Mook en Middelaar

 

Mook en Middelaar is a municipality in the far north of the Dutch province of Limburg. The municipality has 7,879 inhabitants (1 August 2020, source: CBS) and has an area of 18.82 km² (of which 0.48 km² is water). Until this collaboration model was discontinued by the national government, the municipality of Mook en Middelaar was part of the Arnhem Nijmegen City Region. In the west the municipality borders on North Brabant, in the north on Gelderland. The municipality of Mook en Middelaar is called the bridge between the Maas and the hills. The hills, the forest and the heather largely make the municipality a special nature reserve. Tourism and recreation are important pillars of municipal policy.

 

History

Remains of a villa in Plasmolen and a bridge over the Maas between Middelaar and Cuijk point to the Roman past. At the bottom of the Sint-Jansberg estate in Plasmolen are the remains of a Roman villa from the 2nd century AD. In the 1930s, Leiden archaeologist Braat conducted extensive research into the villa remains. According to information from the then National Service for Archaeological Soil Research (ROB), this concerns the remains of the largest known Roman main building in the Netherlands. The dimensions are approximately 85 × 24 meters. These remains were designated in 1978 as a legally protected archaeological national monument. In 2001, the city council decided to conserve and visualize the remains of the Roman villa. The size of this Roman villa is made clear by means of an information board and a steel construction.

The remains of a Roman bridge are located on the banks of the Maas near the Cuijksesteeg. These remains date from the 4th century AD. The bridge had a length of 450 meters. The Roman bridge has been designated as a protected archaeological monument by the national government.

Mook is best known for the Battle of the Mookerheide on April 14, 1574, a battle between the Orange and the Spaniards during the Eighty Years' War. At that time, the Mookerheide still stretched to the city walls of Nijmegen. One of the most famous stories about the Battle of the Mookerheide is about Kiste Trui, who dedicated her life to searching for the treasure of the Nassau brothers.

The Mookerschans and Heumense schans are defenses on the Mookerheide, probably from the 17th century. From these redoubts one had an unobstructed view of the lower Maas valley with the north-south route over land and water. The Mookerschans is located in a mixed coniferous and deciduous forest in a sloping moray landscape, which originated in the penultimate ice age, about 160,000 years ago. The historic Mookerheideschans (defense work) has been restored and offers a beautiful view over the Maasdal. The area is located northeast of Mook and north of Groesbeekseweg. The area is owned by the municipality of Mook en Middelaar. Walking is possible in the area, it is also possible to obtain a map or map of the terrain. The Heumense redoubt is a similar fieldwork and is owned by Natuurmonumenten.

The places between the Meuse and the German border were owned by large landowners. The entire area that now forms the province of Limburg consisted of a large number of duchies and manors. The tip of North Limburg was then still Prussian territory. Mook was located in the Duchy of Cleves and Mediator in the Duchy of Guelders. During the French occupation, the municipality of Mook en Middelaar was formed on October 23, 1800. An old boundary stone on the Katerbosseweg recalls the former duchies.

Mediator belonged to the Overkwartier of Gelre or Spanish Upper Guelders. During the War of the Spanish Succession it was occupied by Prussian troops, and as part of Prussian Upper Gelre it remained Prussian for about a century (until 1814).

 

From 1900, in the footsteps of the Amsterdam painter Jacques van Mourik, many dozens of artists for short and longer periods settled in the municipality, especially in Plasmolen, which quickly developed into a lively artists' colony.

During the Second World War, a fierce battle raged in the municipality of Mook en Middelaar. In May 1940, the invaders were stopped by the large casemate line on the Brabant side of the Maas, where Katwijk (a / d Maas) caught fire and the railway bridge between Mook and Katwijk was blown up.

In September 1944 Mook, Plasmolen and Middelaar were also in the front area and the violence of war caused much devastation. On September 17 during Operation Market Garden, American paratroopers landed between Groesbeek and Mook, the Germans blew up the railway bridge over the Maas. The Americans managed to free Mook that day. On February 20, the Germans launched a counter-attack, but on September 21, Mook was finally liberated. The inhabitants of the municipality of Mook en Middelaar sought refuge elsewhere until the liberation. On February 8, the Allied advance towards Germany was resumed with Operation Veritable.

On March 30, 1994, the congregation formed a friendship with the Czech Přibyslav.