildings. The Bergen area is still in its old state, but other places in the city are worth seeing historic buildings. In particular, the industrial revolution, which was initially brought about by textile, cigar and match factories, and later mainly by Philips in the city, is worth exploring. Other highlights are the Sint-Catharinakerk (1867) and the Sacred Heart or Paterskerk (1898).

The tallest building in Eindhoven is the Admirant, a 105-meter-high residential tower that stands next to Philips' first light bulb factory. Another place where "old and new" come together is, for example, the Van Abbemuseum with a very modern extension. There is also much to see in Eindhoven in other areas of modern architecture, such as the Evoluon.

Many high-rise buildings in Eindhoven have been developed in the period from 2000. In 1999, De Regent was the first building that, by Dutch standards, can call itself high-rise. After that, the Kennedytoren (offices), the Vestedatoren, Porthos and De Admirant (all mainly residences) were built in the city. Construction projects in progress include the former Philips factory site Strijp-S, 27 hectares in size, which is being converted into an area for living, working and recreation. The last delivery is planned for 2020. A 25 meter high "Blob" has also been built at 18 Septemberplein.

It is less known that there are still a handful of buildings from before 1800 in the center of Eindhoven. These are usually hidden behind newer facades or have been renovated in such a way that the building no longer looks old. Examples of this are Rechtestraat 49, Rechtestraat 14 and Stratumseind ​​49.

Parks
In addition to the many buildings to be seen, Eindhoven has many parks and public gardens. Eindhoven is the greenest city of the five largest cities in the Netherlands and the greenest within the five largest Brabant cities. About a third of all public space in Eindhoven is "green". The area of ​​greenery calculated per house is almost 100 m². Some large parks in Eindhoven are the Stadswandelpark, the Genneper Parken, the Philips van Lenneppark, the Philips de Jongh Wandelpark and the Henri Dunantpark. There is also a green area around the Karpendonkse Plas. De Dommel (also called Dommelzone) runs through Eindhoven. In Gestel this is a green zone with ponds. You will also find many walking and cycling routes here. It is a fairly large area that lies between Eindhoven, Aalst (North Brabant) and Veldhoven.

Art in public space
There is a lot of art to see in and around the parks. For example, more than thirty modern art expressions can be admired in the city walking park. There are also many works of art scattered around the city, such as the Flying Pins on the south side of the Kennedylaan, which was considered a bowling alley by the artists Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen.

In addition, there are also some statues to admire, such as on the Market, where the statue of Jan van Hooff, made by Auke Hettema in 1992. There is also a statue of Frits Philips, made by Kees Verkade. The statue of Frits Philips' father, Anton Philips, stands in front of the station.

Museums

There is more open-air art to be seen in the preHistorisch Dorp. This museum is located in the Genneper Parken and is an open-air museum with the Iron Age and the Middle Ages of Brabant as their theme. The preHistorisch Dorp is part of the Eindhoven Museum. After the Van Abbemuseum, this museum attracts the most visitors. The Van Abbemuseum is a museum for modern and contemporary art, which has works by Picasso, Kandinsky, Chagall and Mondrian in its collection. DAF automobiles can be found in the DAF Museum and the Philips incandescent lamps in the Philips Gloeilampenfabriek in 1891. The museum Centrum Kunstlicht in de Kunst is located next to the Philips Gloeilampenfabriek. The Steentjeskerk is home to Museum Kempenland, a regional museum about folklore, painting and sculpture by North Brabant artists. The Designhuis is located in the former building of the Kantongerecht (of reconstruction architect Jo Kruger), a stage and meeting place in the field of design and innovation. The management and presentation of the collection is now provided by Eindhoven Museum. A small museum is the Inkijkmuseum on the Dommelstraat, which offers changing exhibitions that can be viewed through the windows. In total, the Eindhoven museums attract about 186,000 visitors.

Theater and music
With the Parktheater, Eindhoven has one of the larger theaters in the Netherlands. This theater owes its name to its location, right next to the Stadswandelpark. It has three function rooms, the largest of which can accommodate up to 950 visitors. The theater attracts approximately 300,000 visitors annually. Another location for cult films and theater is the Plaza Futura. Also in the field of music, Eindhoven has various locations for this artistic expression. This is possible in the aforementioned theater, but with the Effenaar, a pop stage, and Muziekcentrum Frits Philips, Eindhoven has two locations that are specifically dedicated to music. Both music centers attract more than 150,000 visitors every year. The TAC (Temporary Art Center) is also located in the center, a cultural incubator with space for approximately 80 studios and a stage for music, visual arts, theater and film. In addition, the stock exchange building, the Klokgebouw and the Philips Stadium are used for music performances.

Events
Every year various events take place in Eindhoven, for example Park Hilaria in August. In the autumn there will be the Lichtjesroute around 18 September (Liberation Day of Eindhoven), in October the Dutch Design Week is organized annually and in November the international GLOW light festival takes place in Eindhoven. In winter, Eindhoven turns into Eindhoven Winter City. In the field of sports, the Marathon Eindhoven is one of the largest events. The municipality of Eindhoven has a separate budget for events. Many events in Eindhoven are set up by the City Dynamiek Eindhoven foundation. City Dynamiek Eindhoven is a partnership between the municipality and representatives of private parties, such as catering and retail. Pink Saturday was held in Eindhoven in 2014.

Religion
Traditionally, Eindhoven was predominantly Catholic. This manifested itself not only in numerous Roman Catholic church buildings, but also in other institutions such as monasteries, hospitals and Catholic schools. The arrival of companies, especially Philips, has changed this. Many people from the Northern Netherlands, such as from Drenthe, came to Eindhoven to work in the factory there. As a result, numerous Protestant denominations settled. Due to internationalization, various religions from within and outside Europe were added, such as Eastern Orthodox denominations, Anglicanism, and Islam. Apart from that, Freemason lodges and departments of the Maatschappij tot Nut van 't Algemeen were also established. Furthermore, there was an important Jewish community from ancient times.

Catholic Institutions
Eindhoven, including the annexed villages, has a large number of Roman Catholic church buildings. From the 1980s on, many of them were decommissioned. Parishes were merged. Some church buildings were demolished, others were given a new function.

In addition to Roman Catholic parishes, there is also an Old Catholic parish, the Maria Magdalenaparochie, which was founded around 1945 and has organized its services in the Pauluskerk since 2011.

 

The Augustinian Monastery is especially known from the Middle Ages. After the Peace of Munster (1648) the monasteries were abolished. Many monasteries were founded from the 19th century, in total there were 37 in the Greater Eindhoven area. Many of these monasteries fulfilled a social function: education, care for the sick and care for the elderly. During the last decades of the 20th century, most of these monasteries were closed again and the social function was taken over by, often secular, educational and care institutions.

Catholic nursery and primary education consisted of many schools, initially often single boys and girls' schools. Secondary education for boys was seen in boarding schools, where gymnasium courses were offered that initially often had the function of minor seminary, thus also preparing for a position as a priest, missionary or monk. An example was the Augustinianum, which started as early as 1898. The Sint-Joriscollege and Sint-Catharinacollege started in 1918 and offered, among other things, HBS courses.

A Catholic-inspired hospital was the Binnenziekenhuis, set up from the Sint-Catharinaparochie, which had been operational since 1843. In 1973 the Catharina Hospital was taken into use as a successor. In 1932, a second Catholic hospital, the Sint-Jozefziekenhuis, was opened, which in 2002 merged with the (originally Protestant) Diaconessenhuis to form the Máxima Medical Center.

Protestant Institutions
Reformed
After the restitution of the churches that were neighbored to the Catholics in 1648 during the French period, the reformed moved into the Tenhagestraatkerk in the center of Eindhoven in 1813. This was demolished in 1962. The arrival of Philips and the influx of employees from the north of the Netherlands led to the need for church buildings of various Protestant denominations.

The newer reformed church buildings included: Schootsekerk (1934), Tivoli Church (1948), Opstandingskerk (1955), Adventkerk (1960), Morgensterkerk (1967) and Ontmoetingskerk (1968).

The Reformed also included the Walloon community, which had its own church building from 1966-1979.

Reformed
The Reformed moved into their first church building in 1911. This was the Oosterkerk, later the Immanuëlkerk. This was followed by the Westerkerk (1929 a wooden building, in 1953 a stone building, the Maranatha Church). Finally, the Petra Church (1956) and the Emmaüskerk (1962).

Due to the merger of the Reformed and Reformed churches into PKN, and due to secularisation, a number of these buildings were sold. Sometimes other denominations came in here, others were given a secular function.

Protestant schools and hospitals
Various primary schools were founded in Eindhoven on a Protestant Christian basis. In addition, schools were created aimed at vocational education, such as a domestic school. A hbs started in 1955, and from that came the Christiaan Huygens College.

A hospital on a Protestant Christian basis, the Diaconessenhuis, was established in 1933. In 2012 it merged with the Sint Joseph hospital to form the Máxima Medical Center.

Other Protestant Denominations
Christian Reformed Church, since 1974 in the Schootsekerk.
Dutch Reformed Church, church building since 2014 in the Emmaüskerk
Mennonite Congregation, from 1936, current church from 1952
Remonstrant Church, from 1931, in its own church building since 1950
Baptists, from 1925, current Baptist church from 1956
Meeting of the Faithful, from 1920, since 1977 in De Bron
Pentecostal Church Eindhoven, since 1995 in the Maranathakerk
New Apostolic Church, from the 1920s, in its own church building since 1958
Full Gospel Churches, The City of Light, from 1984 in the Tivoli Church, from 2005 in De Fontein and in De Akker
Chinese Christian Church, from 1976, since 2007 in the Our Lady of Fatima Church
Jehovah's Witnesses, with Kingdom Hall on Generaal van der Duynlaan
Anglicans, in the Trinity Church in Waalre

Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox Church, since 1997 in the Resurrection Church
Parish of Saint Nektarios, since 1988 (Orthodox Church of Constantinople)

Jewish
The Jewish community in Eindhoven had a cemetery in Woensel since 1747, and a synagogue from 1810-1941. In 1958 a new house synagogue was established. A rabbi was appointed in 2017.

Islam
Islam has several mosques, of which the (Turkish) Fatih Mosque from 1989 is the largest. There is also the (Moroccan) Al-Fourqaan mosque on Otterstraat. There are also the Anwar-E-Madinah mosque on Castle Square and the Arrahmaan mosque on Visserstraat.

Eindhoven also has an Islamic primary school, Tarieq Ibnoe Ziyad, on France Street.

Sufism
The Sufi movement gathers in the Sufi Center Eindhoven.

 

Sikhism
From 2018, for the time being in village house Acht.

Hinduism
Since 1985 there has been a mandir (temple) on the Vlokhovenseweg, in a former primary school: the Shi Shiv Mandir. There is also a mandir on Tongelresestraat: Triloki Dhaam Mandir. Hara Krishna (ISKCON) is located at Zeelsterstraat.

Freemasonry
At the end of the 18th century there was already some Freemasonry in Eindhoven, but in 1931 the Lodge Light and Freedom was founded and Freemasonry in Eindhoven thus received an official status. During the Second World War, Freemasonry was banned by the occupying forces. After the liberation the activity was resumed. At the beginning of the 21st century, four lodges exist: Light and Freedom, Rosa Alba (founded in 1954), Het Derde Licht (founded in 1969), and De Vier Jaargetijden (founded in 2013). The total number of Freemasons (around 2020) is more than 100.

Related to the Freemasons are the Odd Fellows. These have two lodges: the Evolution Lodge and the Marie Curie Rebekah Lodge, both on the Meerkollaan.