Venlo

 

Venlo (Dialect: Venlo) is a city in the northern part of the Dutch province of Limburg and the urban core of the eponymous municipality. The city has 68,385 inhabitants (as of 2020, source: CBS). Together with the districts of Blerick and Tegelen, Venlo forms an urban area in the municipality. The agglomeration has 86,885 inhabitants (as of 2017, source: CBS). However, Blerick has always been a separate village, which was only included in the municipality of Venlo during the Second World War. The same applies to Tegelen, which was added to the municipality in 2001 together with the village of Belfeld. The city of Venlo only includes the part of the municipality between the A73, the German border, the A67 and the Maas. Other church villages within the municipality of Venlo are: 't Ven, Hout-Blerick, Boekend, Steyl, Belfeld, Arcen, Velden and Lomm.

Venlo is a trading, transport and industrial city. The city is the center for the wider area as well as a shopping center for the neighboring German Ruhr area. The municipality of Venlo borders directly on the German districts of Kleef and Viersen. Venlo is located on a bend in the Maas and has a historic center, although the Second World War caused a lot of damage.

 

Language
Venlo has a characteristic urban dialect, which is basically Limburgish, but also has some characteristics of the Brabant-Limburg transitional dialects. It thus forms a transition dialect. Linguistically, this transition area is referred to as the North Limburg mich quarter. The residents cherish this Venloos, which is generally used. The rich carnival tradition, which has made songs in Venloos very popular, keeps Venloos alive.

The Tegels clearly distinguishes itself from the Venloos. I was standing under a tree near the school, sounds in Tegels as ich sjting ónger einen boum near the shoeël and in Venloos as I stand under einen boum near the schoeël. The Venloos has supplanted the Blericks in Blerick, which can now only be heard in Hout-Blerick and Boekend. The Velden dialect has developed in the direction of Venloos and is now relatively close to Venloos. The old Blericks and Veldens were in various respects between the Tegels and the Venloos: I stóng ónger einen boum near de schoeël. Arcen is the northernmost place where Limburgish is spoken; above Arcen, the concrete line and the du (dich) / ye border enter Germany. Arcens is still just within the mich range, but it also has a bit more the timbre of the Horster dialect; Arcens: I am standing beneath everyone else in the shoe.

 

History

Antiquity
Venlo is strategically located at an important road junction near a crossing over the Maas. The settlement was already inhabited in the early Roman period (50 BC-70 AD). Various finds of pottery, coins and jewelery have been found that indicate occupation by Roman soldiers and Romanized traders. Archaeological research in and along the Maas has not shown that a bridge was located here. After the third century, the settlement near the current city center of Venlo remains uninhabited for several centuries. No traces of late Roman times are known. Traces of habitation until the seventh century have been found on the west side of the Maas, in Blerick, along the north-south connection Nijmegen-Maastricht-Tongeren.

Middle Ages
In the Middle Ages, the city of Venlo was an important trading place on the Maas, even comparable to German places such as Cologne, Spiers and Worms. Venlo belonged to the Gelderse Overkwartier and in 1481 Venlo joined the Hanseatic League. Although the Hanseatic League had already passed its peak by then, Venlo's membership nevertheless meant recognition as a trading city.

New time
At the fall of Venlo in 1543, the Duchy of Guelders was de facto in the hands of Emperor Charles V, who united it with the rest of his Dutch possessions. From 1590, Gelre was split into a northern and a southern part and the southern part, the Overkwartier, belonged to the Southern Netherlands. In the 17th century, Venlo was alternately Spanish and State property. The War of the Spanish Succession subsequently led to the Barrier tract, in which the Overkwartier was divided between Prussia, Austria and the Dutch Republic during the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. The city became part of the Republic and came to lie in the Generality Land of Staats-Opper-Gelre.

All of Staats-Oppergelre was conquered by the French in 1794. After their departure, Venlo became part of the newly formed province of Limburg, within the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Unlike the rest of Limburg, Venlo (like the area of ​​the city of Maastricht) did not become a member of the German Confederation. During the Belgian Revolt, almost all of Limburg, and also Venlo, sided with the Belgians, but with the peace settlement, Limburg was split and Venlo joined the Netherlands. In the mid-19th century, the city walls were demolished and the city expanded considerably over the outlying areas and along the access roads.

The 21 oldest photos of Venlo date from 1857-1861 and are in an album of the military doctor Petrus Jan van der Grijp that was acquired by the Venlo Municipal Archives at the beginning of 2020.

Twentieth century
On November 9, 1939, the Venlo incident took place in Venlo, in which two British agents were captured by the German Gestapo.

At the end of the Second World War, Venlo suffered a lot of damage, partly because the front line ran through the center for three months. Until October 1944 Venlo was hardly affected by the war, but that changed when the battle fronts approached Limburg. Heavy Allied bombing raids on the strategic Maas bridge and the nearby German airfield partially destroyed the city center and many civilians died. The city was liberated on March 1, 1945 by the Americans of the 9th Army during Operation Grenade.

 

Sights

Due to the bombings during the Second World War, many historic buildings have disappeared from the Venlo city center, such as the medieval houses near the Maasbrug (Kwartelenmarkt), the synagogue and the monastery complexes on the south side. In addition, a number of (late) medieval buildings were demolished around the Second World War. After extensive architectural research, Venlo appears to own a number of houses with a medieval core. These are hidden behind mostly newer facades and are mainly located in Gasthuisstraat, Vleesstraat and Lomstraat.

At the time of this writing, Venlo city has 93 national monuments. In total, the entire municipality has 236 national monuments and the municipality also has 234 municipal monuments.

Churches
Sint-Martinusbasiliek, the historic main church of Venlo
Sacred Heart Church, from around 1922, at Veldenseweg 2
Holy Spirit Church, 1966, later demolished.
Holy Family Church, from 1939, at Belletablestraat 21
Sint-Jacobs chapel, from 1533, at Maasschriksel, not in use as a chapel
Sint-Joriskerk, from 1509 and later, at Sint Jorisstraat 16, is a Protestant church building
Minderbroederskerk or Jongerenkerk, from 1612, at Minderbroedersstraat 1
Our Lady Immaculate Conception Church, at Sinselveldstraat 35, from 1915.
Sint-Nicolaaskerk in Genooi, at Van Postelstraat 53, from 1960.
St. Michael's Church, in 't Ven, on the Straelseweg, 1966-2006 and 2007.
Chapel of Our Lady of Genooi, in Genooi

Monasteries
Maria meadow
Monastery of the Mariadal
Holy Spirit Monastery, demolished in 1928
Huize Manresa, former retreat home of the Jesuits
Convent of the Dominican nuns of Bethany
Monastery Maria Auxiliatrix, founded in 1911 by the Sisters of Our Lady of Tegelen
Nazareth monastery in the hamlet of 't Ven, at Straelseweg 329.
Monastery of Our Lady of Loreto, on Monseigneur Zwijsenstraat, from 1960.
Monastery Op Stalberg, at Stalbergweg 1.
Sint-Martinusklooster at Sint-Martinusstraat 2-54.
Trans-Cedron, destroyed in 1944, on Rue Neuve.

Civil engineering
The town hall of Venlo (1597) on the Markt
Huize Schreurs, renaissance house at Grote Kerkstraat 19021
Romerhuis, late Gothic house on the corner of Kwartelenmarkt / Wijngaardstraat
Huize Ottenheym, late Gothic house at Vleesstraat 7
Parade 62-64, late Gothic twin house from around 1550.
Ald Weishoès, at Grote Kerkstraat 31, renaissance building from 1611
House Stalberg, at Stalbergweg 268, traditionally a farm

Defenses
See: Fortifications of Venlo for the main article on this subject. Only a few small parts of the defenses have survived: In the garden of Mariaweide Monastery and De Luif near the Havenkade.

Museums
Limburgs Museum, cultural-historical museum, at Juliana Park.
Museum van Bommel van Dam, museum of modern art, on Deken van Oppensingel
Jean Laudy Museum chapel, museum for Venlo painters, at 29 Grote Kerkstraat
Jan Klaassens Museum, memories of a Venloos soccer player, Parade 67a
Police Museum Venlo, at Dokter Blumenkampstraat 1
Jocus Museum Venlo, Domicanenplein