Italy

 

Italy Destinations Travel Guide

 

 

Flag of Italy

Language: Italian

Currency: Euro (EUR)

Calling Code: 39

 

 

 

 

Italy, the official name is the Italian Republic (Italian. Repubblica Italiana) - a state in southern Europe, in the center of the Mediterranean. Member of the European Union and NATO since its inception, is the third largest economy in the eurozone.

It borders with France in the northwest (border length is 488 km), Switzerland (740 km) and Austria (430 km) in the north, Slovenia in the northeast (232 km). It also has internal borders with the Vatican (3.2 km) and San Marino (39 km).

It occupies the Apennine Peninsula, the extreme northwest of the Balkan Peninsula, the Padan Plain, the southern slopes of the Alps, the islands of Sicily, Sardinia and a number of small islands.

In Italy there are 55 UNESCO World Heritage Sites - Italy shares the first place with China in terms of their number.

 

 

Travel Destinations in Italy

Northwest Italy

Piedmont (Italy)

Alba
Alessandria
Arona
Asti
Barolo
Beaulard
Biella
Bra
Carema
Cuneo
Domodossola
Ivrea
Moncalieri
Montalto Dora
Neive
Novara
Parella
Savigliano
Stresa
Turin (Torino)
Verbania
Bossea Cave
Gran Paradiso National Park
Castello della Manta
Castle of Racconigi

 

Liguria (Italy)

Genoa
Apricale
Albenga
Finale Ligure
Framura
Imperia
La Spezia
Moneglia
Portofino
Rapallo
San Remo
Santa Margherita Ligure
Savona
Seborga
Sestri Levante
Ventimiglia
Vernazza
Balestrino

 

Lombardy (Italy)

Milan
Bergamo
Brescia
Como
Cremona
Lecco
Mantua
Sondrio
Varese
Certosa di Pavia
Sirmione Castle

 

Aosta Valley (Italy)

Aosta (Aoste)
Courmayeur
La Thuile
Pont-Saint-Martin
Saint-Vincent
Fenis Castle
Mont Blanc
Verrès Castle
 

 

 

 

 

 

Northeast Italy

Emilia–Romagna (Italy)

Ferrara
Bologna
Bardi
Carpi
Cervia
Cesena
Cesenatico
Faenza
Forlì
Maranello
Modena
Novafeltria
Parma
Pennabilli
Piacenza
Ravenna
Reggio Emilia
Rimini
Canossa Castle
Castello di Compiano
Rocca Malatestiana
Rocca Sanvitale
Castel Sismondo
Torrechiara Castle

 

Friuli–Venezia Giulia (Italy)

Aquileia
Cividale del Friuli
Gorizia
Grado
Lignano
Osoppo
Palmanova
Pordenone
Spilimbergo
Tarvisio
Trieste
Udine
Miramare Castle

 

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (Italy)

Bolzano
Brixen
Meran
Rovereto
Trent
Prösels Castle
Reifenstein Castle
Runkelstein Castle
Schloss Brunnenburg
Stelvio National Park

 

Veneto (Italy)

Venice
Verona
Castelfranco Veneto
Padova
Rovigo
Vicenza
Treviso
Cortina d'Ampezzo
Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park
Lake Garda
Poveglia Island

 

 

Central Italy

Lazio (Italy)

Rome
Vatican
Cerveteri
Civita Castellana
Civitavecchia
Rieti
Subiaco
Tarquinia
Tivoli
Viterbo
Hadrian's Villa

 

Abruzzo (Italy)

L'Aquila
Avezzano
Chieti
Pescara
Sulmona
Teramo
Vasto
Forte Spagnolo
Rocca Calascio

 

Marche (Italy)

Ancona
Ascoli Piceno
Cingoli
Cupramontana
Fano
Fermo
Macerata
Pesaro
Recanati
Senigallia
Urbino
Fortress of San Leo

 

Tuscany (Italy)

Florence
Arezzo
Chiusi
Lucca
Montepulciano
Pienza
Pisa
Siena
Arcipelago Toscano National Park
Emperor's Castle
San Gimignano

 

Umbria (Italy)

North
Perugia
Castiglione del Lago
Città di Castello
Deruta
Gubbio
Montone
Torgiano
Umbertide
Central
Assisi
Bevagna
Città della Pieve
Foligno
Montefalco
Spello
Spoleto
Trevi
South
Narni
Orvieto
Otricoli
Terni
Todi
Cascata delle Marmore

 

 

Southern Italy

Apulia (Italy)

Bari
Altamura
Brindisi
Foggia
Lecce
Martina Franca
Monopoli
Ostuni
Taranto
Castel del Monte
Conversano Castle
Copertino Castle
Lucera Castle
Swabian Castle

 

Basilicata (Italy)

Potenza

Irsina

Maratea
Matera
Melfi
Policoro
Venosa
 

 

Calabria (Italy)

Reggio di Calabria
Catanzaro
Lamezia Terme
Cosenza
Crotone
Corigliano Calabro
Rossano
Rende
Vibo Valentia
Aragonese Castle
Sybaris

 

Campania (Italy)

Naples
Pompeii
Herculaneum
Avellino
Benevento
Caserta
Salerno
Capri
Castel dell'Ovo
Oplontis
Paestum

 

Molise (Italy)

Campobasso Agnone
Bojano
Isernia
Larino
Termoli
Venafro

 

 

Sicily

Sicily (Italy)

Palermo
Catania
Gela
Marsala
Messina
Ragusa
Syracuse (Siracusa)
Trapani
Agrigento
Segesta
Ursino Castle

 

 

Sardinia

Sardinia (Italy)

Cagliari Alghero
Carbonia
Nuoro
Olbia
Oristano
Sassari

 

 

 

History

Ancient Rome
By the beginning of the I millennium BC. e. the south and center of Italy were inhabited by Italian peoples, one of which was the Latins. The Latins formed the Latin Union, which included 30 civitas, the governing bodies of each of which were a national assembly (comitia or consilia), a council of elders (curiae or senate) and leaders (Rexes). According to Latin legends, initially the strongest civitas was Lavrent, then Lavinia strengthened, then Alba Longa, in the VI century Rome became the most powerful civitas of the union. After the Samnite wars, by 290, Rome had made all the other Italian nations dependent on itself. Part of the lands of the non-Roman provincial population was transferred to the Romans, Roman settlements were founded - colonies - thus the Romanization of Italy took place. Under the Roman emperor Diocletian, a division into provinces was introduced in Italy, headed by presidents and consuls. After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476, the king of Italy was proclaimed commander Odoacer, a rug by birth, but in 493 his possessions were seized by the Ostrogoths, and he himself was killed.

Middle Ages
In 555, Italy was conquered by Byzantium. The whole territory of Italy was divided into dukes, led by dukes, who were formally subordinate to the exarch of Ravenna. In 572, part of the duchies of Italy were conquered by the Lombards. Byzantium remained the Roman Duchy, the Duchies of Naples, the Duchy of Amalfi, the Duchy of Calabria, the Duchy of Pentapol, the Exarchate of Ravenna and the Republic of Venice, as well as the Sicily Theme (conquered by the Arabs in 956) and Sardinian judicates. However, the Lombard and Byzantine dukes increasingly turned into virtually independent rulers.

In 752, the secular authority of the popes was established in the Duchy of Rome, the Exarchate of Raven and Pentapolis, which laid the foundation for the Papal region. In 774, Italy was annexed to the Frankish state. Only in the south were several Lombard duchies preserved (Spoletal duchy, Duchy of Benevento, and later the Principality of Salerno and the Principality of Capua stood out from them). In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne proclaimed himself the new Roman emperor. After the death of his great-grandson Charles III Tolstoy, civil strife began in the Italian kingdom.

In 951, the King of Italy proclaimed the German king Otto I the Great. However, the power of the king of Italy became nominal, the entire territory of northern Italy was divided into brands: Tuscan (Tuscany), Friulian (later Verona) (Venice), Hebrew (was soon annexed to the Turin brand), Saluzzo, Monferrat, Turin (all four in Piedmont ), Milan (Lombardy). The stamps were ruled by margraves, each of whom was actually a sovereign ruler.

However, already in the XI-XII centuries, most brands fell into communes, which were aristocratic city-states. The Tuscan brand completely disintegrated, the Verona brand was absorbed by Venice, the Turin brand was annexed to Savoy in 1091, only Saluzzo and Monferrat have survived from the previous brands. In some Tuscan communes, democratic elements were periodically strengthened.

In 1071, the Norman nobleman Robert Guiscard conquered Apulia and Calabria, in 1072 Sicily, in 1073 Amalfi, in 1078 Salerno, forming the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria and the County of Sicily, which united in 1130 into the Kingdom of Sicily. In 1135, the Principality of Capua passed under his authority, in 1140 - the Duchy of Gaet, in 1144 - the Duchy of Naples. At the same time, the Papal Region is also strengthening - in 1081 the Duchy of Benevento joins it, and in 1201 - the Duchy of Spoleto.

Renaissance
The beginning of the Renaissance in Italy is considered to be the year 1401, when a competition was held for the relief of the doors of the Florentine Baptistery. Among the participants of the competition were the architect Filippo Brunelleschi, who became the author of the design of the dome of the Florentine cathedral, and the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti. The winner of the competition was the master of the new era of Ghiberti.

By the 15th century, the communes of Tuscany were united around Florence into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Lombardy was united around Milan into the Duchy of Milan, Romagna was united around Ferara into the Duchy of Duchy, all these states were monarchies. Aristocratic republics remained in Venice and Genoa. In the 16th century, the domination of Spain was consolidated in a large part of Italy, and after the war for the Spanish Succession of 1701-1714, the domination of the Austrian Habsburgs.

 

In 1797, the French Army entered Italy, the Cispadan Republic, the Transpadan Republic, the Venetian Republic, the Ligurian Republic, the Piedmont Republic, the Roman Republic, the Neapolitan Republic were formed, all were oligarchic republics. In the same 1797 they merged into the Cisalpine Republic, renamed in 1802 the Italian Republic, which in turn was transformed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1805, the king of which was Emperor of France Napoleon I. In 1814, the French army left Italy, were the Duchy of Modena was restored, the Duchy of Parma, the Kingdom of Naples and the Papal States were restored in 1799, the Kingdom of Sardinia was returned to Piedmont, Emilia - to the Papal States, Lombardy and Veneto - Austria.

New time
The struggle for a united Italy was led by the carbonaries, Young Italy and other organizations, in which Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini were key figures. By the end of 1860, Italy was largely united around the Sardinian kingdom (since 1861 the Italian kingdom). In 1865-1870, the capital was Florence, in 1870 Rome was annexed to the Italian kingdom, which became the new capital.

XX and XXI centuries
In 1914, the Declaration of Italy on neutrality in the outbreak of World War II was signed. In April 1915, Italy signed an agreement with the Entente countries on their participation in the war. In May of that year, Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary, and then Germany. In August 1917, an anti-war uprising of workers in Turin took place in Italy. In January 1919, the formation of the Catholic People's Party (subsequently - the Christian Democratic Party). In March 1919, the fascist movement emerged (the formation of the first “military alliance”). In August 1919, an election reform was carried out in the country (introduction of voting on party lists and a proportional system of representation in the Chamber of Deputies). January 1921 was marked by the formation of the Communist Party of Italy (KPI, since 1944 - IKP). In November of the same year, the fascist “military alliances” were transformed into a party.

In 1922, after the campaign of the black shirts to Rome and the presentation of their demands to the king, the Nazis came to power and established a dictatorship led by Benito Mussolini (1922-1943). February 7, 1924 is the establishment of diplomatic relations between Italy and the USSR. In 1929, according to the Lateran Treaty, Italy guaranteed the sovereignty of the Vatican. In 1935-1936 Italy captured Ethiopia, in 1939 - Albania. Having entered into a military alliance with Nazi Germany and Japan, Italy entered World War II in 1940. In 1940, hostilities began with the participation of Italy in the Balkans (against Greece and Yugoslavia). In 1941-1943, Italy accepted complicity in Nazi aggression against the USSR; Italy soon suffers a military defeat in East Africa.

Despite the fact that historically Italy was not inherent in anti-Semitism, 1937, when the Hitler coalition began to form, is considered to be the starting point of the Holocaust in Italy.

1941 was marked by the declaration by Italy and Germany of the US war.

In July 1943, the United States, Britain and their allies landed in Italy with the aim of defeating the fascist troops and leaving Italy from the war. On September 3, the Italian government signed a ceasefire, on September 8, 1943, Italy surrendered to the United Nations, and a National Liberation Committee was created in Rome with the participation of 6 anti-fascist parties.

In September 1943, there was a Nazi occupation of Northern and Central Italy (the "Republic of Salo").

In June 1944 Rome was liberated; a single partisan party was created. In the same year, full diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union were restored. In December 1944, the Roman Protocols were signed (an agreement between the Anglo-American command and the Resistance forces on cooperation at the final stage of the war and the further fate of partisan formations).

In 1945, the Nazi regime of Mussolini was overthrown by the actions of the Resistance movement (the highest point was the April Uprising of 1945) and the Anglo-American forces in Italy. By the 21st century, Italy is not as strongly condemned as Germany in Germany by the gloomy pages of its history related to fascism, admirers of Mussolini's ideology have survived, some continue to honor the memory of the Duce, and a fascism museum was opened in his homeland in Preappio in 2016, funded, in addition to city ​​authorities and sponsors, also the Italian government. This memorial caused a mixed reaction from society, despite the guarantees that the museum would not be engaged in the propaganda of fascist ideology.

In 1946, following a national referendum, Italy became a parliamentary republic.

 

In November 1947, the Constitution of the Italian Republic was adopted, it officially entered into force on January 1, 1948. According to the current Constitution of Italy, it is the legal successor of the Kingdom of Italy, a parliamentary board is established, and at the same time, the previously adopted laws and property rights to real estate that are not recognized as invalid. Between 1948 and 2015, constitutional amendments were introduced more than 15 times.

After the Second World War, the Christian Democratic Party of Italy (CDP) was established in the political arena, which formed the governments in 1945-1981 and in 1987-1992.

In 1948, parliamentary elections were held, which consolidated until 1953 the establishment of the political dominance of the CDA. In June 1948, Prime Minister De Gasperi signed an agreement with the United States to extend the "Marshall Plan" to Italy.

March 1949 - Italy joins NATO. In 1960, neo-fascism intensified and the mass anti-fascist movement rose. 1969 - “Hot Autumn” (the struggle for new conditions of collective labor agreements and the expansion of the rights of workers' organizations).

The late 1960s and early 1970s in Italy marked the onset of an era of organized crime and political extremism. The country was shocked by numerous terrorist attacks, in many cities there were regular bombings, abductions and killings of politicians, businessmen, judges, police and journalists. During 1977, 2128 acts of political violence were committed in Italy. In 1978, a world-wide crime took place in Rome - the abduction and murder by terrorists from the "Red Brigades" of the former prime minister, chairman of the Christian Democratic Party, Aldo Moro. In 1979, 2150 terrorist attacks were carried out in the country. In August 1980, the bloodiest terrorist attack in the entire post-war history of Italy took place - terrorists blew up a station in Bologna, killing 85 people. Italy was threatened by a right-wing dictatorship (similar to the pro-fascist regime of the "black colonels" in Greece), but the country overcame the crisis by constitutional means.

1976-1979 - the policy of "national solidarity."

In 1980, the five-party coalition came to power. In 1988, in terms of purchasing power parity, Italy was slightly ahead of the USSR, entering in the top ten most developed countries in the world in economic indicators.

January 1991 was marked by the 20th Congress of the IKP and the cessation of its existence (the formation of the Democratic Party of the Left Forces and the Party of the Communist Reconstruction). 1991-1993 - transition from a proportional electoral system to a majority; Operation Clean Hands and the crisis of traditional government parties.

In 1993, Italy acceded to the Maastricht Treaty.

The sharp increase in corruption at all levels of government has led to a change in the electoral system. On August 4, 1993, a new law on parliamentary elections was approved.

The post-war history of Italy is characterized by a frequent change of government. Since 1994, Silvio Berlusconi four times became Prime Minister of Italy, held this post intermittently until November 2011.

In 2007, a large-scale reform of special services was carried out in Italy.

The 63rd Government of the Italian Republic began work on February 22, 2014, chaired by Matteo Renzi. Since December 12, 2016, after Renzi’s resignation caused by a failure in the constitutional referendum, the same government was headed by Paolo Gentiloni.

After the parliamentary elections in March 2018, a new government was formed for more than two months. The 65th Government of the Italian Republic has been operating since June 1, 2018 under the chairmanship of Giuseppe Conte.