Verona is an Italian town of 257 683 inhabitants,
the capital of the homonymous province located in Veneto. It is the
second largest city in the region by population after the capital,
Venice , and the twelfth nationwide.
Known to be the site of
the Romeo and Juliet tragedy, Verona has developed progressively and
continuously for two thousand years, integrating high-quality
artistic elements from the different periods that have followed one
another, including the Della Scala family's government between the
thirteenth and sixteenth centurie , and that of the Venetian
Republic between the beginning of the fifteenth and the end of the
eighteenth century; for its art and architecture and its urban
structure, "an excellent example of a fortified city", Verona has
been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
to the more popular tourist destination of Venice, many people
consider Verona a more relaxed and pleasant place to visit. There
are many tourists, but the number of tourists per square metre is
IAT Verona (Tourist information), Via Degli Alpini, 9
(Piazza Bra), ☎ +39 045 8068680, e-mail:
email@example.com. M-Sa 10:00-13:00,
Travel Destinations in Verona
Corso Castelvecchio 2
Tel. 045 806 26 11
Open: 8:30am- 7:30pm Tue-
1:30pm- 7:30pm Mon
Last admission 1 hour
Closed: Jan 1, Dec 25& 26
Castelvecchio was constructed by Cangrande II
between 1355 and 1375. It design influenced construction of the Kremlin in Moscow.
Constructed by Cangrande II between 1354 and 1375 it became one of
the symbols of Verona. The bridge that stands today was restored
after retreating Germans troops blew up the bridge.
Ancient Roman Arena
Tel. 045 800 32
Open: 8:30am- 7:30pm Tue-
1:30pm- 7:30pm Mon, last
admission 1 hour before closing
Closed: Jan 1, Dec 25,
26, Jun- Aug from mid- afternoon for performance
Ancient Roman Arena of Verona was completed in 30 AD during reign of emperor Tiberius.
amphitheatre was third largest in the Roman empire. It as large
enough to seat all residents of Verona in the Roman times. Much of
stonework from the exterior wall was reused in other constructions.
Teatre Romano/ Museo Archeologic
Tel. 045 800 03
7:30pm Tue- Sun,1:30pm- 7:30pm Mon
Closed: Jan 1,
Tel. 045 59 28
Closed: Nov- Feb
San Fermo Maggiore
Tel. 045 59 28
(Nov- Feb, Tue- Sun)
It actually consists of two church. The lower church
dates to 1065 and upper church was constructed in 1313.
Tel. 045 59 28
Closed: Nov- Feb Mondays
Casa di Giulietta
O Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?
Deny thy father and refuse thy name;
Or if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love
And I'll no longer be a Capulet.
Via Cappello 27
The house of Joliet is a location for fictitious story
of "Romeo and Joliet".
San Zeno Maggiore
Piazza San Zeno
Tel. 045 59 18
6pm Mon- Sat, 1pm- 6pm Sun
Nov- Feb 10am-
1pm, 1:30pm- 4pm Tue- Sun, 1pm- 5pm Sun
History of Verona
The area on which Verona stands has been inhabited
since the Neolithic , when there was the probable presence of a
village near the southern area of San Pietro hill along the Adige
river , one of the few wading points of the river. The hill of San
Pietro is in fact an area rich in finds, and there were even found
the remains of the houses that formed the old village. During the
protohistoric period in the Verona area came the Cenomani Gauls ,
which settled in the west, up to the Adige River, and most probably
the hill village was inhabited together by the Cenomani and the
The Latin historians have accredited to Euganei ,
Reti , Veneti , Etruschi or Galli Cenomani the origins of Verona:
the historian Polibio states that in his time (II century BC) the
Venetian ethnic group was still numerous among the population of the
city, and indeed the Venetian presence is well documented,
particularly at the San Pietro hill, and this assertion is based on
the Venetian foundation hypothesis; the hypothesis of the foundation
by the Reti and together of the Euganei was instead formulated by
Pliny the Elder (of the first among other things the presence is
ascertained by the numerous findings in the Veronese territory of
their ceramics ); that by the Cenomani Gauls was instead supported
by Tito Livio.
The first contacts between Rome and Verona are
documented around the III century BC: there were immediate relations
of friendship and alliance. Probably the first contacts were in 390
BC, when the Gauls of Brennus invaded the same Rome: perhaps thanks
to a diversion of the Venetians, the Gauls may have been forced to
come to terms with the Romans. Cenomani and Veneti Gauls helped the
Romans several times, even in the conquest of Cisalpine Gaul. In 174
BC, following the subjugation of Gallia cisalpina and the beginning
of a new period of colonization of the Po Valley , the great
strategic importance of Verona began to reveal itself. The Roman
senate asked Cenomani and Veneti for the extension of the fortified
castrum they had granted him on the San Pietro hill, while Roman
settlers and indigenous peoples laid the foundations for the
construction of a new city within the bend of the Adige.
Thanks to Cesare Verona, he obtained, in 49 BC, Roman citizenship
and, through the Lex Roscia, he was given the rank of a city and
granted fields of 3,700 km²: the town could then boast the name of
Res publica Veronensium.
During the Republican period Verona
developed and its economy grew: in this period the city, now moved
in the bend of the Adige, began to grow and modernize. During the
imperial period the city became an even more important strategic
node, as it was used as a temporary base for the legions. Under the
emperor Vespasiano the city reached the peak of wealth and splendor:
the last great work, in the first century, was the Arena, built
because the city, which had now exceeded 25,000 inhabitants, needed
of a large building to allow all the inhabitants to attend the
Verona then found itself also invested by the
barbarian invasions, being the first bastion of Italy to descents
from northern Europe. For this reason the emperor Gallieno, in 265,
had the city walls enlarged to include the Arena, fortifying it in
only seven months.
The city became important because it was at the
intersection of several roads. Stilicho defeated Alaric and his
Visigoths here in 403. But, after Verona was conquered by the
Ostrogoths in 489, the Gothic domination of Italy began. Theoderic
the Great was said to have built a palace there. It remained under
the power of the Goths throughout the Gothic War (535–552), except
for a single day in 541, when the Byzantine officer Artabazes made
an entrance. The defections that took place among the Byzantine
generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to
regain possession of the city. In 552 Valerian vainly endeavored to
enter the city, but it was only when the Goths were fully overthrown
that they surrendered it.
In 569, it was taken by Alboin,
King of the Lombards, in whose kingdom it was, in a sense, the
second most important city. There, Alboin was killed by his wife in
572. The dukes of Treviso often resided there. Adalgisus, son of
Desiderius, in 774 made his last desperate resistance in Verona to
Charlemagne, who had destroyed the Lombard kingdom. Verona became
the ordinary residence of the kings of Italy, the government of the
city becoming hereditary in the family of Count Milo, progenitor of
the counts of San Bonifacio. From 880 to 951 the two Berengarii
resided there. Otto I ceded to Verona the marquisate dependent on
the Duchy of Bavaria.
In the years following 1000, northern Italy was
devastated by numerous wars, but Verona remained loyal to the
emperors of the Holy Roman Empire during the long investiture
struggle with the Papacy. The birth of the Commune took place in
1136 with the election of the first consuls, while two parties were
emerging which would later be called Guelphs and Ghibellines. Verona
was at first particularly struck by the struggle between these two
factions, also because in the countryside there were the main forces
of the Guelph party (with the greatest exponents the Counts of
Sambonifacio), while the city was predominantly Ghibelline (among
the major exponents of the Montecchi, made famous by the drama Romeo
and Juliet by Shakespeare).
Verona was also the papal seat
for five years. Pope Lucius III in 1181 established the Pontifical
Curia in the city and in his death, in 1185, was buried in the choir
of the Cathedral . In the Conclave that was held in Verona in the
same year Pope Urban III was elected. Urban was determined to
excommunicate the emperor Federico Barbarossa but the Veronese,
fearing retaliation by Federico, protested against such a procedure
taken within their walls to the point that Urban, in 1186, decided
to move together with the Curia in Ferrara, where he died a few
When Ezzelino III da Romano was elected podestà in
1226, he converted the office into a permanent lordship. In 1257 he
caused the slaughter of 11,000 Paduans on the plain of Verona (Campi
di Verona). Upon his death, the Great Council elected Mastino I
della Scala as podestà, and he converted the "signoria" into a
family possession, though leaving the burghers a share in the
government. Failing to be re-elected podestà in 1262, he effected a
coup d'état, and was acclaimed capitano del popolo, with the command
of the communal troops. Long internal discord took place before he
succeeded in establishing this new office, to which was attached the
function of confirming the podestà. In 1277, Mastino della Scala was
killed by the faction of the nobles.
The reign of his son
Alberto as capitano (1277–1302) was a time of incessant war against
the counts of San Bonifacio, who were aided by the House of Este. Of
his sons, Bartolomeo, Alboino and Cangrande I, only the last shared
the government (1308); he was great as warrior, prince, and patron
of the arts; he protected Dante, Petrarch, and Giotto. By war or
treaty, he brought under his control the cities of Padua (1328),
Treviso (1308) and Vicenza. At this time before the Black death the
city was home to more than 40,000 people.
succeeded by Mastino II (1329–1351) and Alberto, sons of Alboino.
Mastino continued his uncle's policy, conquering Brescia in 1332 and
carrying his power beyond the Po. He purchased Parma (1335) and
Lucca (1339). After the King of France, he was the richest prince of
his time. But a powerful league was formed against him in 1337 –
Florence, Venice, the Visconti, the Este, and the Gonzaga. After a
three years war, the Scaliger dominions were reduced to Verona and
Vicenza (Mastino's daughter Regina-Beatrice della Scala married to
Barnabò Visconti). Mastino's son Cangrande II (1351–1359) was a
cruel, dissolute, and suspicious tyrant; not trusting his own
subjects, he surrounded himself with Brandenburg mercenaries. He was
killed by his brother Cansignorio (1359–1375), who beautified the
city with palaces, provided it with aqueducts and bridges, and
founded the state treasury. He also killed his other brother, Paolo
Alboino. Fratricide seems to have become a family custom, for
Antonio (1375–87), Cansignorio's natural brother, slew his brother
Bartolomeo, thereby arousing the indignation of the people, who
deserted him when Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan made war on him.
Having exhausted all his resources, he fled from Verona at midnight
(19 October 1387), thus putting an end to the Scaliger domination,
which, however, survived in its monuments.
The year 1387 is
also the year of the famous Battle of Castagnaro, between Giovanni
Ordelaffi, for Verona, and John Hawkwood, for Padua, who was the
Antonio's son Canfrancesco attempted in vain to
recover Verona (1390). Guglielmo (1404), natural son of Cangrande
II, was more fortunate; with the support of the people, he drove out
the Milanese, but he died ten days after, and Verona then submitted
to Venice (1405). The last representatives of the Scaligeri lived at
the imperial court and repeatedly attempted to recover Verona by the
aid of popular risings.
From 1508 to 1517, the city was in
the power of the Emperor Maximilian I. There were numerous outbreaks
of the plague, and in 1629–33 Italy was struck by its worst outbreak
in modern times. Around 33,000 people died in Verona (over 60 per
cent of the population at the time) in 1630–1631.
In 1776 was
developed a method of bellringing called Veronese bellringing art.
Verona was occupied by Napoleon in 1797, but on Easter Monday the
populace rose and drove out the French. It was then that Napoleon
made an end of the Venetian Republic. Verona became Austrian
territory when Napoleon signed the Treaty of Campo Formio in October
1797. The Austrians took control of the city on 18 January 1798. It
was taken from Austria by the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 and became
part of Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy, but was returned to Austria
following Napoleon's defeat in 1814, when it became part of the
Austrian-held Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.
The Congress of Verona, which met on 20 October
1822, was part of the series of international conferences or
congresses that opened with the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15 - and
marked the effective breakdown of the "Concert of Europe".
1866, following the Six Weeks War, Verona, along with the rest of
Venetia, became part of United Italy.
The advent of fascism
added another dark chapter to the annals of Verona. As throughout
Italy, the Jewish population was hit by the Manifesto of Race, a
series of anti-Semitic laws passed in 1938, and after the invasion
by Nazi Germany in 1943, deportations to Nazi concentration camps.
An Austrian Fort (now a church, the Santuario della Madonna di
Lourdes), was used to incarcerate and torture Allied troops, Jews
and anti-fascists, especially after 1943, when Verona became part of
the Italian Social Republic.
As in Austrian times, Verona
became of great strategic importance to the regime. Galeazzo Ciano,
Benito Mussolini's son-in-law, was accused of plotting against the
republic; in a show trial staged by the Nazi and fascist hierarchy
at Castelvecchio (the Verona trial), Ciano was executed on the banks
of the Adige with many other officers on what is today Via Colombo.
This marked another turning point in the escalation of violence that
would only end with the final liberation by allied troops and
partisans in 1945.
After World War II, as Italy entered into
NATO, Verona once again acquired its strategic importance, due to
its closeness to the Iron Curtain. The city became the seat of SETAF
(South European Allied Terrestrial Forces) and had during the whole
duration of the Cold War period a strong military presence,
especially American, which is decreasing only in these recent years.
Now Verona is an important and dynamic city, very active in terms of
economy, and also a very important tourist attraction thanks to its
history, where the Roman past lives side by side with the Middle Age
Verona, which in some senses brings about its architectural and
Get in By plane 1 Aeroporto Valerio Catullo
(VRN IATA) (12 km from the city). Also known as Verona Villafranca
Airport. Mostly budget flights, including from Brussels (both
National & Charleroi), Dublin, London (Gatwick & Stansted), Paris
Beauvais, and Madrid, and domestic routes from Alghero, Palermo,
Trapani, Brindisi and Rome. Free WiFI is available with
registration, SID: @FreeLuna_CATULLO.
Connections to the
city: Aerobus (Line 199). From the airport: 05:35, 06:30, then
every 20 minutes until 20:30, and every 40 minutes until 23:10. From
the station: 05:15, 06:10, then every 20 minutes until 20:10, and
every 40 minutes until 22:50. This bus service connects the airport
with Verona Porta Nuova railway station. Tickets can be bought
directly from the bus driver. €6.
If you have a rental car
the trip to Verona isn't difficult: take the A4 towards Padova
(Padua) and follow all the way to Verona (approx 7 km). Venice
Marco Polo (VCE IATA) is further but has far more flights. From
there take the shuttle bus to Mestre railway station (25 min), then
the train to Verona (1 hour) – see Venice: Get in by air page for
shuttle bus details.
Also within a couple of hours of Verona
are Venice Treviso and Bergamo airports. These have no obvious
By train 2 Stazione di Verona Porta Nuova. The
main railway station in the city. You can reach Verona Porta Nuova
station by train from Milan (1:22 hr by EuroCity train (EC)[€18.00],
1hr 50min by Regionale Veloce (RV) [€9.05]), from Venice (1h10 by
EuroCity (EC) [€19.00], 1hr 22min by RegionaleVeloce (RV)[€6,25],
2h10 by Regionale (R)[€6.25]), from Bologna (49min by TAV [€22], 1hr
28min by RegionaleVeloce (RV) [€7.55]), or from Munich (5hr 30min by
EuroCity). Some local trains (regionali) also stop at another
station in Verona, 3 Stazione di Verona Porta Vescovo.
4 APTV stazione. Buses to destinations in the province. Ticket
office is in the railway station building. There are automated
tickets machines at the platforms.
Get around City bus
schedules are difficult to obtain on-line and also not available on
maps.google.com. The 11, 12 or 13 bus on weekdays will get you from
the train station (Stazione Porta Nuova) to the Arena (Piazza Bra).
Sunday and holiday schedules differ with a separate numbering
system. You can obtain bus schedules sending SMS to a number printed
on bus stop. Some of them have an indication of the time left for
next bus to arrive. You can pay the fare using euro directly on the
bus, but only for one ticket, while you can easily buy tickets at a
lower fare nearly everywhere there is a cigarette or lotto shop. ATV
shops are in the railway station and in Piazza Renato Simoni, near
the railway station.