Turin (Torino)


Turin is the capital of Piedmont. Turin offers an extraordinary variety of attractions and entertainment opportunities. It is also located a short distance from the mountains and important ski resorts, just as it is easy to reach the Ligurian Riviera and Western Europe from here via France or Switzerland. It is an elegant and aristocratic city, the fourth largest Italian municipality after Rome, Milan and Naples and, together with the Lombard capital and Genoa, forms the so-called Italian industrial triangle. Rich in baroque-style palaces, large avenues, parks, art galleries, Savoy residences, castles, important museums and attractions, Turin is a city that has not yet been overrun by mass tourism and this has allowed it to still keep intact some of its characteristic features. In 2015 the city was the European Capital of Sport and hosted the Exhibition of the Shroud.

The institutional tourist reception activity is managed by Turismo Torino. There is a civic volunteering group in Turin made up of about 100 people called "Torino&You" which despite the enormous difficulties in which the volunteers operate (dilapidated structures, lack of suitable means to provide information, etc.) covers the structural staff shortages of the manager of the tourist reception system Turismo Torino. In fact, the group manages an information point and co-manages another, as well as offering surveillance, assistance and accompaniment services for groups visiting art exhibitions (eg "Leonardo's drawings").

Geographic hints
Turin is bordered by two rivers: to the north, by the Stura di Lanzo; to the south, by the Sangone. Two other, more imposing rivers characterize the city: the Po, which runs along its entire eastern flank flowing from south to north, and the Dora Riparia, which crosses it from west to east until it flows into the Po itself. Turin rises between hills and plains (about 200 meters above sea level) and is located a few kilometers from some important valleys, such as the Val di Susa, and peaks of the Alpine chain, including Monviso and Monte Rosa.


How to orient yourself

Via Garibaldi corresponds to the decumanus maximus of the Roman era. Since the 1980s, it has been entirely converted into a pedestrian area and connects Piazza Castello with Piazza Statuto.

Piazza Castello is the most famous city square. Palazzo Reale and Palazzo Madama overlook it.

Piazza Statuto is surrounded by porticoed buildings from the second half of the 19th century, in an eclectic late-neoclassical style. At the center of the square we find the Fountain of the Frejus Tunnel.

Corso Vittorio Emanuele II runs from east to west in the south area of the centre. At the height of Piazza Carlo Felice are the entrances to the Porta Nuova railway station, the most important in Turin.

The center is bordered to the north by the very long Corso Regina Margherita which starts from the homonymous bridge over the Po and ends after 9 km at the junction corresponding to the "A55".

On the left of Corso Regina Margherita (back to the river) there are the Royal Gardens and in Via Montebello the Mole Antonelliana, symbol of Turin. A little further on is Piazza della Repubblica, home to a large open-air market. Every Saturday morning in the streets adjacent to Piazza della Repubblica (Via Borgo Dora – Via Lanino – Via Mameli – Via Canale Molassi) the historic flea market, known as Balôn, is held.

Among the streets that run in a south-north direction, the most important is Via Roma which starts from the Porta Nuova station and ends in Piazza Castello. About halfway along the way, it forms Piazza San Carlo, the most spectacular in Turin, closed on its south side by the two twin churches, in Baroque style, of Santa Cristina built in 1639 and San Carlo built in 1619, and on the east and west sides from buildings with porches. At the center of the square we find the equestrian statue of Emanuele Filiberto.

Palazzo Carignano is one of the most important buildings in Turin and is also part of the Savoy residences, a UNESCO heritage site, one of the most beautiful examples of Italian Baroque, in 1848, Palazzo Carignano became the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of the Subalpine Parliament.

Other neighborhoods
Aurora district - North of the centre, beyond Corso Regina Margherita and Piazza della Repubblica, the Aurora district extends on both banks of the Dora Riparia, which began to develop in the 17th century, a time when tanners and silk artisans settled there . Today the Aurora neighborhood is a multi-ethnic neighborhood. In the early 2000s it had a bad reputation, which fortunately the current redevelopment is reducing.
San Salvario — Extending south of the centre, beyond Corso Vittorio Emanuele II to Corso Bramante, the San Salvario district is separated from the left bank of the Po by the famous Parco del Valentino, which surrounds the castle of the same name whose shapes resemble those of castles French banks of the Loire and hosts the Medieval Village, a late 19th century reproduction of Piedmontese or Valle d'Aosta medieval villages. Today San Salvario is, like the Aurora district, a multi-ethnic district. In recent years it has become one of the places of Turin's nightlife with many clubs located between Corso Marconi and Corso Vittorio Emanuele II.
Nizza Millefonti - Also called Molinette, the neighborhood extends south of San Salvario, along the riverfront. There is the former Fiat Lingotto factory transformed following an intervention by Renzo Piano into a congress center with a large Auditorium. It houses the Giovanni and Marella Agnelli Art Gallery and the Automobile Museum.


Getting here

By plane
Turin-Caselle Airport (IATA: TRN), located 16 km from the city center, can be reached in about 40 minutes by bus with departures every 30 minutes. The Terravision airport transfer service is also available, which connects the airport to the Lingotto railway station with intermediate stops in via Botticelli, Corso Casale, Torino Esposizioni and via Giordano Bruno. Tickets for Terravision buses can be purchased online, at the airport and at bus stops. The railway connection is managed by the Gtt, line A of the Metropolitan Railway Service (SFM), with the end of the journey in the Dora GTT station, in the Aurora district of Turin. The airlines operating domestic and international flights as of 2012 were as follows:
Airfrance - From Paris.
Ita Airways - From Alghero, Amsterdam, Bari, Lamezia Terme, Moscow, Naples, Palermo, Reggio Calabria, Rome-Fiumicino.
Blue Panorama - From Rome-Fiumicino and Lampedusa.
British Airways - From London Gatwick.
Brussels Airlines - From Brussels.
Iberia - From Madrid.
Lufthansa - From Munich, Frankfurt, Dusseldorf.
Lux Air - From Luxembourg.
Ryanair - From Madrid, Paris Beauvais, Brussels Charleroi, London Stantsed, Barcelona Girona, Bari, Brindisi, Trapani, Ibiza, Malta.
Tap Portugal - From Lisbon.
Turkish Airlines - From Istanbul.

Cuneo-Levaldigi Airport (IATA: CUF), where flights to Cagliari, Casablanca, Bari, Munich, Rome-Fiumicino and Palermo currently operate, is connected by buses on the "Turin - Airport" line managed by BMC (cost the ticket is €8 - INFOPOINT: Tel: ☎ , for more info see here) and the "Turin Lingotto - Savigliano - Airport" line managed by Mano Giuseppe (for information cell. ☎ ).

By car
Turin is easily reachable via the following highways:
A4 from Trieste - Venice - Milan
A5 from Geneva - Bern - Aosta
A21 from Brescia - Piacenza
A6 from Savona
T4 from France continuing on the A32 from Bardonecchia

To get to Turin economically, you can use the Carpooling Turin service.

On boat
Currently, on the river Po, in the Murazzi - Moncalieri section, navigation by tourist boats is not available. Since the flood of 2016 the boats Valentino and Valentina have sunk. The Municipality has foreseen the replacement of the boats with a hybrid (electric and diesel) catamaran, but the project is still in the pipeline and will have to wait a few more years.

On the train
Turin has several railway stations. There are 3 main access routes to the city:
Turin Porta Nuova station. Main station in Turin from which international high-speed and long-distance trains depart. It is served by Metro line 1.
Turin Porta Susa station. Second in importance, it is an underground station, completed in 2014. It is located west of the centre, just south of Piazza dello Statuto and adjacent to Piazza XVIII December. It is the main station of the Metropolitan Railway Service (SFM) and is served by underground line 1.
Turin Lingotto station. Third in importance it is located south of the city. The station is served by the lines of the SFM.

By bus
Most of the suburban buses terminate at the Bus Terminal Bus Station in C.so Vittorio Emanuele 131/H, near Piazza Adriano. The Eurolines and Sadem bus lines operate there


Transport around city

By public transport
In Turin it is possible to move around by underground, with the tram and bus network.

The automatic metro, inaugurated in 2006 on the occasion of the XX Winter Olympics, runs for 15.1 km and has 23 stations. The two terminus are Fermi and Bengasi. The subway passes through the Porta Nuova and Porta Susa railway stations.

By car
In Turin it is quite simple to get around by car due to the basically quadrangular plan of the city and the large avenues it has, although sometimes the system of avenues and side roads creates confusion. Some streets in the center (suitably also signaled with LED panels) are closed to private traffic at pre-established times and, if it is a street reserved for public transport, for all 24 hours.

It is advisable to pay particular attention in the area north of Piazza della Repubblica in the direction of the motorway entrance (Corso Giulio Cesare, Corso Vercelli...) as pedestrian collisions occur with a higher incidence than in the rest of the city.




Royal Palace (Piazza Castello). Tue-Sun 8:30-19:30. We visit the royal apartments sumptuously furnished with furniture, clocks, porcelain and silver dating back to a period between the 16th and 19th centuries. With the same ticket it is possible to visit the Royal Armoury, the Savoy Gallery and the Museum of Antiquities.
Royal Armory, Piazza Castello 191.
Palazzo Madama (Piazza Castello). The facade of Palazzo Madama was built by Filippo Juvarra between 1718 and 1721. Today it houses the Museum of Ancient Art.
Museum of Antiquities, Via XX Settembre 88/c.
Duomo (Cathedral of San Giovanni Battista), Via XX Settembre 87. The only example of Renaissance architecture in Turin, the cathedral was built between 1495 and 1502 on commission from Cardinal Domenico della Rovere who entrusted the work to the Tuscan architect Meo del Goat. In the basement it is possible to visit the Diocesan Museum of Sacred Art.
Mole Antonelliana, Via Montebello 20. €8 for the panoramic lift or €15 if purchased together with the ticket for the national cinema museum (November 2018). Sun-Mon, Wed-Fri 9am-8pm, Sat 9am-11pm. Symbol of Turin, the construction of the Mole Antonelliana was started in 1862 by Alessandro Antonelli. It was originally intended as a Jewish temple. After a ten-year interruption due to lack of funds, Antonelli was able to resume work following an agreement whereby the Jewish community ceded the building to the Turin municipality, receiving in exchange another building land. The building changed its destination and was dedicated to Vittorio Emanuele II. It was completed by Costanzo Antonelli, son of Alessandro who had died in the meantime. The mole boasts the record for the tallest building in the world among those built in masonry without the aid of reinforced concrete.
National Cinema Museum, Via Montebello 20 - Turin, ☎ +39 011 8138 563, info@museocinema.it. €11 full price or €15 if purchased together with the ticket for the panoramic lift; €9 reduced. Sun-Mon, Wed-Fri 9:00-20:00; Sat 9am-11pm. It houses pre-cinematographic optical machines, ancient and modern cinematographic equipment, objects from the sets of some Italian films and other international memorabilia.
In the central hall there is a series of rooms dedicated to different film genres.
Inside the museum there is also a panoramic lift, with transparent glass walls, which reaches a height of 85 meters from which you can see the city.
Shroud Museum, Via San Domenico 28, ☎ +39 011 4365832, museo@sindone.org. Full price €5. Mon - Fri. 15:00-18:00.
National Museum of the Italian Risorgimento, Via Accademia delle Scienze 5 (the entrance is from Piazza Carlo Alberto 8, two minutes from Piazza Castello), ☎ +39 011 5621147, fax: +39 011 5624695, info@museorisorgimentotorino.it. Full €10 - Reduced €8. Palazzo Carignano is home to the National Museum of the Italian Risorgimento, the largest exhibition space of Italian national history, the oldest and most important museum dedicated to the Italian Risorgimento due to the richness and representativeness of its collections, and the only one that has officially the title of "national". It is dedicated to the Risorgimento era, during which the political unification of Italy took place. The exhibits on display in the museum, which can be attributed to a wider historical period, can be dated between 1706 (the year of the siege of Turin) and 1946 (the birth of the Italian Republic) with particular attention, as already mentioned, to the relics of the Risorgimento, which instead are linked to a period of time between the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the First World War. The collections are kept on the main floor of the building.
Egyptian Museum, Via Accademia delle Scienze, 6 (Near Piazza San Carlo), ☎ +39 011 44 06 903, info@museitorino.it. Mon 9:00-14:00; Tue-Sun 8:30-19:30. "The road to Memphis and Thebes passes through Turin" is how the Egyptologist Jean-François Champollion said about the Egyptian museum in Turin, second in importance only to the one in Cairo. Many of the exhibits were collected by Bernardino Drovetti (1776 - 1852), at the time when he was French consul in Egypt. In 1824 Carlo Felice bought the diplomat's entire collection and placed it in the Guarini palace (also known as the Palazzo dell'Accademia delle Scienze), which still houses the museum today. The highlights are the monumental statues of the pharaohs Amenhotep II, Ramses II, Sethi II and Thutmose III displayed in the rooms on the ground floor while funeral steles and papyri are arranged on the first floor. In the hypogeum it is possible to retrace the history of Egyptian civilization and see the tombs of unknown persons. On the ground floor there are the most famous tombs (of Kha and Merit) and the imposing statues of emperors and deities. The museum is partially under restoration until 2015: consult the museum website to find out which sections are not accessible.
Valentino Park (Parch dël Valentin). always open. Famous public park of Turin, located along the banks of the Po. Inside the Valentino Castle (seat of the Faculty of Architecture of the Turin Polytechnic) protected by UNESCO, the museum of the medieval village and fortress of Turin, the botanical garden of the University of Turin and the Fountain of the Months.
Galleria Sabauda, Piazzetta Reale 1. Since 2014, the Galleria Sabauda has been located in the Manica Nuova of the Royal Palace and exhibits paintings that belonged to the Savoys. The original collection had 365 paintings assigned to the Royal Gallery in 1832 by the will of King Carlo Alberto. The current location is spread over 4 levels with about 500 works on display. You can admire works by Beato Angelico, Piero del Pollaiolo and Filippino Lippi, Mantegna and Paolo Veronese. In the section dedicated to Flemish paintings, a canvas by Jan van Eyck stands out.
Pietro Micca Museum, Via Guicciardini 7/a, ☎ +39 011 0116 7580, info@museopietromicca.it. Full €3 Reduced €2.
Civic Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art (GAM), Via Magenta 31 (Metro station - Vinzaglio stop), ☏ +39 0114429518, gam@fondazionetorinomusei.it. Full €10 - Reduced €8. About 40,000 works (paintings, sculptures, decorative arts, photographs) are exhibited in the Gallery. It also hosts temporary exhibitions.
Cesare Lombroso Museum of Criminal Anthropology, Via Pietro Giuria 15, ☎ +39 0116708195, museo.lombroso@unito.it. Full price: €5, reduced price: €3, free: Wednesday and for holders of the Torino Piemonte Museum Subscription or Torino+Piemonte Card. Mon-Sat 10:00-18:00 (May 2022). The museum brings together the private collection of Cesare Lombroso, founder of criminal anthropology. Finds such as anatomical preparations, drawings, photographs, evidence of the crime and handcrafted creations of prisoners in prisons and criminal asylums are collected. These objects, coming from different parts of the world thanks to the shipments of Lombroso's pupils and admirers, were studied in order to confirm the theory of criminal atavism, which later proved to be unfounded.
Luigi Rolando Museum of Human Anatomy, Corso Massimo d'Azeglio 52, ☎ +39 011 6707797. Full price: €5, reduced price: €3, free: Wednesday and for holders of the Abbonamento Musei Torino Piemonte or Torino+Piemonte Card. Mon -Sat 10am-6pm.
Fruit Museum, Via Pietro Giuria 15, ☎ +39 011 6708195, info-museodellafrutta@comune.torino.it. The Museum houses about 1000 plastic artificial fruits, made in the smallest details.
Museum of Savings, Via S. Francesco d'Assisi, 8A, ☎ +39 800167619, info@museodelrisparmio.it. Mon-Fri 10am-7pm.
Widespread Museum of the Resistance, Deportation, War, Rights and Freedom, Corso Valdocco 4/A (Metro 1 Stop XVIII December,), ☎ +39 011 01120780, info@museodiffusotorino.it. Full €5 Reduced €3.
Palazzo Barolo, Via delle Orfane, 7, ☎ +39 011 26 36 111, info@palazzobarolo.it. Full €5 Reduced €3. Tue. - Fri. 10:00 - 12:30, 15:00 - 17:30; Sat. and Sun.: 15:00 - 18:30. Palazzo Barolo is an ancient Baroque residence where the Marquises of Barolo lived. In addition to visiting the halls of the Palace, it is possible to visit the School and Children's Book Museum (MUSLI) located inside.
Museum of Oriental Art (MAO), Via San Domenico, 11. Full price €10 Reduced price €8. Wed. - Thurs. 11am - 7pm, Fri 11am - 8pm. The museum houses around 2,300 works from the Neolithic to the early 1900s from Southeast Asia, China, Japan and Islamic countries.
Palazzo Cisterna (Palazzo dal Pozzo della Cisterna), via Maria Vittoria, 12. Palace of Turin, in Baroque style.
Martinetto Shrine, Corso Svizzera. It is located in Turin in Corso Svizzera at the corner with Corso Appio Claudio and is the only surviving part of the city's shooting range. It stands on the site where, between September 1943 and April 1945, many death sentences of partisans and political opponents were carried out.
In 1950 Franco Antonicelli, Andrea Guglielminetti and Pier Luigi Passoni obtained that the place was recognized as being of national interest and placed under restrictions. The current arrangement dates back to 1967, when the execution enclosure was preserved, where there is a memorial stone, the plaque with the names of the executed and a case containing the remains of one of the chairs used for the executions. The shrine is surrounded by a garden, while new buildings intended for civilian homes were built on the area where the previous structure was developed.
The place is the main city monument of the Resistance, the site of a civic commemoration that takes place every year on April 5, the anniversary of the execution of the eight members of the first Piedmontese military committee. It can be visited on that date and around April 25 each year.


Out of the centre

National Automobile Museum (MAUTO), Corso Unità d'Italia, 40, ☎ +39 011 677666, fax: +39 011 6647148. Full price €12 - Reduced price €10. Mon 10am - 2pm Tue-Sun 10am - 7pm. The Museum houses about 200 original cars of 80 brands from all over the world.
Giovanni e Marella Agnelli Art Gallery, Via Nizza, 230 (Metro 1 - Lingotto stop. The entrance and ticket office of the Art Gallery are located inside the "8 Gallery" shopping center), ☏ +39 011 0925019, segreteria@pinacoteca-agnelli .it. Full: €12 - Reduced €10. Thurs. - Sun. 10:00 - 19:00. The structure that houses the Art Gallery is located on the roof of the Lingotto (former site of the homonymous Fiat factory). The Pinacoteca inaugurated in 2002 houses, among other works, a collection of seven canvases by Matisse, some works by Modigliani, Tiepolo, Severini, Picasso, Renoir, Manet and two plaster statues by Antonio Canova.
National Mountain Museum, Piazzale Monte dei Cappuccini 7, ☎ +39 011 6604104, fax: +39 011 6604622, posta@museomontagna.org. Full: €10, reduced: €7.
Basilica of Superga, Strada Basilica di Superga 73, ☎ +39 011 8997456, fax: +39 011 8903833, reservations@basilicadisuperga.com. Basilica: free entry; Royal Tombs: full price €5, reduced price €4; Royal Apartments: full price €5, reduced price €4; ascent to the Dome: full price €3, reduced price €2. You can visit the Basilica, the Royal Tombs, the Royal Apartments and climb to the top of the Juvarriana Dome.
Villa La Tesoriera, Corso Francia, 192 (Metro 1 Montegrappa stop). The Villa Sartariana commonly known as Villa La Tesoriera is located within the Parco della Tesoriera. It houses the "Andrea Della Corte" Civic Music Library.
Villa della Regina, Strada Comunale Santa Margherita, 79, drm-pie.villadellaregina@beniculturali.it. Full: Villa + Park €7 - Full: Villa only €5 - Reduced: €2.
A come Ambiente Museum (MACA), Corso Umbria 90, ☎ +39 011 0702535, info@acomeambiente.org. Museum entirely dedicated to environmental issues.
"Le Nuove" Prison Museum, Via Paolo Borsellino, 3, ☎ +39 011 760 4881, segreteria@museolenuove.it. Full: €6, reduced: €4.
Lavazza Museum, Via Bologna, 32, ☎ +39 011 217 9621. full price €10, reduced price €8. Museum dedicated to the history of the Lavazza company and the coffee supply chain.
Museolab of the Fantastic and Science Fiction (MUFANT), Piazza Riccardo Valla n.5, ☎ +39 349 8171960, info@mufant.it. Full €8 Reduced €7. Tues. to Fri. 15:30 -19:00. The Museum houses rooms dedicated to science fiction (Star Trek, Star Wars, Doctor Who), robots (Goldrake, Ufo Robot and many others), anime (Dragon Ball and many others) and the "Gaf" Fantastic Art Gallery.


Turin+Piedmont Card

To access free admissions or reduced ticket prices in some museums, it is possible to purchase the Torino+Piemonte Card at the Tourist Offices and some museums. It is also possible to insert multi-day tickets for Turin's public transport on the card.

Rai Radio and Television Museum, Via Giuseppe Verdi, 16, ☎ +39 011 8104360, museoradiotv@rai.it. Mon. - Fri. 09:00 - 19:00.


Events and parties

CioccolaTò, ☎ +39 075 5025880, fax: +39 075 5025889, info@cioccola-to.it. In November. Chocolate party.
Turin Comics, Lingotto Fiere - Via Nizza 280, info@torinocomics.com. spring - 12-13-14 April 2019. Exhibition and trade fair for comics.
International Book Fair. In May. Exposure in the publishing sector.
Turin Hills Festival. June. Theatrical performances in historical and unpublished places in Turin.
VIEW Fest. In October. Digital Film Festival.
Alpha MITO club to club. In November. International music and art festival.
Turin Film Festival. November December.
Artist lights. Christmas time. several light installations by contemporary artists in the main places of Turin.


What to do

A trip to the Basilica of Superga with the funicular from Sassi to enjoy the splendid view of Turin from the top of the hill. Sassi can be reached by tram 15. If you are sporty you can go to the back of the Basilica where there is a plaque commemorating the Grande Torino plane crash. It is an established tradition that any team playing in the city against Turin first pays tribute to you; it is also very common among visiting supporters to leave a scarf of their team in homage to the fallen.
A walk on Via Roma from the Porta Nuova station to Piazza Castello passing through Piazza San Carlo in order to fully grasp the elegance of the city.
A walk from Piazza Castello to Piazza Vittorio Veneto, walking under the arcades of Via Po. Continue on the Vittorio Emanuele I bridge and stop in the middle of the bridge to admire the view of the Po. Continuing we find the church of the Gran Madre di Dio.
Treat yourself to a moment of relaxation in one of the historic bars near Piazza Castello, such as Mulassano or Baratti & Milano (founded in 1873, famous for its chocolate).
Play hit ball, a sport born in Turin in 1986 and today considered a true specialty of the city. Many associations offer free trials.
Turin Night Run, Monumental Arch, Valentino Park, torinonightrun@gmail.com. free. Tuesday, 8.15pm. TORINO NIGHT RUN is a community of runners who share a passion for running and for their city. They offer collective workouts, open to practitioners of all levels, every Tuesday evening, meeting at 8.15 pm in front of the Monumental Arch of the Valentino Park.



Turin is not the most famous Italian city for shopping. In the city there are numerous high-level shops and small shops. Also very common are the shops with typical products such as wine. Bookshops are also very popular in Turin, and there are many along the via Po.

Zona Quadrilatero Romano - Fashionable neighborhood north of Piazza Castello in the oldest part of the city, once disreputable, now redeveloped. Today, many independent shops, many restaurants and bars are located here.
Via Garibaldi area — Turinese claim this is the longest pedestrianized shopping street in Europe; on it there are bars, clothing and shoe shops.
Nike Store, Piazza Castello, 139, corner of Via Garibaldi, ☎ +39 0342 571 73 15. Offers the range of sports shoes, clothing and accessories from the Nike brand. edit
Via Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange area — Pedestrian area with the Lagrange shopping centre.
La Rinascente, Lagrange shopping centre, Via Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange 15 (near Via Roma), ☎ +39 011 517 00 75, fax: +39 011 517 14 63. Branch of the chain of clothing and accessories stores of the same name.
Via Pietro Micca area - Among the various multi-storey shops on this street, one of the three Turin branches of Frav should be mentioned, a clothing store.
Frav, Via Pietro Micca, 12 c. Branch of the homonymous chain of clothing and accessories stores.
Via Po area — A street with somewhat alternative shops under the arcades from Piazza Castello to Piazza Vittorio Veneto.
Via Roma area — Along this street, from Piazza Castello to the main railway station, you can find shops of the most famous and expensive brands such as Hermes and Dolce & Gabbana, but also chains with more affordable prices such as H&M, United Colors of Benetton and Zara. In Piazza CLN, behind Piazza San Carlo, there is a large La Feltrinelli shop. There is also an Apple Store on this street.

Shopping centers in the city
8 Gallery Shopping Center, Via Nizza, 230 (Metro 1 - Lingotto stop; Lingotto FS railway station, or Galimberti bus stop (connected by the Olympic Footbridge): lines № 1, 17, 18, 35). Mon-Thu 10am-9pm, Fri-Sun 10am-10pm. Long pedestrian corridor with shops that shares the building with a department of the Polytechnic University of Turin. Refurbished by Renzo Piano. Near 8 Gallery is Eataly. This mall has around 100 shops, 1 movie theater and 10 restaurants. It has a 4,000-space car park.
Millecity Center Shopping Mall, Via Giordano Bruno, 142 (Stop 516 - PHILADELPHIA: lines № 14, 63), ☎ +39 011 3049146. This mall has 15 shops.
Parco Dora Shopping Centre, Via Livorno, 51 (Stop 1765 - TREVISO: Lines № 52, 60, 60a, 67, 72, 72/), ☎ +39 011 437 27 57.

Shopping centers in the suburbs
Auchan Shopping Center (Xstore Auchan), Corso Romania, 460, Famolenta (Stop 516 - PHILADELPHIA), ☎ +39 011 2 22 13 11. Mon-Sat 8am-9pm, Sun 9am-8pm. Shopping Center in the Famolenta Suburb.
Le Gru, Grugliasco (Easily accessible from the center with buses № 17 and the less frequent № 66, but more convenient for returning to the center.). Shopping center in Grugliasco, just outside Turin.
45° North (45 North Entertainment Center), Via Postiglione (At the gates of southern Turin, under the municipality of Moncalieri, in the direction of Trofarello/Villastellone). A multifunctional commercial complex built around 2003 and so called because the geographical parallel at latitude 45° North passes through it (although the latter cuts through the center of Moncalieri, a few km further north).

Luxembourg International Bookshop, Via Cesare Battisti, 7 (corner of Piazza Carignano), ☎ +39 011 561 3896. From Monday to Saturday all day 9.00 - 19.00. Sunday 10.00 - 13.00 / 15.00 - 19.00. is the best-stocked library in the field of books, newspapers and publications in a foreign language.

Porta Palazzo, Piazza della Republica (north of the Quadrilatero). Mon-Fri 06:00-13:00, Sat 06:00-19:00. One of the largest open-air markets in Europe. Surely visiting it can be very interesting.

Organic and natural shops
«NaturaSì» organic supermarket, Corso Moncalieri 194 (stop 2027 - SICILY: Line № 66), ☏ +39 011 661 37 79, fax: +39 045 891 86 19 (central), info@naturasi.it. Mon-Fri 09:00-13:00/15:30-19:50, Sat 09:00-19:50. Branch of NaturaSì Italia Bio chain of department stores. Sale of organic food, dietetic and macrobiotic food. Underground parking available for customers.
«NaturaSì» organic supermarket, Corso Orbassano 248 (bus stop 309 - OMERO: lines № 5, 5B, 5V, 11, 58, 74, 94 or stop 136 - PITAGORA SUD: line № 2), ☎ +39 011 309 77 46 , fax: +39 045 891 86 19 (central), info@naturasi.it. Mon-Fri 09:00-13:00/15:30-19:50, Sat 09:00-19:50. Branch of NaturaSì Italia Bio chain of department stores. Sale of organic food, dietetic and macrobiotic food. Underground parking available for customers.


Night clubs

Many nightclubs are concentrated on the riverfront known as Murazzi del Po, especially in the stretch facing Ponte Vittorio Emanuele I, and in the area around the Gran Madre church beyond the Po river. The arcades of Piazza Vittorio Veneto and the districts of San Salvario and the Quatrilatero Romano they are full of aperitif bars, restaurants and nightclubs.

1 Vinicola Al Sorij, Via Matteo Pescatore 10c (Near Piazza Vittorio), ☎ +39 011 884143. Wine and snacks.
2 Caffe Rossini, Corso Regina Margherita, 80 (at the corner to Via Gioacchino), ☎ +39 011 521 4105. Caffe Rossini is a nice place with music frequented by young locals.
3 Lab, Piazza Vittorio Veneto, 13/E, ☎ +39 011 8170669. Modern bar with lots of young people and good music. A place to go during the week when the city sleeps.
4 Caffe al Bicerin, Piazza della Consolata, 5, ☎ +39 011 436 9325. Offers the classic Turin drink, the Bicerin. A mix of coffee, hot chocolate and cream, it's a wonderful treat on a frigid winter day. Located in the small but scenic Piazza della Consolata, across the square is the baroque Consolata church.
5 Turin Brewery, Via Parma, 30, ☎ +39 011 2876562. 8pm-2am. There are four beers produced on the premises of this brewery. Good menu with paired recommended beers. It can be very crowded.
6 Caffè dell'Orologio, Via Morgari 16/a (Zona San Salvario), ☎ +39 011 579 4274. The place is large and beautiful. Remained with the original imprint and affects those who enter for the first time.
7 Basso 30, via Sant'Agostino 30/a, ☎ +39 011 578 8288. Two ways to drink, eat and laze around until late.


Where to eat

Turin, after Rome with its "big noses", is probably the city with the largest number of public fountains in the world where you can drink water for free. These fountains called "Torèt" are bottle green in color and have a bull's head where the water comes out. There are 813 fountains, from the center to the periphery and they are connected to the Turin water network.

Modest prices
1 Lobelix, Piazza Savoia 4, ☎ +39 011 436 7206. Aperitif €11. Mon. Sun. 18:30 - 02:00. In this bar you can go for an aperitif, which means that with the purchase of a drink, you receive unlimited access to a buffet of food. During the aperitif all drinks, from water to cocktails, cost the same price. It starts around 6pm and ends when the food runs out, usually around 9pm.
2 Gennaro Esposito, Via Giuseppe Luigi Passalacqua 1/g (Near Piazza Statuto), ☎ +39 011 535 905. Pizza around €15. To sit at one of the few tables in one of the best pizzas in Turin.
3 Fratelli La Cozza, Corso Regio Parco 39, ☎ +39 011 859 900. Outside the city centre, this large and popular pizzeria, brilliantly decorated, is perfect for large groups of people. If you go as a couple, ask for a seat on the balcony to get a better view!
Exki, Two locations in the center of Turin: Via XX Settembre 12 and Via Pietro Micca, near Piazza Castello, ☎ +39 011 560 4108. The healthiest fast-food you can find in Turin, Exki serves fresh salads, soups, savory pies and healthy appetizers at low prices. You will also find a selection of fresh juices, organic beers and organic coffees.
4 Tre Galli, Via Sant'Agostino 25, ☎ +39 011 5216027. Pretty wine bar in the aperitif area. The service is good and the atmosphere is young and relaxed, not too trendy. Here you can eat or just drink. Typical dishes of Turin reinvented for the occasion.
5 Sfashion Cafè, Via Cesare Battisti 13, ☎ +39 011 5160085. The owner and the decorations are the same as Fratelli La Cozza: a fun kitsch. In fact, the owner is Piero Chiambretti, an Italian actor. Good pizza and southern Italian dishes. Perfectly located on the beautiful pedestrian piazza Carlo Alberto.
6 Pizzeria Gonzales, Corso Francia 307, ☎ +39 011 779 0348. Simple but good local pizzas.

Average prices
7 Giusti Mauro, Via Maria Vittoria 21 (4 blocks east of via Roma), ☏ +39 349 151 3068. Tues - Sun 12:00-14:00 - 19:20-22:00 Closed on Mondays. Frequented by almost exclusively Italian diners, because it only accepts cash. The menu does not vary between lunch and dinner. Good basic regional cuisine at reasonable prices.
8 Arcadia, Galleria Subalpina (Piazza Castello 29), ☎ +39 011 56 13 898, info@ristorantearcadia.com. Italian restaurant and sushi bar in a room located inside the Galleria Subalpina with a hall with exposed stone columns. The Arcadia is part of Piero Chiambretti's premises.
9 Trattoria Ala, Via Santa Giulia 24, ☎ +39 011 81 74 778, info@trattoria-ala.it. Meal with wine about €25. Definitely try the cantucci with vinsanto for dessert. Beware that they cook Tuscan food, so if you're looking for local food, maybe you're in the wrong place.
10 La Spada Reale, Via Principe Amedeo 53 (near Piazza Vittorio Veneto), ☏ +39 011 8173509. menu at €28. Classic restaurant with typical Piedmontese dishes but also with a selection of Tuscan dishes. edit
11 Trattoria Decoratori & Painters, via Francesco Lanfranchi 28 (near the Gran Madre), ☎ +39 011 819 0672. Fixed menu €24 with drinks not included.
12 A Livella, Corso Belgio 50/A, ☎ +39 011 86 00 173. Elegant restaurant in the Vanchiglia district with moderate prices.
13 Trattoria San Domenico, Strada della Pronda, 15/B, ☎ +39 011 701674, l.corona@libero.it. Tue.-Sat. 10:00-15:00 19:00-23:00 Closed Sunday and Monday. Restaurant with Sardinian and Piedmontese cuisine.
14 Le Due Torri Restaurant Pizzeria, Corso Peschiera 309, ☎ +39 011 722486, pizzerialeduetorri@gmail.com. Pizza cooked in a wood oven and pasta dishes are very good. Friendly efficient staff.
15 Il Povero Felice, Via Fidia, 28 (near Piazza Massaua), ☏ +39 011 728928, ilpoverofelice@virgilio.it. Good Italian restaurant.
16 L'Agrifoglio Restaurant, Via Andrea Provana 7/E (Borgo Vecchio area), ☎ +39 011 8136837, fax: +39 011 8146227, info@lagrifoglioristorante.com. €35-40. Wed-Sun 12:30-14:30 Tue-Sun 19:30-22:30. Piedmontese cuisine, seats 55 and is dog friendly; Visa, Mastercard and American Express credit cards are accepted.
Ciccio Paranza, Via Bellezia, 29, ☎ +39 342 8441911. €20/30. Tue-Sun 12:00-15:00 and 19:00-23:00. Street food style seafood restaurant. Informal and friendly atmosphere. Excellent value for money. Seaside tavern style, cheerful and even a little funny. Pans of mussels, fried, grilled, catch of the day and delicious cakes.

High prices
17 Ristorante Del Cambio, Piazza Carignano, 2, ☎ +39 011 546690. A very elegant and exclusive bar and restaurant. Located in the beautiful Piazza Carignano, Del Cambio serves all the traditional Piedmontese delicacies. He was supposedly the favorite of the famous Italian politician Camillo Benso di Cavour.
18 Mare Nostrum, Via Matteo Pescatore, 16, ☎ +39 011 839 4543. Excellent southern Italian fish dishes. The antipasto misto is a must (the only one available on the menu), consisting of a series of small dishes of the day.
19 'L Birichin, Via Vincenzo Monti 16/a, ☎ +39 011 65 74 57, batavia@birichin.it. Mon. Sat. 12:00-15:00 19:00-23:00. Il Birichin is an elegant restaurant with its Chef Nicola Batavi. It offers various types of complete menus with prices from €67 to €85.


Where stay

Modest prices
1 Hotel Due Mondi, Via Saluzzo, 3 (Savoyard City). Singles, doubles and suites. Breakfast included.
2 Casa Romar Bed & Breakfasts, Corso Chieti, 5, ☎ +39 349 1804814, info@casaromar.it. room per night €50/€70. edit
3 Hotel Nizza-Turin, Via Nizza, 9, ☎ +39 011 669 0516, reception@hotelnizza.to.it.
4 Hotel Bologna, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 60 (opposite Porta Nuova station), ☎ +39 011 562 0193, info@hotelbolognasrl.it. Single €50. Exquisite staff.
5 Doria, Via Accademia Albertina, 42 - 2nd floor (Near Porta Nuova station), ☎ +39 011 8390601, hoteldoria8@gmail.com. Single €30, double €40. TV and bathroom in the room, with very friendly staff.

Average prices
6 Holiday Inn Turin - Corso Francia, Piazza Massaua, 21 (opposite side of the Piazza Massaua Metro Station), ☎ +39 011 740187, fax: +39 011 7727429, reservations@hiturin.it. 4-star hotel, modern and well furnished. Reasonable breakfast buffet. Wifi available but slow. Underground parking.
7 Hotel Artua'&Solferino, via Angelo Brofferio, 3 (near Piazza Solferino), ☎ +39 388 7537662, artuasolferino@tiscali.it. 50/200€. Rooms for 1/4 people. Wifi and parking are available.
8 Bed and Breakfast Villa Rosa, Via Caraglio 127/6, ☎ +39 333 4289843, fax: +393334289843, bbvillarosatorino@gmail.com. €50/€75. Check-in: 12:00, check-out: 12:00. Located in a detached house with a private courtyard.
9 Hotel Concord, Via Lagrange 47 (Near Porta Nuova), ☎ +39 011 5176756, booking@hotelconcordtorino.com. €80/€150. Check-in: 2.00pm, check-out: 12.00pm. Finely furnished and quiet 4-star hotel. Spacious rooms. Excellent breakfast buffet. Wifi available.

High prices
10 Le Petit Hotel, Via San Francesco d'Assisi, 21, ☎ +39 011 561 2626.
11 NH Torino Lingotto Congress, Via Nizza 262, ☎ +39 011 6642000, nhlingotto@nh-hotels.com. From €100. Check-in: 3.00pm, check-out: 12.00pm. 4-star business hotel in a former Fiat Lingotto factory. Large rooms with high ceilings. For those staying there is free admission to the Giovanni and Marella Agnelli Art Gallery. On the roof of the structure is the jogging area with free access.
12 Hotel Diplomatic, Via Cernaia 42, ☎ +39 011 561 2444, info@hotel-diplomatic.it. The 4-star hotel located in a historic building on Via Cernaia has 125 rooms. Wi-Fi available throughout the property.
13 Hotel Victoria, Via Nino Costa, 4 (three blocks from Piazza San Carlo), ☎ +39 011 561 1909, info@hotelvictoria-torino.com. €130/€250. Hotel 4 Stars. Junior suites have two-person whirlpool tubs. Free wireless connection in most rooms and in the lobby. Breakfast always included. Reception with accommodation for dogs and cats. The hotel also offers its own bicycles for visiting the city.
14 NH Santo Stefano, Via Porta Palatina, 19, ☎ +39 011 522 3311, nhsantostefano@nh-hotels.com. Check-in: 3.00pm, check-out: 12.00pm. 4-star hotel located in the heart of the historic center of Turin, this hotel also has a beautiful spa. A few steps from the nightlife of the Roman Quadrilateral.
15 The Grand Hotel Sitea, Via Carlo Alberto 35 (A few steps from Piazza San Carlo), ☎ +39 011 517 0171, fax: + 39 011 54 80 90, info@grandhotelsitea.it. Check-in: 15:00 - 21:30, check-out: 07:00 - 12:00. Decent restaurant, unfailingly friendly and helpful staff. The rooms are well furnished and well maintained. The hotel is located in the ZTL area.
16 Golden Palace, Via dell'Arcivescovado, 18 (Near Via Roma and Piazza Solferino), ☎ +39 011 551 2727, receptiongolden@allegroitalia.it. A 5-star luxury hotel featuring impressive rooms and halls.
17 AC Hotel Torino, Via Bisalta, 11 (Next to Eataly Lingotto), ☎ +39 011 639 5091. This 5-star hotel offers great prices for quality accommodation.
18 Boston Art Hotel, Via Andrea Massena, 70 (Near the train station), ☎ +39 011 500359. Exclusive 4-star design hotel in the historic center of Turin.
19 Principi di Piemonte, Via Piero Gobetti, 15 (Round the corner of the commercial and pedestrian area of Via Lagrange), ☏ +39 011 55151. Check-in: From 2.00pm, check-out: 7.00am - 12pm: 00. Very elegant and prestigious 5-star hotel located in the historic center between Via Roma and Via Lagrange.



Turin can generally be considered a safe city. Be aware that the Porta Nuova train station area can be quite dangerous on the eastern side, not just at night; beware of pickpockets! This is especially true in the part of the San Salvario district between Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and Corso Marconi, the Valentino Park in the area adjacent to Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, it is also advisable not to walk in the Park in the evening after dark.

The areas near Porta Palazzo (Piazza della Repubblica) can also be dangerous, especially in the smaller streets.

Turin is home to two football clubs, Juventus and Torino, who play in Serie A. Juventus play at the Juventus Stadium in the north of the city, while Torino play at the Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino which was renovated for the 2006 Winter Games. The rivalry between the two clubs is intense, but nevertheless the coexistence between the Turin fans of the two teams is peaceful. However, caution should be observed in the vicinity of the derby, which is particularly felt, and where riots can break out in the vicinity of the stadium hosting the match. It will be noted that many Torino fans (the team with the highest number of fans in the city) also tend to wear various types of gadgets that identify them in ordinary life; however, this should not be traced back to people who are violent or looking for trouble. However, it is advisable to avoid wearing clothing whose colors and motifs are attributable to one of the two teams when the other has a match scheduled: black and white stripes for Juventus, and garnet red for Turin. As a precaution, it would also be advisable to avoid the colors of some other teams when they come to Turin to play against Juventus, especially those of Milan (red and black stripes), Inter (black and blue stripes) and Fiorentina (purple). Similarly, the shirts of Atalanta (black and blue stripes) and Sampdoria (Blue with circled crest) should be avoided when Torino is playing at home. The jerseys of foreign teams are seen with indifference except those of Benfica (Portugal) and River Plate (Argentina) due to the long partnership with the Turin fans. The Liverpool (England) shirt is to be avoided due to the memory of the Heysel stadium massacre.


How to keep in touch

Poste Italiane, via Maria Vittoria 24 (Turin 1 post office), ☎ +39 011 8125667, fax: +39 011 8121752.
Poste Italiane, via San Francesco da Paola 40 (Turin post office 20), ☎ +39 011 8126543, fax: +39 011 835433.
Poste Italiane, Corso Giulio Cesare 7 (Turin Post Office 22), ☎ +39 011 5211973, fax: +39 011 4360661.
Poste Italiane, via Montebello 25 (Turin post office 23), ☎ +39 011 835416, fax: +39 011 837262.
Poste Italiane, Lungodora 71/A (Turin Post Office 70), ☎ +39 011 284241, fax: +39 011 284865.



Ancient age
There is little information, referring to one or more villages, which would have arisen in the area of the current city, starting from the 3rd century BC; settlements referable to populations of Celtic-Ligurian lineage, known by the name of Taurini, often confused, already in ancient times, with the Taurisci, who also occupied the nearby valleys of Susa and Lanzo. Still according to ancient historical sources, one of these settlements, called Taurasia or Taurinia, was destroyed in 218 BC by the Carthaginian leader Hannibal, after a strenuous resistance put up by its inhabitants.

On the remains of the village, the Roman officers of Julius Caesar, in 58 BC, first installed a military garrison: Iulia Taurinorum, then a real castrum, with the aim of better supporting the Gallic wars [citation needed]. In 28 BC. the castrum was erected as a colony, with the name of Julia Augusta Taurinorum or, more simply, Augusta Taurinorum. In Roman times the territory of Turin was the terminus of an important Roman road, the via Gallica. In 312 AD, in its surroundings, the Battle of Turin took place, for the succession to the imperial throne, between the troops of Maxentius and those of Constantine I, who emerged victorious.

Medieval age
For most of the period between the 5th century and the 15th century, Turin did not particularly distinguish itself from the context of northwestern Italy, remaining a city of rather modest dimensions. The city underwent, rather, a progressive growth which led it, only at the end of the medieval era, to stand out: its political and cultural importance was, in fact, definitively sanctioned with the assignment of the title of capital of the surrounding territories and with the foundation of the city university.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire Turin passed under the control of the Ostrogoths, of the Eastern Romans. In 596 the city was occupied by the Lombards, becoming the capital of their important duchy. the appointment of the Duke of Turin, Agilulf as king of the Lombards, increased the prestige of the city. Turin remained under the reign of the Lombards until the descent of the Franks of Charlemagne in 773: the duchy was converted into a committee (county) keeping Turin as the capital. In 888 the county was absorbed by the march of Ivrea and Turin lost the title of capital until 940, the date of the foundation of the March of Turin, a large territory that included a large part of south-western Piedmont and western Liguria. At the head of this march was the so-called "Arduin dynasty" which, through the marriage between Adelaide of Susa and Oddone, son of Umberto I Biancamano (founder of the House of Savoy), brought the city under the influence of the Savoy dynasty. The city experienced a period of great economic development, thanks to its strategic position along the trade routes that connected Italy to France and Switzerland. With the death of Adelaide, the brand fell apart and Turin became a free municipality, undergoing various dominations. During this period, Turin increased its religious prestige, with the construction of numerous churches and the arrival of important monastic orders, including the Benedictines and the Cistercians. In 1280 William VII of Monferrato ceded Turin to Thomas III of Savoy, sanctioning the definitive belonging of the city to the Savoy family. In 1295, with the settlement in power of his son Philip I, progenitor of the cadet branch of the Acaia, the capital of the county was moved to Pinerolo, where it remained until the death of the last member of the Savoy-Acaia, Ludovico di Savoia-Acaia , which took place in 1418. The territory returned under the direct dominion of the main branch of the Savoy, in the person of Amedeo VIII, who incorporated it into his state, the Duchy of Savoy. The increased importance of Turin due, among other things, to the presence of the Studium, established in 1404, led the duke to elect the city as the seat of the Cismontano ducal council, the seat of the itinerant administrative government of the duchy.

Modern age
In 1563, after the peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559), by order of Duke Emanuele Filiberto di Savoia, the city became the capital of the duchy of Savoy, which had previously gravitated to Chambéry, and was equipped with modern walls and a pentagonal citadel .

The seventeenth century saw the city and the duchy grow with the acquisition by the latter of Asti of Monferrato and an outlet to the sea, while the city went beyond the perimeter of the Roman walls.

In 1706 Turin was besieged by Franco-Spanish troops as part of the War of the Spanish Succession. The city and the Savoy army resisted for one hundred and seventeen days and thus repulsed the violent French counter-offensive.

In 1713 the dukes of Savoy obtained the title of king, first of Sicily and then, in exchange for Sicily, of Sardinia. In both cases, however, the two kingdoms remained separated by the Duchy of Savoy, and therefore from Turin, finding themselves only in personal union under the House of Savoy. The Sicilian parenthesis actually lasted very little (seven years), while the union with Sardinia remained so until 1847, when Carlo Alberto di Savoia granted the so-called perfect fusion between his domains and therefore Turin, even formally, became the capital city of the Kingdom of Sardinia, even if in fact all the most important decisions were already taken in Turin, also as regards Sardinia.

Contemporary age
On 26 June 1800, Turin had a brief visit from the winner of the second Italian campaign, Napoleon Bonaparte, and shortly afterwards preparations began for the annexation of Piedmont to France. General Dupont, the extraordinary French minister for Piedmont, took office in Turin and appointed a government commission made up of seven members, later replaced on 4 August by Dupont's successor, general Jourdan. On 19 April 1801 Jourdan suppressed all government institutions and became General Administrator of Piedmont, assisted by a Council of six Piedmontese members and finally, after the abdication of Charles Emmanuel IV of Savoy, on 21 September 1802 the six departments in which he had been Piedmont was divided (Turin belonged to the Po department and, moreover, one of the three districts into which the department was divided headed) were grouped into a French region called Au delà des Alpes, of which Turin became the capital and remained so until to the Restoration. During the French occupation, several works of art made their way to France due to Napoleonic looting. According to the catalog published in the Bulletin de la Société de l'art français of 1936 of the 66 works of art coming from Turin and sent to France in 1799, only 46 returned to Italy after the Congress of Vienna.

The Congress of Vienna and the Restoration gave Piedmont the territory of Liguria (previously the maritime republics of Genoa and Noli) thus laying, even if unintentionally, the foundations of the process that will lead to the unification of Italy in just over fifty years. Turin was the first capital of the new unitary state from 1861 to 1865, after which the capital became Florence and, from 1871, Rome.

The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century saw Turin develop as an industrial city: in 1899 Giovanni Agnelli, together with other partners, founded FIAT, in 1906 Vincenzo Lancia the car factory that bore his name, and together with them numerous other productive realities arose.

Italy's entry into the war in the First World War (1915-18) heavily marked the population. In 1919-20 social conflicts worsened (the so-called Red Biennium), driven by a sharp increase in prices. Many factories, above all FIAT, were occupied by workers who in some cases continued production independently. In 1922, with the march on Rome, fascism conquered power. This period was marked by numerous squad attacks against the opponents. In the city, the best known is known as the Turin massacre: it began on 18 December 1922 (hence the square of the same name) and caused the death of 11 anti-fascists and the fire of the Chamber of Labor of the city, by the fascists led by Piero Brandimarte.

After Italy entered the war on 10 June 1940, Turin, a fundamental industrial center, was repeatedly bombed by the Allies: the first attack took place on 11 June 1940, the last in 1945 (the maximum intensity was reached in 1943) . In 1943 the wave of strikes in large industry began in Turin which involved almost all of northern Italy and marked the resumption of the anti-fascist movement. After 8 September Turin was occupied by Nazi and Republican troops who committed numerous massacres, such as that of Pian del Lot, executions and deportations.

The partisan formations of the Groups (GAP) and the Patriotic Action Squads (SAP) were also active in the city. On 25 April 1945 the National Liberation Committee, which had its regional headquarters at the Fiorio tannery, proclaimed the general insurrection order and with it the Partisans took control of the city, putting an end to the Nazi-fascist occupation. A few days later, on May 3, the first allied troops also arrived.

After the Second World War Turin was the symbol of Italy's economic growth, so much so that it managed to attract hundreds of thousands of emigrants from the South of Italy and from the Veneto due to the requests for manpower in the car factories (about half a million in the twenty years 1951- 1971). In 1974, the city reached 1.2 million inhabitants. The number of immigrants was so large that the mayor Diego Novelli (1975-1985) defined Turin as "the third largest southern city in Italy by population after Naples and Palermo".



Turin is located in the plain bordered by the rivers Stura di Lanzo, Sangone and Po (the latter crosses the city from south to north), facing the mouth of some alpine valleys: Val di Susa, which connects the city with neighboring France through the the Frejus tunnel, Valli di Lanzo, Val Sangone. Turin is called "the city of the four rivers" because the Dora Riparia cuts it from west to east, flowing next to the historic center.

The Po river accentuates the division between the hilly and the almost flat part of the city, located between 220 and 280 meters above sea level; the highest point in the municipal area is Colle della Maddalena, at 715 m a.s.l., near the Faro della Vittoria.

The city is at the center of a mountainous amphitheater that encompasses some of the most beautiful alpine peaks, the Monviso, the mountain on which the Po, the Rocciamelone, and the massifs of Gran Paradiso, Mont Blanc, and Monte Rosa, without forgetting the Matterhorn. , legendary mountain for mountaineers.

Turin is 57 km from Asti, 79 km from Vercelli, 84 km from Biella, 93 km from Alessandria, 96 km from Novara, 98 km from Cuneo, 155 km from Verbania. The French border is about 70 km near Colle del Moncenisio, while 206 kilometers separate Piazza Castello from Chambery, 222 from Nice, 250 from Geneva and 314 from Lyon.

On 19 March 2016, UNESCO recognized the Po park and the Turin hills as a biosphere reserve, while in 2020 the FAO and the Arbor Day Foundation awarded the city of Turin the recognition of Tree City of the World 2019.



According to the Köppen climate classification, Turin belongs to the Cf range: humid temperate climate of mid-latitudes with hot summer (on average 30 ° C is reached and exceeded 15 days a year in Turin, and the average in July is around 23 ° C). From the nineties onwards, the Turin summer has undergone a warming. Winters are moderately cold, dry and often sunny. If we take into consideration the climatic reference period 1971-2000, the average snowfall in the hydrological year is 24.5 cm per year.

The absolute temperature record, 37.1 ° C, was recorded at the Turin Caselle weather station on 11 August 2003, due to an almost continuous persistence of subtropical air masses. The years between 2000 and 2010 recorded many summers that were decidedly warmer than the historical climatological average.

During the winter season, the Turin area, as well as a large part of western Piedmont in the plains, and southern Piedmont, is affected by the formation of the so-called "cold buffer", following the influx of continental air masses; thanks to the particular orographic conformation of the western Po basin, called "cushion" can tenaciously resist the mild winds that flow at medium-high altitudes, such as the sirocco, occasionally causing snowfalls called "softening", due to the gradual rise in temperature. The situation is very different in the numerous hilly and pre-alpine areas, often several degrees warmer than the plains and almost always free from cold stagnations. Taking into consideration the data collected by the Hydrographic Office of the Po (near Porta Susa), in the period 1961-1990, it can be seen that, in the city, the average annual temperature was 12.3 ° C, with the minimum, at January, 0.9 ° C.

The wettest periods are the quarter from April to June, and the month of October; the most pronounced and long-lasting minimum of precipitation is located in winter, and is followed by the secondary minimum in July-August. The rainfall in late summer, which on paper seems to represent a further secondary minimum, is highly variable depending on the year. Thunderstorms, on average about 20 per year, of which 2 with hail, occur almost exclusively in the months from April to October, causing precipitation of shorter duration, but of greater intensity. On 1 July 1987, 60 mm of rain fell in an hour. On September 13, 2008, the Meteorological Observatory of Caselle Torinese, 14 km north-west of Turin, recorded a thunderstorm rain of 220 mm in six hours, an unprecedented amount known in the Turin plain. The amount of annual rainfall, 833 mm., Has remained substantially unchanged from the mid-nineteenth century to today.



Road network
Unlike the vast majority of Italian cities, which have a concentric road structure, with a development of radial arteries culminating in the city center, the site of the main public activities, the road network of the city of Turin draws a checkerboard plan, its streets they develop in a straight line crossing each other at 90° with an orientation similar to that of the Roman castrum: a cardo maximus (north-south direction) and a decumanus maximus (east-west direction), crossing each other in the center of the castrum, and parallel to which they develop all the other ways inside the castrum. This arrangement was partly lost during the Middle Ages as in many other cities (and in fact the modern Roman quadrilateral includes many non-perpendicular streets). The checkerboard plan of today's city, however, derives mainly from the expansion that took place at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Carlo di Castellamonte. The checkerboard layout was not based on Roman origins, but on the principles of the order of the Renaissance and was intended to represent the new order and ducal power of Turin, the new capital of the dukes of Savoy. Subsequent checkerboard expansions were carried out by his son Amedeo di Castellamonte and continued for the rest of the city's history.

It considerably facilitates orientation and, thanks also to the large tree-lined avenues (which naturally follow the guidelines of the other streets), also makes mechanized traffic flow more smoothly, both for public and private transport.

Avenues and courses
The tree-lined avenues of Turin represent a distinctive element of the urban fabric of the city. They are often compared, for history and characteristics, to the boulevards of Paris. The street arboreal heritage of Turin develops along 320 km of avenues, present in particular in the central area, and is made up of about 60,000 specimens; the most represented species are plane tree, lime tree, hackberry, maple and horse chestnut. The boulevards of Turin are divided into two or three different carriageways: usually the oldest ones, such as Corso Vittorio Emanuele, Corso Francia and Corso Regina Margherita, have a central carriageway with at least two lanes in each direction, divided by trees from the other two lateral carriageways, called counter-vials.

The first plantings of trees in the city streets date back to the 17th century: initially, the trees were planted to delimit the avenues outside the city (but today incorporated into the urban fabric) which connected the suburban residences with the city; the most famous was the Allea Oscura, now disappeared, which connected the Porta Nuova with the Castello del Valentino. The first urban avenue proper dates back to the end of the 18th century, when a public promenade was built between the military Arsenal and the citadel. With the Napoleonic occupation of the early nineteenth century, the city system, especially the military one, was completely revolutionized according to the Enlightenment urban planning canons: in 1808 the building council, together with the then mayor Giovanni Negro, drew up a general urban planning project. The part concerning the avenues was effectively begun starting from 1814, with some slight alterations, mainly carried out by the architect Lorenzo Lombardi. The works continued throughout the nineteenth century and, among the authors of this increase, there was also the architect Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps who was director of the "Turin Gardens and Parks Division" from 1858 to 1891. In the following years , the attention for the tree-lined avenues grew, and with it the awareness of the importance of these elements for the well-being of the city and its inhabitants. During the twentieth century, numerous initiatives were promoted by the municipal administrations for the development of tree-lined avenues, also thanks to the collaboration of important architects and urban planners, including Marcello Piacentini.