Ede

 

 

Ede (Low Saxon: Ee) is a medium-sized town in the Dutch province of Gelderland, located on the western flank of the Veluwe and in the southern Gelderland Valley. It is also the capital of the eponymous municipality. Ede has 75,585 inhabitants (2020).

Ede is known for the Battle of Arnhem. The site played an important role in the Second World War because of the airborne landing of the Allied forces in September 1944, as part of Operation Market Garden. Every year, the airborne landings on the Ginkelse Heide attract thousands of visitors to Ede.

 

History

Ede's history is closely linked to that of the Kernhem estate. The counts of Gelre built various fortifications along the borders with the Sticht Utrecht from the 12th to the 14th century. Kernhem Castle was one of them. In 1426 Udo de Booze (also written as Udo den Boese) was appointed as liege man of Kernhem by the then Duke of Gelre Arnold van Egmont. After the fiefs became hereditary, Kernhem came into the hands of the Van Arnhem, Van Wassenaer Obdam and later Van Heeckeren van Wassenaer and Bentinck families. Various administrators from Ede's past come from these families.

In the seventeenth century, Ede was ravaged by the Spaniards led by Hendrik van den Bergh during the Raid of the Veluwe in 1624. This was repeated five years later, during a second raid led by Van den Bergh and Ernesto Montecuccoli.

In 1783, about 108 people died in a dysentery epidemic. A relatively high number, given that Ede had only about 600 inhabitants at the time.

During the First World War, there was a large refugee camp for Belgian refugees on the Edese heath. It existed from 1915 to 1918. It was demolished in 1918 and the building materials were reused for the many damaged buildings in Belgium. Today the Belgians monument is still standing in memory.

On August 6, 1925, an oxygen device exploded in the ENKA factory. Three people died in this blast. At least ten people were injured.

 

WWII

During the Second World War, Allied soldiers landed on the Ginkelse Heide near Ede during Operation Market Garden. From there they moved to Arnhem, fighting the Germans. Every September this is commemorated by parachuting over the heath. The paratroopers are dropped from World War II aircraft that are still operational. This event attracts a large audience from the surrounding area. Even veterans from Great Britain are present. Until 2006, veterans also jumped, often at an advanced age. Prior to the air landing, a bombing raid was placed on Ede on 17 September 1944. 69 civilians lost their lives.

Of the Jews who lived in the municipality of Ede at the start of the war, it is estimated that 52 of the 89 survived the war. According to the authors of the book Ede 1940-1945, this relatively high percentage (60 percent) can be explained because in a rural municipality it is easier to find help and the risk of being caught was smaller compared to the large cities. In the first year of the war the number of Jews increased rapidly. At the time of the registration requirement in January 1941, 125 people were registered as (partially) Jewish. Most of them were families and singles from the west of the country who were hoping to escape the measures directed against them. Many of the refugees were familiar with the region and had contacts. Bennekom in particular enjoyed a certain reputation as a holiday destination in the decades before the war, making it a logical place to turn to. In April 2012, a monument to the Jewish population was unveiled at the Vosakker, bearing the names of 50 killed Jews who were born in Ede or who lived there for a long time.