Location: Veneto


Description of Venice

Venice (Italian: Venezia) is the capital of the Veneto region. As a trading city and capital of a colonial empire in the eastern Mediterranean, Venice was one of the richest cities in the world in the Middle Ages and still has a rare concentration of cultural treasures today. The part of the city located in the lagoon has preserved its uniqueness, where to this day traffic flows only on foot or by boat.

The islands of the lagoon were settled as early as the 5th century. According to legend, mainlanders fleeing from the Huns founded settlements on the lagoon islands.

In the Middle Ages, Venice became the most powerful maritime republic thanks to the wealth acquired through a monopoly on the trade of various goods from Asia and the Orient. Through numerous conquests in the Adriatic and Aegean areas, Venice became the most important military power in the eastern Mediterranean. With the European discovery of America and the sea route to India at the end of the 15th century, Venice's importance as a trading power gradually began to wane. In the 17th century, Venice gradually lost all conquered areas in the Aegean to the Ottoman Empire. The conquest by Napoleon in 1797 finally ended Venice's independence. From 1815 Venice belonged to Austria-Hungary until 1866 when it became part of the newly founded state of Italy.

Today the historic center still has about 55,000 inhabitants and the trend is decreasing. Since the middle of the 20th century, the population has shifted sharply from the historical center and the islands to the mainland: while in 1951 55% of the inhabitants still lived in the historical centre, 14% on the offshore islands and 21% in the mainland districts In 2006 only 23% in the historic center, 11% on the offshore islands and two thirds on the mainland. Since the 1970s, however, the total population of Venice (including the mainland districts) has also been declining: from 363,000 in 1971 to 261,000 in 2017.

Economically, Venice is dependent on tourism, but with 30 million tourists a year, the city is increasingly reaching its limits. Especially in the warmer months, congested roads, overcrowded boats and gigantic amounts of rubbish bring Venice to its breaking point. That is why there have been demands for years to limit mass tourism. An entrance fee for St. Mark's Square and a ban on cruise ships are being discussed. At least the largest ships are to be diverted in the future (from 2019) to reduce the environmental impact.

In addition to the "island city", other mainland towns also belong to the municipality of Venice (Tessera, Mestre, Marghera, Campalto, Trivignano and others). They are more industrial or have the character of "dormitory towns" and therefore have little to offer to tourists. Venice is also the capital of the province of Venice and the Veneto region.


Travel Destinations in Venice

How to orient yourself

In several points of the city there are indications written in black on a yellow background which indicate the direction to follow to reach the most important places. If in doubt, it is advisable to follow the direction shown by these indications.




The city is divided into six districts listed below:
San Marco
San Polo
Santa Croce/ Holy Cross


Popular groups

San Marco square (Piazza San Marco)

Ghetto di Venezia


Furthermore, in the lagoon there are various islands and settlements which are better explained in the article on the Venice Lagoon.

Poveglia Island


The monuments of the municipality of Venice are found almost entirely in the historic center and on the islands of the lagoon.

The most famous place in the city is Piazza San Marco, the only one in the historic center to be characterized by the toponym "piazza": the other squares are in fact called "campi" or "campielli". The Basilica of San Marco is located in the center of the square, colored with gold and covered with mosaics that tell the story of Venice, together with the bas-reliefs that depict the months of the year. Above the main door, the four bronze horses from the imperial palace of Constantinople [Note 5], which were transported to Venice following the fourth crusade of 1204 on the orders of doge Dandolo (commander of the crusade). The Greek cross plan is dominated by five large domes. The factory is the third basilica dedicated to San Marco that stands in this place: the first two were destroyed. This version was inspired by the church of the Holy Apostles of Constantinople (destroyed by the Muslims a few years after the conquest of 1453), of which it is a sort of small-scale replica. The interior is covered with gold background mosaics depicting biblical and allegorical passages. Initially, it was the chapel of the Doges of the Republic of Venice.

The Palazzo Ducale stands next to the Basilica: to unite them, the Porta della Carta, the work of Bartolomeo Bono, which is the exit of the Palazzo Ducale museum. The main entrance is on the side facing the lagoon. Seat of the government of the Serenissima, it was built in the 15th century with Istrian marble. Here stood a castle, then set on fire to let out Pietro IV Candiano who had found refuge there during a revolt. Now the Palazzo is a museum, with works by the best Venetian artists: the Sansoviniana Library, which is located inside, hosts temporary exhibitions. Worth seeing are the Sala del Maggior Consiglio, which for centuries was the largest seat of government in the world, the Bridge of Sighs, the prisons and the Piombi.

Opposite the Palazzo Ducale stands the bell tower of San Marco: built in 1173 as a lighthouse for sailors, it was restored by Bartolomeo Bon in the 15th century. It collapsed on July 14, 1902 and was entirely rebuilt. The loggia in red Verona marble is a work by Jacopo Sansovino, and on it there are bas-reliefs depicting allegories with the exploits of the Republic of Leone.

Other important Venetian monuments are the Arsenale, the basilica of Santa Maria della Salute, the basilica of Santa Maria gloriosa dei Frari, the synagogues of the Ghetto.

Venice is also famous for its historic cafés. Imported from the Ottoman Empire around 1615, from 1683 coffeehouses sprang up throughout the city. On 29 December 1720 the famous Caffè Florian was opened, still active in Piazza San Marco, under the Procuratie Nuove, in 1775 it was the turn instead of the equally famous Caffè Quadri.

The sought-after Peggy Guggenheim museum is also located in Venice, where there are great works by artists including Ernst, Modigliani, Picasso, Mirò, Pollock and Kandinsky. Important tourist destinations in the lagoon are the islands of Murano, Burano and Torcello. The island of Lido is instead a renowned seaside resort, as well as home to the famous Venice Film Festival.


Religious architecture

There are countless noteworthy churches that can be found in the lagoon city, both for their architectural merits and for the artistic treasures contained therein. Among the most important are the octagonal Basilica of Santa Maria della Salute, with its imposing dome that stands out at the inlet of the Grand Canal and the famous and majestic Basilica of San Marco, the city's cathedral and seat of the Patriarch and Patriarchate of Venice, located in the homonymous square, next to the Doge's Palace.

Among the other important religious buildings, there are: the basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, the church of Santa Maria dei Miracoli, the church of San Francesco della Vigna, the church of San Zaccaria, the basilica of Santi Giovanni e Paolo, the church of the Redeemer, the latter built on the island of Giudecca to a design by Andrea Palladio, and the basilica of San Pietro di Castello which includes two chapels by Veronese, as well as having been the primitive cathedral of the city until 1807.



Venice is full of stately buildings, overlooking campi, calli, canals and canals, ancient residences of the richest Venetian families of the city's golden age.

Apart from the schools and institutional buildings such as Palazzo Ducale, almost all the palaces are identified with the name of the family who founded them or who left their mark on them the most. Among the most famous are Palazzo Fortuny, in Gothic style donated to the city of Venice by the widow of the Spanish artist Mariano Fortuny, Palazzo Grassi, the work of Giorgio Massari, Palazzo Mocenigo with its Renaissance-style facade, Palazzo Grimani, state-owned and seat of the Court of appeal and Palazzo Loredan in gothic style. Often two or more families are mentioned in the name such as Palazzo Cavalli-Franchetti, or Palazzo Gritti-Badoer, or the branch of the family is specified (eg Palazzo Morosini del Pestrin).

Many private residences, on the other hand, maintain the traditional Ca' denomination, which indicated the name of the lineage and the building: for example Ca' Foscari, seat of the city university of the same name, Ca' Corner, designed in the 16th century by Jacopo Sansovino, Ca' Rezzonico , in the Dorsoduro district and designed by Longhena, Palazzo Balbi, seat of the President and the Regional Council of the Veneto Region, Ca' Pesaro, Ca' Tron, Ca' Vendramin Calergi and Ca' Dario, sadly known for the tragic fate of some of its owners.

The use of the Italian Casa (eg Casa Venier) is more recent. Some small buildings are often referred to as Palazzetto (e.g. Palazzetto Stern).

In Venice, given its ancient commercial vocation, there are also warehouses, ancient buildings of medieval origin used as a warehouse and shelter for foreign merchants. Along the Grand Canal you can see the fondaco dei Tedeschi, the fondaco dei Turchi and the fondaco del Megio.



Due to its conformation, Venice has 435 public and private bridges that connect the 118 islands on which it is built, crossing 176 canals. Most of them are built in stone, other common materials are wood and iron. The longest is the Ponte della Libertà which crosses the Venetian lagoon, connecting the city with the mainland and thus allowing vehicular traffic. The project dates back to 1931, by the engineer Eugenio Miozzi, while its inauguration took place in 1933, with the name of Ponte Littorio.

The main canal that cuts through the city, the Grand Canal, is crossed by four bridges: the Rialto bridge is the oldest (built around the 16th century); the Accademia bridge; the Scalzi bridge, the latter built under the Habsburg domination and rebuilt in the 20th century, and finally the Constitution bridge, erected in 2008 on a project by the architect Santiago Calatrava.

Another symbol of the city is the Rialto bridge: the work of Antonio Da Ponte, it was built in 1591. It was the only way to cross the Grand Canal on foot: in fact, it remained the only bridge until 1854, when the bridge was built dell'Accademia (to which the Scalzi bridge and the Constitution bridge were later added). On the sides of the central body there are luxury shops while, at the end of the bridge, in the San Polo district, there are the fruit and vegetable market, the covered building of the fish market and the church of San Giacomo di Rialto.

Furthermore, one of the most famous bridges in Venice is the Bridge of Sighs. Built in Istrian stone in the 17th century to a design by the architect Antonio Contin, it connects the Palazzo Ducale with the New Prisons.



Venice at the time of the Serenissima had many theaters, for both musical and dramaturgical or comedy performances, many of which were housed in patrician palaces, such as for example the Palazzo Grassi theater renovated in 2013 or in buildings of undoubted architectural interest, such as the eighteenth-century Teatro La Fenice (1792), the Teatro Goldoni (dating back to 1622, although completely renovated in the seventies) and the Teatro Malibran (1678).


Libraries and archives

The largest library in the city, and one of the largest in Italy, is the Marciana National Library. It is located in Piazza San Marco, has about 1,000,000 volumes, specializes in classical philology and history of Venice, has one of the most valuable collections of Greek, Latin and Oriental manuscripts in the world. The building that houses it is the work of the architect Jacopo Sansovino. The Marciana was officially established in 1560, although already in the fourteenth century Francesco Petrarca had the idea of creating a public library in this city. After the fall of the Republic, with the transformation of the Procuratie Nuove into Palazzo Reale, the library was moved to Palazzo Ducale, but after the First World War, due to the limited spaces and the growth of the literary heritage, the library found a new location in the Palazzo della Zecca.

The State Archive of Venice is located in the former Frari convent which, with its 70 km of shelves, houses the documentation produced over a thousand years by the Republic of Venice, from its birth to the 20th century. Its patrimony consists of a very rich collection of parchments, papers and drawings, preserved in the hundreds of rooms (the ancient monks' cells) located around the cloisters, which testify not only the history of the Serenissima, but also of the whole world that entertained diplomatic and trade relations with it. Established in 1815, since 1866 the archives produced by the offices of the Italian State located in Venice have also flowed into it.

The library of the Querini Stampalia Foundation, in Campo Santa Maria Formosa with headquarters in Palazzo Querini Stampalia, collects mainly scientific and naturalistic material, fulfilling the role of civic library of the city thanks to the availability of around 350,000 volumes. The library was commissioned in 1868 by N.H. Giovanni Querini Stampalia, who died the following year without direct heirs. It underwent an important restoration by the architect Carlo Scarpa between 1959 and 1963 and more recently by Mario Botta.

The Giorgio Cini Foundation manages a library on the island of San Giorgio Maggiore, in the rooms of the former Benedictine monastery, recently restored by Michele De Lucchi, which deals with the history of Venice, literature, music, theater and melodrama, but above all specializes in art history, to which a core of over 150,000 volumes and about 800 periodicals are dedicated, 200 of which are current.

Important specialized collections are also those of the university libraries of Ca' Foscari (over 830,000 volumes), of the IUAV (about 170,000 volumes), of the Academy of Fine Arts (about 16,000 inventoried volumes) and of the Benedetto Marcello Conservatory (over 50 000 volumes). Other libraries with a significant number of works are: the Monumental Library of the Patriarchal Seminary of Venice (163,000 volumes and other important works of art), and the Library of the Cavanis Institute (60,000 volumes).

The Venetian Jewish community manages the "Renato Maestro" library-archive, located in the Ghetto. Officially established in 1981, it now offers around 12,000 titles and a "Catalogue of ancient Jewish books" which includes 2,500 volumes dating back to the 16th-19th centuries.

On the island of San Lazzaro degli Armeni, the library is considered the most significant collection of Armenian manuscripts preserved in the West. Founded in 1740, it has 170,000 volumes of which 4,500 are manuscripts.

Some civic museums also manage dedicated specialist libraries: that of the Correr Museum (135,000 modern volumes, over 8,000 ancient and more than 12,000 manuscripts), Ca' Pesaro (over 25,000 volumes), the Centro Studi di Storia del Tessuto and of the Costume of Palazzo Mocenigo (over 25,000 volumes and about 13,000 fashion sketches), and of Casa Goldoni Theater Studies (over 30,000 volumes).

As far as civic libraries are concerned, the "Venice Library Network" brings together 23 public and specialist libraries, seven of which are located in the historic centre, four on the islands and twelve on the mainland. Since 1980, the Civic Library of Mestre VEZ has been designated as the central library, opened to the public in 1953 and moved to Villa Erizzo since 2013, which has about 100,000 volumes and 60 periodicals in a total area of 2015 m² .



Of the various secondary schools in Venice, some historical institutes should be mentioned, such as the "Foscarini" classical high schools, founded in 1807 by decree of Eugenio di Beauharnais, viceroy of Italy and "Marco Polo", established in 1812. Among the high schools located in Mestre, we can mention the Raimondo Franchetti classical high school. Another historical institute is the Cavanis Institute of 1804 founded by religious, while the Benedetti-Tommaseo Institute is a large, more modern centre.

To these we can add the well-known Naval School "Morosini", which continues the ancient College of young nobles, founded on 2 October 1961 and based on the island of Sant'Elena.



Venice is an important Italian university seat, in fact it has more than one university. The most famous is the Ca' Foscari University, which offers degree courses in economics and commerce, foreign languages and literature, literature and philosophy, and natural sciences. Founded in 1868 as the first Business School in Italy and second in Europe, after that of Antwerp, it has its main office at Ca' Foscari, a Gothic palace overlooking the Grand Canal.

For the studies of architecture, fashion, design and urban planning, there is the IUAV University, established in 1926, as the second architecture school in Italy, after that of Rome, on the initiative of Giovanni Bordiga, then president of the Academy of Fine Arts from Venice.

The Academy of Fine Arts was founded on 24 September 1750 by the will of the Venetian Senate as the "Venetian academy of painting, sculpture and architecture", with Gianbattista Piazzetta as its first president. Among the artists who taught there are: Tiepolo, Hayez, Ettore Tito, Alberto Viani, Carlo Scarpa and Emilio Vedova. The main seat of the university is housed in the former Ospedale degli Incurabili, at the fondamenta delle Zattere.

Also in Venice, the Benedetto Marcello Conservatory has been present since 1876, housed in Palazzo Pisani.

In 1995 the Venice International University was founded, an international training and research consortium in which the Ca' Foscari University, the IUAV, the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and the Autonomous University of Barcelona participate, among others. The seat of the institution is located on the island of San Servolo, in a building that once housed a monastery.

Venice is also the only Italian city to host a Faculty of Canon Law, the "San Pio X", erected by the Congregation for Catholic Education in 2008 within the Studium Generale Marcianum. Commissioned by the then Cardinal Patriarch Angelo Scola, the faculty is housed in the restored palace of the patriarchal Seminary, adjacent to the Basilica della Salute. Also part of the academic pedagogical center of the Studium Generale Marcianum is the Higher Institute of Religious Sciences "San Lorenzo Giustiniani", erected in 2006, and part of the Theological Faculty of Triveneto.

Mestre is home to the Nursing degree course of the University of Padua, the IUAV Building Science Laboratory and the Ca' Foscari Scientific Campus.

Mindful of the long Venetian maritime tradition, in 1999 the Navy chose the headquarters of the Venice Arsenal as the seat of the Institute of Maritime Military Studies for the higher education of its officers.

Inside the monastery of San Nicolò al Lido there is the headquarters of the European Master in Human Rights.


Cultural institutions

The Veneto Institute of Sciences, Letters and Arts is an Italian academy. The Institute's purpose "is to increase, disseminate and protect science, literature and the arts". For this purpose, in addition to ordinary academic activity, it periodically promotes scientific and humanistic events, study meetings, conventions, seminars, international specialization schools and the organization of art exhibitions.
The Ateneo Veneto is an institution whose purpose is to collaborate in the dissemination of science, literature, the arts and culture, in all their manifestations. The activities promoted by the Ateneo Veneto involve: history, history of art and goldsmithing, music, medicine, cinema, theatre, economics, architecture and literature, involving all categories of knowledge. They take place on days dedicated to various activities throughout the year. All the activities promoted by the institute are free to enter and free of charge.
The Giorgio Cini Foundation is a non-profit organization established by Count Vittorio Cini. The aim is to promote the restoration of the monumental complex on the island of San Giorgio Maggiore and to encourage the development of educational, social, cultural and artistic institutions in the area, in collaboration with existing ones. In addition to its research activities, exhibitions and conferences, shows and concerts, the Foundation hosts congresses and conferences of scientific and cultural organizations and hosts initiatives of absolute importance in the field of international relations.
The Venice Biennale is a cultural society born in 1895 with the organization of the first Biennial Art Exhibition in the world in order to stimulate artistic activity and the art market in the city of Venice. It aims to promote new artistic trends and organizes international events in the contemporary arts.


Events and parties

The regatta of the befanas. January 6th.
Epiphany in Sant'Erasmo (Sant'Erasmo). January 6th. At 05:00 a "berolon" (bonfire) is erected a few steps from the square; they offer pancakes, sweets and mulled wine.
Carnival of Venice. In the 10 days preceding Lent between February and March. The most famous carnival in Italy.
Up and down the bridges. March April. Non-competitive march
Vogalonga. May. Regatta.
Feast of the violet artichoke, Torre Massimiliana (Sant'Erasmo). second Sunday in May. Born in 2007, it offers tasting and sale of local products and demonstrations of different ways of cooking the artichoke.
Night Marathon. June. Night running race.
Feast of Christ the King (Sant'Erasmo). first Sunday in June. Patron Saint day
Feast of the Redeemer. Third Sunday of July. Great popular festival.
The Venice Biennale, Palazzo del Cinema di Venezia, Lido di Venezia. end of August - beginning of September. Attend the annual film festival, the oldest of its kind. Book in advance as the island is small and hotels fill up. Many celebrities attend this annual event, so have your camera ready.
Historical Regatta. First Sunday of September.
Venice Marathon. October.
Festival of must (Sant'Erasmo). first or second Sunday of October. It is an event dedicated to must, the freshly pressed juice used to make wine. It is in fact "torbolino", a wine obtained from white grapes, not totally fermented, cloudy, slightly sparkling and sweet.
Our Lady of Health. November 21st.


What to do

Ice skating, Campo San Polo. Winter period.
A gondola ride. During the day (08:00-19:00) € 80.00 for 30 minutes with a maximum of 6 people and in the evening/night (19:00-08:00) € 100.00 for 35 minutes with a maximum of 6 people. The hourly rate is 20 minutes and is €40.00 during the day and €50.00 in the evening/night. You can choose between a standard route or a customized route. In the latter case, an additional fee is required for a longer route.
Excursion to the islands (Green Line). €18 (Aug 2021). Excursion to the islands of Murano, Burano and Torcello. With a stop of 40 minutes per island. Departure from various points in Venice.


Getting here

By plane

The Venice-Tessera Airport "Marco Polo" (IATA: VCE) in Mestre is located 8 km north of the lagoon city. The onward journey can be done either by road or by boat.
By taxi: To Piazzale Roma travel time approx. 15 minutes, approx. 30 euros. Taxis wait in front of the terminal building.
By bus: ATVO buses run non-stop to Piazzale Roma in 20 minutes for €8. Line 5 of the ACTV also costs €8 and has a few stops and takes a few minutes longer.
By water taxi: If you want to take a water taxi – the journey time to St. Mark’s Square is around 35 minutes – you can pay €120 during the day and €150 for the service in the evenings and at night. The booking can be made either through the hotel or directly in the arrivals hall. Shared water taxis cost €32 per person per trip (including one piece of luggage).
By waterbus: You can take a boat from Marco Polo to the city (St. Mark's Square) operated by the Alilaguna (public transport company in Venice), it takes about 70 minutes and costs €15. In addition, you have to reckon with a 7-minute walk (with a roof) from the airport to the pier.

A little further is Treviso Airport (IATA: TSF) in Treviso, which is mainly served by low-cost airlines.


By train

Venezia S.L. and Mestre are on the international railway lines Villach-Udine-Treviso-Mestre-Venezia, Venezia-Mestre-Padova-Bologna-Florence-Rome and others. There is a connection to and from the Brenner Railway in Verona P.N.

The Venezia Sta Lucia Santa Lucia city train station is connected to the mainland via the approx. 5 km long Ponte dell'Libertà bridge and is located directly on the Grand Canal. All long-distance and regional trains of Italian domestic traffic arrive here, as well as night trains from Germany and Austria. All trains to and from Venezia S.L. also stop in Mestre.


By bus

Local and national buses stop at Piazzale Roma. Tourist buses generally stop at the Tronchetto park island, which was specially built for this purpose. The local bus network extends far beyond Mestre. There was a tariff reform recently, which unfortunately puts visitors at a serious disadvantage: the cheaper tariffs (€1.30 (bus) / €2.50 (boat) are only available to owners of an "Imob" card, which are not suitable for visitors worthwhile (except as a season ticket, see below). Without such a ticket, a single journey costs €6 (bus) / €7 (boat).

Therefore, the best solution is to buy a season ticket for the entire network. Prices are staggered according to periods: €18 (12 h), €20 (24 h), €25 (36 h), €30 (48 h), €35 (72 h), €50 (7 days) and apply from validation on the first ride.
(More information:

In addition, the possibility of the VeneziaUnica value card, which can be individually combined for museums and local public transport, should be reconsidered.


In the street

While destinations in the districts of Mestre and Lido (arrival by ferry) can be reached by car, the old town of Venice, which is interesting for tourists, is completely car-free. If you want to go to the old town - like most tourists - you have to park your car either on the mainland or in one of the (very expensive) garages on Piazzale Roma or on Tronchetto. The parking lot at Tronchetto costs €21.00 (as of 09/2016) for 24 hours from check-in. The parking spaces closest to the center at Piazzale Roma (Autorimessa Comunale and Garage San Marco) cost around €30 per day.

It is a bit cheaper if you park your car in a garage in Mestre and then take the train to Venice (one leaves every few minutes, the journey time is about 10 minutes; a single ticket costs €1.40 in 2022). There is a multi-storey car park (Parcheggio Stazione) directly opposite the train station, where you can park for €2.50/hour with a maximum of €14.00 per day (until midnight) (as of 09/2016). If you only stay one or two nights, the parking garage on Tronchetto may be cheaper because of the billing after 24 hours. Another option is to leave the car in Punta Sabbioni for a one-off fee of up to €7 per day (as of 2015) and then take the boat to St. Mark's Square in around 40 minutes.

For longer stays, it is advisable to park your car in one of the numerous private parking lots near the airport (e.g. ), which are usually fenced and guarded and at €5/day significantly cheaper than the There are car parks in Mestre or even Venice. The operators offer a free shuttle service to the boat docks at the airport, where you can also be picked up and taken back to your car after making an appointment by telephone. The fare of the ACTV vaporetto to Venice and back is included in the ACTV Tourist Ticket, so before departure, pick up the ticket you ordered online in advance at the ACTV airport office (an easy walk from the jetty) and make sure that you also boarding the ACTV vaporetto to Venice (not the Alilaguna Linea Blu boat, for which the ticket is not valid). Line B goes to Fondamente Nove and Line A through the Grand Canal to St. Mark's Square, but does not stop at every stop in the Canal. consists via the Fusina terminal on the mainland. It is particularly suitable if you want to do a day trip to Venice, as it is very cheap for 12 hour bookings. Online bookings receive additional discounts. The journey to Fusina from Padua along the Brenta Canal is impressive, as it passes a series of the most beautiful villas in Veneto, including: at the Villa Nazionale and the Villa Malcontenta. Arriving in Venice via the Giudecca Canal, get off at the Zattere station, located at the back of the Accademia, just a few minutes' walk from Santa Maria Salute, the Peggy Guggenheim Museum and the Punto della Dogana, with its breathtaking views the Palazzo Ducale, the Doge's Palace.

Venice is the end of the European Goethestrasse, which starts in Karlovy Vary.

Terminal Fusina Venezia (Circolare linea Fusina, alternative arrival by car/boat to Venice), Via Moranzani, 79, 30176 Venezia VE, Italy (parking and pier directly on the lagoon). Tel.: +39 041 547 0160, fax: +39 041 5479133, email: The Terminal Fusina Venezia is a guarded car park with a pier for crossing to Venice from the mainland. It offers space for cars and buses and can be reached via the A4 motorway and the federal road 309 “Romea”. The ferry connection runs every hour from 8.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. all year round to Venice, Zattere stop, longer in the carnival season and in summer. Open: daily from 8 a.m. to 6.30 p.m., sometimes longer depending on the season. Price: from €18 for 12h parking and arrival and departure for 1 person. Accepted payment methods: online only Paypal, cash on site, no further information.


By boat

During the day, the People Mover connects you to the bus station from around 7.30 a.m. for €1.50. The stops are Tronchetto (small ships) <==> Marittima (ferries, cruise ships) <==> Piazzale Roma (bus station). Santa Lucia Venezia train station is 500m away on foot. From Piazzale Roma there is a direct bus connection to Marco Polo Airport.


Cruise ship

Cruise Terminal (Venezia Terminal Passeggeri).



From/to Greece: With Anek or Minoan you can reach the new port of Patras. There are often stops in Ancona, Igoumenitsa or on Corfu. Connections are daily in summer and 2-3 times a week in low season. Deck class, the cheapest offer, costs €93 for the entire route in autumn 2020.
From/to Croatia, more precisely Istria: Poreč (It. Parenzo. West Coast), Pula (It. Pola) and Rabac (Kvarner Bay). One provider is VeneziaLines, whose speedboats cost € 66 p.p. in 2023. costs.
From/to Slovenia: Piran(o).

The entrance to Porto di Lido leads into the lagoon. The port police ("Polizia di Frontiera Presso Scalo Marittimo ed Aereo di Venezia") is not far from the cruise terminal.



The best and most used means of getting around the city, both by residents and Venetians, are on foot, considering, moreover, the high cost of public transport. The historic center is not very big, and in about an hour you can go through it completely. To orient yourself along the most popular routes, you can follow the appropriate yellow signs. Perhaps not everyone knows that gondolas are used by the Venetians for the classic "tragheto" or a gondola ride from one bank of the Grand Canal to the other.

The two banks of the Grand Canal were connected until 2008 by only 3 bridges (scalzi, Rialto and Accademia) and only recently the fourth was added: Constitution Bridge called Ponte di Calatrava, from the name of the architect , which connects piazzale Roma with the railway area.


By public transport

Public transport of people is mainly carried out by the ACTV through its fleet of water vehicles which includes, alongside the famous vaporettos, also other types of means, such as the so-called motorboats, and the larger motorboats. The rates are available in the appropriate rate table.

For occasional users, transport is quite expensive: the ordinary ticket costs €7.50 (September 2021) for 75 minutes. There are also timed tourist tickets (€20.00 - 1 DAY, €30.00 - 2 DAYS, €40.00 - 3 DAYS, €60.00 - 7 DAYS in June 2015). The ticket must be validated upon entry.

NB: in some stops there are turnstiles as well as priority access for season ticket holders.

1: P.Le Roma Parisi/S.Chiara "D/G" — Railway "E" — Riva de Biasio — S.Marcuola (Casino) — S.Stae — Ca' d'Oro — Rialto Mercato — Rialto "B/ A" — S.Silvestro — S.Angelo — S.Tomà — Ca'Rezzonico — Academy "A/C" — Giglio — Salute — S.Marco Vallaresso — S.Marco S.Zaccaria (Danieli) "F/E" — Arsenale — Giardini — S.Elena — Lido Santa Maria Elisabetta (hereinafter, SME) "D" and vice versa. Suitable for those who want to enjoy a panoramic tour of the Grand Canal.
2: S.Marco S.Zaccaria (M.V.E.) "B" — S.Giorgio — Zitelle — Redentore — Palanca — Zattere — S.Basilio — Sacca Fisola — Tronchetto — Fruit and vegetable market — P.Le Roma (S.Chiara) "F /G" — Railway "B/A" — S.Marcuola — Rialto "D/C" — S.Tomà — S.Samuele — Accademia "A/C" — S. Marco Giardinetti and vice versa. Along the Grand Canal it makes fewer stops than line 1, therefore it is convenient for quickly reaching the various points.
2 /: P.Le Roma - Railway - Rialto.
3: (by 4.00 pm) P.Le Roma "D" — Railway "D" — Murano Colonna "A" — Murano Faro — Murano Navagero — Murano Museum — Murano Da Mula — Murano Venier — Railway "C" — P .Roma "E". (After 16:00) P.Le Roma "D" — Railway "D" — Murano Venier — Murano Da Mula — Murano Museum — Murano Navagero — Murano Colonna "A" — Murano Faro — Railway "C" — P.Le Rome "E".
4.1: starts from Murano and reaches Venice at the Fondamenta Nuove. Go around the city, take the Cannaregio Canal, pass in front of the Railway Station, take the Santa Chiara Canal and then the Giudecca Canal, pass the San Marco Basin, go around Sant'Elena, skirt Venice to the north and return to Murano .
4.2: does the reverse round of Line 4.1.
5.1: it starts from the Lido, skirts the whole of northern Venice, takes the Cannaregio Canal, passes in front of the railway, runs along the Giudecca Canal and returns to the Lido.
5.2: does the reverse round of Line 5.1.
6: P.Le Roma Parisi / S.Andrea "E / B" - S. Marta - S. Basilio - Zattere - Spirito Santo - Giardini Biennale - S. Elena - Lido (SME) "B" and vice versa (weekdays only )
7: S. Marco/S.Zaccaria - Murano (Navagero - Faro - Colonna) - S. Marco/S.Zaccaria
8: San Basilio - Giudecca - Giardini - Lido SME / S. Nicolò and vice versa
9: Burano - Torcello and vice versa
10: Zattere - Lido (SME) "E" and vice versa (weekdays only, vv also stops at S. Marco (Giardinetti))
11: Lido (SME) - Alberoni (Lighthouse Rocchetta) - S.Maria Del Mare - Pellestrina (Cemetery) - Caroman - Chioggia and vice versa
12: Venice (F. Te Nove) "A" - Murano (Lighthouse) - Mazzorbo - Torcello - Burano - Treporti - Punta Sabbioni vv (Torcello can be visited when Line 9 is not in navigation)
13: Venice (F.Te Nove) "D" — Murano (Faro) — Vignole — S.Erasmo Capannone — S.Erasmo Chiesa — S.Erasmo Punta Vela — Treporti and vice versa
14: S.Marco-S.Zaccaria "A" — Lido (SME) "C" — Punta Sabbioni and vice versa
15: S.Marco-S.Zaccaria "A" — Punta Sabbioni and vice versa
16: Venice (Zattere) — Fusina and vice versa
17: Tronchetto — Lido (S. Nicolò) and vice versa
18: Murano (Navagero - Faro - Colonna) - Lido SME / S. Nicolò and vice versa
20: S.Marco-S.Zaccaria (M.V.E.) "B" — S.Servolo — S.Lazzaro — S.Servolo — S.Marco-S.Zaccaria (M.V.E.) "B"
22: Tre Archi — F.Te Nove "D/C" — Hospital — Punta Sabbioni and vice versa
N: (night line) S.Marco-S.Zaccaria (Jolanda) "D" — Zitelle — Redentore — Giudecca Palanca — Zattere — Giudecca Palanca — S.Basilio — Sacca Fisola — Tronchetto — Tronchetto Mercato — P.Le Roma (S .Chiara) "F/G" — Railway "B/A" — Riva De Biasio — S.Marcuola Casino — S.Stae — Ca' D'oro — Rialto Mercato — Rialto "D/C" — S.Tomà — S .Samuele — Academy "A/C" — S.Marco Vallaresso — S.Marco-S.Zaccaria (Danieli) "F/E" — Giardini — S.Elena — Lido (SME) "D"
NLN: (North Lagoon Night Line) F.Te Nove "D" — Murano (Lighthouse) — Vignole — S.Erasmo Capannone — S.Erasmo Chiesa — S.Erasmo Punta Vela — Mazzorbo — Torcello — Burano — Treporti — Punta Sabbioni v.v.
NMU: (Murano Night Line) F.Te Nove "B" — Murano Colonna "C" — Murano Faro — Murano Navagero — Murano Museum — Murano Venier — Murano Serenella — Murano Colonna "A" — F.Te Nove "B"

People mover
The People mover of Venice has been in operation since 2010, has a length of 0.857 km with departures every 7 minutes. The route goes from Piazzale Roma (near Santa Lucia station) through the Marittima stop (port) to the Tronchetto island in the Santa Croce district.

Various types of cards
If you plan to return to Venice often or for long stays, it is certainly advisable to purchase the Venezia Unica card which, contrary to popular belief, is not reserved only for residents, but can be requested by anyone. If enabled for navigation, this card entitles you to rides at the reduced price of €1.30 for a time of 75 min. The cost of the Venezia Unica card varies according to the applicant's residence: (May 2014) €10 for residents of the municipality of Venice, €10 (card) + €10 (navigation) for residents of the Veneto Region and €10 (card ) + €30 (navigation) for all others (Actv).

A card is available for entry to museums and monuments, in different types. The Venice Card exists in two versions (orange and blue), each available for 12 hours, 48 hours or 7 days.

The blue card costs €18.50, €34 or €56 respectively (€16.50, €31 and €53 respectively for those under 30) and entitles you to unlimited rides on ACTV public transport.
In addition to the advantages of blue card free access to the museums included in the Museum Pass and to the churches in the Chorus Pass.
An additional €21 can be paid to extend the validity of the blue and orange cards to Alilaguna trips to and from the airport. The Venice Card can be ordered online a minimum of 48h in advance to take advantage of a €2.50 discount or by calling the toll-free number 899.909.090 (free).

Cumulative cards
There are also cumulative tickets such as the Museum Card, The Museums of Piazza San Marco, at the price of €20 (€13 for children aged 6 to 14 and students aged 15 to 25, European citizens over 65 and holders of Rolling Venice) which allows entry to the Doge's Palace, the Correr Museum, the Archaeological Museum and the Marciana Library. The Museum Pass instead costs €24 (€18 for the discounted categories as above) and allows access to Palazzo Ducale, Correr Museum, Archaeological Museum, Marciana Library, Ca' Rezzonico, Casa Goldoni, Palazzo Mocenigo, Ca' Pesaro, Museum of Burano Lace, Murano Glass Museum. Both Museum Cards are valid for six months and for one entry to each of the museums.

It should be noted that the museums of Piazza San Marco are accessible only with one of the two cards Museum Card or museum Pass.

The Chorus Pass costs €8 and allows access to the sixteen churches of the Chorus association for its entire duration (1 year) (Frari, Gesuati, Madonna dell'Orto, Redentore, San Giacomo dell'Orio, San Giobbe, San Giovanni Elemosinario, San Pietro di Castello, San Polo, San Sebastiano, San Stae, Sant'Alvise, Santa Maria dei Miracoli, Santa Maria del Giglio, Santa Maria Formosa, Santo Stefano).

Ferries (gondolas)
Venetian pedestrians often use the ferry to cross the Grand Canal outside its bridges: these are larger gondolas than those that offer excursions to tourists and allow the transport of 14 people, all standing, at a cost of 70 cents for residents and imob owners and 2 euros for other users (May 2015).


By car

In the center of Venice there are no cars, buses and smog, but only pedestrians, boats, gondolas and water buses.



Once the most typical means of getting around the city, today the gondola is no longer a means of transport, having become exclusively an entertainment for tourists. However, the view of Venice from the water is absolutely worthwhile. A 30-minute daytime ride (maximum 6 people) costs €80, while a 35-minute night ride costs €100. Pay attention to the fact that almost none of the gondoliers offers the price agreed by the gondola institution, or they offer times lower than the canonical 40 minutes. It is therefore advisable to obtain a copy of the official tariff at any information office.

By water taxi
A comfortable but very expensive alternative to the vaporetto.
The water taxis are managed by the Coop. San Marco (☏ +39 041 5222303), Coop. Venetian (☏ +39 041 716124), Coop. Serenissima (☏ +39 041 5221265 or ☏ +39 041 5229538), Soc. Narduzzi Solemar (☏ +39 041 5200838), Soc. Marco Polo (☏ +39 041 966170), Soc. Sotoriva (☏ +39 041 5209586), Soc. Serenissima (☏ +39 041 5228538) and Venezia Taxis (☏ +39 041 723009).

There are water taxi stations at Ferrovia (Santa Lucia Railway Station) (☏ +39 041716286), Piazzale Roma (S. Chiara) (☏ +39 041716922), Rialto (☏ +39 041723112), Lido (☏ +39 0414222303 ) and at Marco Polo Airport (☏ +39 0415415084).

In the historic center of the city there is a fixed rate for water taxis of €15 at departure plus €2 per minute on urban routes. There are supplements of €5 for customer call and collection services outside the taxi ranks, €10 for night services from 10.00pm to 6.00am, €3 for baggage exceeding 4 pieces and €5 o 10€ for each person exceeding a group of 4 people. Rates are fixed by resolution of the City Council of Venice.



The huge tourist flow has meant that an immense number of shops have flourished in Venice and that offer all kinds of more or less "typical" junk. This does not mean that in the city you can find pieces of high craftsmanship, with respect for tradition.

One of the most characteristic products of Venice are the Murano glasses handcrafted on the island of the same name in Venice. This type of craftsmanship boasts a millenary tradition. Pay attention to merchants who sell non-Venetian (sometimes even Chinese) products. Only the products that have the special sticker that certifies their authenticity are Venetian.

Also renowned are the laces produced above all on the island of Burano, but also on the island of Pellestrina and in nearby Chioggia.

Venetian masks are also very popular, which are not actually a traditional product. In fact, their production only began in the 1980s, following the revival of the Venice Carnival. Many Venetian masks come from the East and are sold for local craftsmanship, be careful if you are a tourist, especially foreigners.

There are numerous high fashion shops concentrated in the "Mercerie", in Calle Vallaresso and in via XXII Marzo, in the San Marco district.

Alongside the handicraft products, the more or less kitsch souvenir market flourishes. Among these are the plastic gondolas (with lights, dancers and music boxes) and the gondolier's hats. Alongside the typical offer of all tourist centres, from t-shirts to reproductions of monuments. The latest arrivals, in the wake of the carnival, are the jester's hats, which have achieved a moderate sales success, but which obviously have nothing "Venetian" about them.


How to have fun

Venice is also famous for its historic cafés. Imported from the Ottoman Empire around 1615, from 1683, coffeehouses sprang up throughout the city.

1 Caffè Florian, Piazza San Marco 57 (under the Procuratie Nuove). Opened December 29, 1720.
2 Gran Caffè Quadri, Piazza San Marco 120. Opened in 1775.

These cafes are also famous for being much more expensive than the ordinary. For example, at Caffè Florian you can spend €23 for two coffees (Sept 2021)!



High-priced shops (clothing, shoes, accessories, jewellery, etc.) are mainly located in the districts of San Marco and Castello. You can buy cheaper in the shops in Cannaregio.

In Cannaregio, not far from the Rialto Bridge, you will also find Venice's only department store.

Local specialties are the glassware from Murano (note: there are also many imported goods from Asia) and the lace from Burano.

Libreria Acqua Alta, Calle Lunga Santa Maria Formosa, 5176b. Phone: +39 041 296 08 41 . We recommend the bookshop and antique shop Libreria Acqua Alta on Calle Lunga Santa Maria Formosa, number 5176b.



Venetian cuisine is characterized by its proximity to the sea. Many fish dishes (e.g. spaghetti al vongole, with mussels), also risotto (rice dish).

The purple artichoke is a specialty from the lagoon, the vegetable is grown on the lagoon island of Sant'Erasmo. The very first buds, the delicate castraure, are particularly popular. From the beginning of April to mid-May, the Venetians snatch the artichokes out of the hands of the traders. The delicacy hardly ever makes it onto the national markets. On the second Sunday of May, the festival of the Artichoke Violetto is celebrated on the island of Sant'Erasmo.

A specialty that is offered in many places is "Fegato alla Venexiana con Polenta" (liver in Venetian with polenta).

Many bars have cicchetti, white bread slices with a variety of different side dishes.

When it comes to restaurants, there is a noticeable price difference from east to west: high-priced posh restaurants in San Marco and Castello, numerous, cheaper pizzerias in Cannaregio.

There are also numerous self-service restaurants and fast food outlets of all sizes throughout the island.

As has been said, Venetian cuisine was a fusion of the cultures and customs of distant peoples. But Venice also has an exceptional territory that offers excellent products that over time have found an incredible synergy with the international cuisines that are protagonists of the history of the Serenissima.

In the 16th century, merchants stopped filling the holds of their merchant ships and the Venetians turned their interest to the mainland: the land was reclaimed and invested in agriculture, revolutionizing the territory and gastronomy.

The lagoon areas of Cavallino, Malamocco, Pellestrina, Lido, the islands of Torcello and Sant'Erasmo have been populated by vegetable gardens and vineyards basking in the sea breeze, kissed by the warm sun, giving rise to exceptional products.

Among the best are the purple artichoke of Sant'Erasmo, from which the castraure are obtained, the vegetable bases usually prepared in stews that fill the counters of all Venetian markets.

Lands rich in wild and bruscandoli asparagus, end tips of young hops, yellow pumpkins and tasty radicchio, white and round onions to combine with meat and fish, peas and beans.

The possibility of growing wheat then gave birth to another exceptional product of the lagoon cuisine: polenta. As an accompaniment to more complex dishes, it is almost always chosen in the white version. The sea offers sardines and sardines for saor, peverasse (mussels) for spaghetti, peoci (mussels) for soups, scallops and oysters; those of the Lagoon, on the other hand, are delicious shie, tiny prawns that must be eaten in one bite, goby fish, called gò, for the excellent risotto, to moeche, small molting crabs, fried and very expensive.

But what do you taste when you arrive in the city? Which dishes should you try to take home a tasty culinary postcard?

The true traditional Venetian cuisine today consists of simple and nutritious dishes, rich in flavor and often combining sweet with salty, sour with spicy.
Impossible not to try the creamy bacalà, a cream of long-cooked fish served with grilled polenta slices. Please prepare without cream or garlic. It's my favorite dish!
Sardines in Saor, a specialty created to keep fish out of the fridge for a long time, which combines the fish of our lands with oriental spices. A perfect balance between sweetness and acidity.
The Venetian liver cooked with a significant amount of onions, cooked for a long time to make them almost creamy. You will be surprised by the sweetness of the dish.
Risi e bisi (rice and peas), the pride of every good housewife, is the quintessential Venetian dish: it is served during the Doge's banquets and is now the dish of the feast of San Marco. Tasty and tender.
Bigoli in sauce, fresh pasta prepared with anchovy and onion cream in reduced sauce. For extremely strong palates.
Black squid served with grilled polenta. Then smile sparingly.
Crabs cooked with oil, salt, pepper and lemon. Light and tasty. If you are on a diet...
Polenta and Schie, tiny and tender prawns served on a creamy and soft polenta. Absolutely typical.

If you have a sweet tooth: Venetian pastries consist mainly of dry and savory, fragrant and tasty preparations. Soaking baicoli, saffron zaeti, buttery and vanilla-scented bussolà, peppery pevarini, soft and spicy pan del doge, soft and sugary fritole.



In bars and cafés, standing is cheaper than sitting. Many Venetians quickly drink a coffee (approx. €1) or a glass of wine ("un ombra", €0.80-1.60) while standing at the counter. The term "un ombra" for a glass of wine, ombra Italian shadow, comes from the time when there was no way to cool the wine in the warm season. The wine merchants followed the shadows of the buildings to keep the wine as cool as possible.

Pizza is also sold in the piece ("al taglio") to take away, the piece about 1-3.50 €. It gets cheaper the further away you are from the tourist centers (Piazza San Marco, Rialto).



1 La Vecia Cavana, Rio Terà SS. Apostoli (Cannaregio). Popular restaurant, not far from Campo Santi Apostoli, known for its fish specialities.
2 Trattoria al Gazettino (San Marco. Just south of the Church of S. Fava.). Very good cuisine, tastefully served.
3 Ristorante Malibran (down-to-earth, friendly service, good food, affordable prices), Cannaregio 5864 - 30131 Venezia (VE) (240 m northeast of the Rialto Bridge, northwest of the Malibran Theater).



4 Caffè Florian, Piazza San Marco. One of the oldest cafes in Venice. In addition to the already high prices (an espresso costs €6.50) there is a surcharge for the musicians. It is the coffee house that the Italians frequented when the Austrians ruled here.
5 Coffee Quadri. (An espresso costs €6.00) Also Piazza San Marco, is the one frequented by German speakers during Austrian rule. There is also a music surcharge here. Feature: ★.
6 Coffee Lavena. third music café (an espresso costs €6.20) on St. Mark's Square. According to tradition, Richard Wagner sometimes even swung the baton here.

The two other coffee houses on St. Mark's Square are the "Eden", situated right next to the "Quadri", and the "Astoria" between "Florian" and Campanile; there is no music surcharge here and the prices are only slightly below those of the three aforementioned. The music surcharge in 2013 was between €6.00 and €8. Music surcharge is only to be paid for the first (!!) consumption.

7 Gran Caffe Chioggia. Music café that offers slightly jazzy music.
8 Al Todaro. at the foot of the column with "St. Theodor". From here you have a magnificent view of San Giorgio Maggiore, the Paglia (straw) bridge, the Doge's Palace with the two slightly reddish columns between which the death sentence was proclaimed, St. Mark's Basilica and the clock tower. When it's hot, a pleasantly cool fan usually blows here.



Bars and restaurants in every price range for every taste.

In the evenings, students and young adults meet in the bars on Campo Santa Margherita.


Where stay

The hotel prices have also been adjusted to the overall high price level. But even in hotels of the same quality class, even in the same street or its extension, there are big price differences. But there are also private quarters, e.g. B. can be ordered per week.

The bed tax of up to €5/night remains unaffected by the introduction of the admission tax.

Especially in the main travel season (summer, carnival) you should definitely reserve a room in advance. Those traveling on a budget should consider booking in Mestre, especially if driving, as the bus is a quicker and (much) cheaper way to get into the city. A bus ride costs €1. It is also recommended to live on the Lido di Venezia. Line 1 takes you to St. Mark's Square in 15 minutes.

And yet one should consider whether the outlay for accommodation in Venice is not worth it. Nothing can replace the flair of living in the city itself. A short tour of Venice in the morning, between 6:00 and 8:00 a.m., or a short run through deserted streets to the empty St. Mark's Square and then quickly back to the hotel for breakfast, is a real experience. Or when you enjoy the wonderful chioccolatta con panna outdoors in Caffé Florian in the late evening. It's not cheap, but it's incredibly good! Or if you look in front of the Caffé Quadri with a view of the wonderfully illuminated mosaics of St. Mark's Basilica, hear the deep toll of the great bell of the Campanile at midnight and then stroll or hurry through the lonely streets back to the hotel without worrying about a vaporetto, a bus , a train or even to have to worry about the strike of the transport companies, that certainly outweighs the high price of the stay in the real Venice!

During the summer months, you can also stay at the campsites in Punta Sabbioni. The prices here are not higher than the other campsites in Italy. The vaporetto takes you to the city in about half an hour.

youth hostels
1 Wombats City Hostel, Via Ca' Marcello 6, Mestre.
2 Sunny Terrace Hostel, Giudecca 392, Ramo Della Palada, Giudecca. Payment methods accepted: debit card, credit card.
A&O, Via Ca Marcello 19.

Even "cheap" means €50-80.

3 Al Vagon. In an ancient Venetian building in the heart of Venice. Double room from €80 (extra bed €20).
4 Hotel Acca, San Polo 2160, 30131 Venice. Phone: +39 041.2440126, Fax: +39 041.2440126. lies in a fascinating environment.
5 Hotel Casa Boccassini, Cannaregio 5295, 30131. Tel.: +39.041.5229892, Fax: +39.041.5236877. 10 rooms, 1*; typical Venetian building with a lovely garden and just a few minutes from the Rialto Bridge.

located outside:

6 Casa Villa Gardenia, Via Rizzardi 36/c, Venice Marghera. Phone: +39.041.930207, Fax: +39.041.2528662. A beautiful Art Nouveau villa with a garden just a few minutes from Venice. Price: Double room from €80, 3-bed: from €105.
7 Hotel Antico Mulino & Ristorante Perbacco, Via Moglianese 37, 30037 Scorze, Venice. Phone: +39.041.5840700, Fax: +39.041.5840347. An old river mill in the Scorzè countryside, not far from Venice, houses the Hotel Antico Mulino. Price: Double room from €95.
8 B&B Faronhof, Via seriola Veneta sx, 51 Oriago di Mira. Tel.: +39 041.428 363, Fax: +39 041.563 9755. Rooms for rent 15 minutes from Venice; Faronhof Bed and Breakfast. Price: Double room from €40.
9 Hotel Holiday, Via dell'essicatoio, 38. Tel.: +39.041.611088, Fax: +39.041.5347136. Hotel Holiday, just 15 minutes from Venice, offers free parking with surveillance. Price: Double room from €70.
10 Hotel Rivamare, Lungomare Marconi 44. Tel.: +39 041.5260352, Fax: +39 041.5260352. Hotel Rivamare is located on Venice Lido, 20m from the beach, a few steps from the Palazzo del Cinema and 20 minutes from St. Mark's Square, the heart of Venice. Price: Double room from €99.
11 Hotel Villa Albertina, Via Vallaresso 1a. Tel.: +39-041 5260879, Fax: +39-041 5260883. Aristocratic building, family run with a cozy atmosphere. Only 20 minutes to St. Mark's Square. Price: Double room from €60.
12 A&O Venice Mestre, Via Ca Marcello 19 (near Mestre train station). Tel: +39 041 884 0990, email: Feature: 300 rooms.

13 Ca' del Pozzo, S. Marco 2612, 30124 Venice. Phone: +39.041.2413875. Bed and Breakfast in Venice located in the characteristic Campo San Maurizio: a few steps from the famous La Fenice Theater and a few minutes from St. Mark's Square.
14 Alloggi al Mercante, San Polo, 1770, 30123. Tel.: +39 041.2750158, Fax: +39 041.723284. Right in the heart of the Levantine Venice with its markets and shops, just five minutes walk from the Rialto Bridge and fifteen minutes from St. Mark's Square, the facilities and atmosphere evoke the memory of the rich patrician houses of the old merchants.
15 Antica Locanda Sturion, Calle del Sturion - San Polo 679 - 30125. Tel.: +39 041.5236243, Fax: +39 041.5228378. The Hotel Antica Locanda Sturion, an ancient tradition of hospitality on the Grand Canal, very close to the Rialto Bridge.
16 Ca' del Nobile, San Marco, 987, 30124 Venice. Phone: +39 041.5283473, Fax: +39.041.722345, Email: Just two steps from St. Mark's Square, elegant rooms and spaces with modern comforts and services.
17 Cà della Corte, Dorsoduro, 3560, Corte Surian, 30123. Tel.: +39.041.715877, Fax: +39.041.5283473. In an important artistic area about 5 minutes from the Frari Church and the San Rocco School.
18 Hotel Al Sole, Santa Croce 134/136, 30124. Tel.: +39 041.2440328, Fax: +39 041.722287. In a palazzo from the early 15th century, not far from Piazzale Roma.
19 Hotel Alla Salute da Cici, Salute 222, Fondamenta Ca' Balà, Venice. Phone: +39 041.5235404, Fax: +39 041.5222271. A 16th-century palazzo, an oasis of peace just a few steps from St. Mark's Square and easily reachable from the train station and from Piazzale Roma. Double room from €90.
20 Hotel Antica Locanda al Gambero, Calle dei Fabbri - San Marco 4687, 30124 Venice. Phone: +39 041.5224384, Fax: +39 041.5200431. Typical Venetian ambience combined with modern comfort. Friendly atmosphere and excellent restaurant. Single rooms from €90, double rooms from €110.
21 Hotel Becher, San Marco 1857, 30010. Tel.: +39.041.5221253, Fax: +39.041.5212685. Refined eighteenth-century elegance characterized by avant-garde comfort, fascinating atmospheres and impeccable service. Double room from €110.Edit info
22 Hotel Bridge, Campo San Filippo e Giacomo 4498. Tel.: +39 041 5205287, Fax: +39 041 5202297, Email:
23 Hotel Ca' d'Oro, Cannaregio 4604, 30121. Tel.: +39 041.2411212, Fax: +39 041.2414385. The hotel is located on a quiet corner in the Cannaregio district, far from the tourist hustle and bustle and close to many old pubs, where the atmosphere of the old days has been preserved. The most interesting places are easily reachable on foot, 5 minutes from the Rialto Bridge and 10 minutes from St. Mark's Square. Double room from €80.
24 Hotel Canal, Santa Croce 553, 30135. Tel.: +39 041.5238480, Fax: +39 041.5239106. The Hotel Canal on the Grand Canal, in the heart of Venice, creates a romantic atmosphere with its 18th-century-style furniture.
25 Hotel Capri, Santa Croce 595, 30135. Tel.: +39.041.2752300, Fax: +39.041.2752350. In a quiet zone close to the terminals.
26 Hotel Castello, Campo SS. Filippo e Giacomo, Castello 4365. Tel.: +39 041.5234545, Fax: +39 041.5211023. A stone's throw from St. Mark's Square and the Rialto, Hotel Castello welcomes its guests in spaces inspired by Venetian tradition. Single room €80-185, double room €80-240, triple room €120-270, quadruple room €140-300.
27 Hotel Commercio e Pellegrino, Calle delle Rasse, Castello 4551/A, 30124 Venice. Phone: +39 041.5207922, Fax: +39 041.5225016. Behind the Doge's Palace, where the San Marco district, the heart of the "Serenissima Repubblica" (Maritime Republic of Venice), meets the Castello district and where you can still experience the living and real Venice.
28 Hotel La Forcola, Cannaregio 2353, 30121. Tel.: +39 041 5241484, Fax: +39 041 5245380.
29 Hotel Gardena, Santa Croce 239. Tel.: +39 041.2205000, Fax: +39 041.2205020.
30 Hotel Gorizia A La Valigia, Calle dei Fabbri, San Marco 4696/A - 4697/A. Phone: +39 041.5223737, Fax: +39 041.5212789.
31 Hotel Palazzo Guardi, Dorsoduro 995 - 30123 Venice. Tel.: +39 041 2960725, Fax: +39 041 7241067. A few steps from the Accademia, in an elegant Venetian palazzo, rooms with every comfort. Double room from €80.
32 Hotel Palazzo Schiavoni, Castello 3288 - 30123. Tel.: +39 041.2411275, Fax: +39 041.2414490.
33 Hotel San Giorgio, Rio Terà della Mandola, San Marco 3781, 30124. Tel.: +39 041.5235835, Fax: +39 041.5228072.
34 Hotel Violino D'Oro, Via XXII Marzo 2091, San Marco, 30124 Venice. Phone: +39 041.2770841, Fax: +39 041.2771001.
35 Locanda Ca' San Marcuola, Cannaregio 1763, 30100. Tel.: +39.041.716048, Fax: +39.041.2759217. Near the church of San Marcuola and the vaporetto stop, in the heart of the Cannaregio district.
36 Locanda Gaffaro, Dorsoduro 3589 30123. Tel: +39 041 2750897, Fax: +39 041 2750375. Located just off Piazzale Roma in the picturesque central Corte, or courtyard, in Venice.
37 Locanda del Ghetto, Cannaregio 2892 - 2893, 30121. Tel.: +39 041 2759292, Fax: +39 041 2757987. 5 minutes by vaporetto to San Marco and the Rialto Bridge.
38 Pension Casa La Corte, Castello 6317, 30122. Tel.: +39.041.2411300, Fax: +39.041.2415982. Bed & Breakfast hotel in the city center with spacious rooms.
39 Hotel Ca'Zusto. Tel.: +39 041 524 29 91, Fax: +39 041 244 00 63. Feature: ★★★★.
40 Hotel Giudecca, Corte Ferrando, 409/C - 30133 Venice (VE) Italy. Phone: +39 041 296 01 68, Fax: +39 041 528 95 20.

located outside
Hotel Trieste, Via Trento 2 - 30171. Phone: +39 041.929462, Fax: +39 041.922221. The Hotel Trieste is located directly opposite the Venezia-Mestre train station.
Hotel Villa Beatrice, Via dei Villini 4, 30011 Venice LIDO. Phone: +39 041.731072, Fax: +39 041.5266101. The Hotel Villa Beatrice, one of the most exceptional charming hotels on Lido di Venezia, is suitable for those who want to treat themselves to a holiday in a relaxing hotel in Venice, between nature, art and culture.
Hotel Villa Dori, Via Colombara 213, Malcontenta, 30030. Tel.: +39 041.930926, Fax: +39 041.930421. Just a few minutes from Venice and the Brenta Riviera, the Venice Hotel Villa Dori welcomes its guests in spaces of exceptional elegance that evoke the atmosphere of Venetian villas.
Hotel Villa Gasparini, Riviera Martiri della Liberta' 37 Dolo. Phone: +39 041 5608156, Fax: +39 041 4265047, Email:
Hotel Garibaldi, V.le Garibaldi, 24 30124 MESTRE Venice. Phone: +39 041.5349362, Fax: +39 041.5347565. Located in the historic center of modern and functional Mestre, Hotel Garibaldi is just 10 minutes from the motorway exits and 15 minutes from Venice and the airport, also in a strategic position.

41 Al Canal Regio, Corte dei Fiori 3632 / A. Tel.: +39 041.2960220, Fax: +39 041.81064345. Boutique hotel located in the historic center of Venice.
42 Ca' dei Conti, Castello 4429 30122. Tel.: +39.041.2770500, Fax: +39.041.2770727. Luxurious 18th-century palazzo just two steps from St. Mark's Square. Double room from €200. Feature: ★★★★.
43 Hotel Amadeus, Lista di Spagna, Cannaregio 227. Tel.: +39 041.2206000, Fax: +39 041.2206020.
44 Hotel Bonvecchiati, San Marco 4488, 30124 Venice. Phone: +39 041.5285017, Fax: +39 041.5285230. It was founded in 1790 as a hotel in the heart of Venice.
45 Hotel Ca' Vendramin, Cannaregio 2400, 30100 Venice. Phone: +39.041.2750125, Fax: +39.041.2750543. Original frescoes, Murano glass chandeliers give this hotel a very special character, in pure Venetian style. Double room from €160.
46 Ca' dei Dogi, Castello 4242. Tel.: +39.041.2413751, Fax: +39.041.5285403. 15th century palace very close to the Bridge of Sighs of San Marco. Double room from €130.
47 Hotel Gabrielli Sandwirth, Riva Degli Schiavoni 4110, Riva degli Schiavoni, Castello, 4110, 30122 Venezia. Tel.: +39 041.5231580, Fax: +39 041.5209455 wikipediacommons. Reopening after renovation in 2021.
48 Hotel Giorgione, Calle Larga dei Proverbi, Cannaregio 4587, 30131 Venice. Phone: +39 041.5225810, Fax: +39 041.5239092. Family business, double room from €150.
49 Hotel Palazzo Paruta, San Marco 3824. Tel.: +39 041 2410835, Fax: +39 041 2414944, Email: Feature: ★★★★.
50 Hotel Palazzo Priuli, Castello 4979/B - Fondamenta de L'Osmarin. Phone: +39 041.2770834, Fax: +39 041.2411215.
51 Hotel Principe, Lista di Spagna, Cannaregio 146 30121, Lista di Spagna, 146, Cannaregio, 30121 Venice, Italy. Phone: +39 041.2204000, Fax: +39 041.220402079 commons. Elegant ambience.
52 Hotel Relais di Piazza San Marco, San Marco 312, 30124. Tel.: +39 041.2960804, Fax: +39 041.7241079.
53 Palazzo del Giglio, Campo Santa Maria del Giglio, San Marco 2462, 30124. Tel.: +39.041.2719111, Fax: +39.041.5205158. Elegant, double room from €170. Feature: ★★★★.

located outside:
Hotel Alexander, Via Forte Marghera 193/c, 30173 Mestre. Tel: +39.041.5318288, Fax: +39.041.5318283, Email: Hotel Alexander is easily reachable from both Venice Airport and Mestre Train Station.
Hotel Grande Italia, Rione S.Andrea, 597 (P.tta Vigo) 30015 CHIOGGIA. Phone: +39.041.400515, Fax: +39.041.400185. The Hotel Grande Italia, housed in a twentieth-century palace, is located in one of the most beautiful corners of Chioggia, on the Venice Lagoon. Double room from €110.


Venice is a safe city. However, there are many pickpockets in action on public transport and on the related "imbarcaderi" (which are the places with the greatest crowds). It also happens to come across self-styled "entertainers" who offer a well-known "three-card game" scam. The trade in fake designer items (handbags, watches, etc.) in public places is a plague that is difficult to eradicate.

We must also pay attention to some degeneration of the tourist offer. In particular, on the island of Tronchetto, it will easily happen to come across several illegal invaders (called, locally, beaters), who will offer tourists passages in water vehicles (often without a licence), at considerably higher prices than public transport: to be avoided absolutely.

There is a widespread bad habit on the part of certain merchants (both bars and restaurants) of proposing increased bills to tourists. Therefore, pay attention to the price lists and if necessary protest with the operators, perhaps using the classic phrase said by the residents "look, I'm not a tourist".

Gondoliers do not escape this bad habit: it is difficult for the "stazi" to comply with the obligation to display the official "freight" prices, and it frequently happens that higher prices are offered, or shorter times than the norm (40 min.). In case of problems, you can report the matter to the traffic police. If they say that "I can't do anything about it" (it happens!) write down the name on the card: so you can bring them back to their command. Also beware of illegal water taxis, which are not entitled to carry passengers. Authorized taxis have the typical yellow band on the side with the word taxi. Even with official taxis, it is advisable to find out about the official rates before the ride: you will avoid nasty surprises.

Near the headquarters of the Venice Casino gravitates the criminal undergrowth of the "cambisti", who lend money to players in difficulty for usury. Do not be scruple to report any kind of irregularity to the Guardia di Finanza.

Although unlikely, it is not impossible to fall into the gully, especially if you have raised your elbow. Drinking judiciously is valid everywhere, but perhaps it is worth more in Venice.

In the evening and at night in campo Bella Vienna (near Rialto) and campo Santa Margherita, there are sometimes episodes of violence, therefore it is advisable to pay attention to them in case of frequentation or transit.



Municipality of Venice - Security.
Emergency, ☎ 118.
Carabinieri, ☎ 112.
Municipal Police, ☎ +39 041 2747277.
SS Giovanni e Paolo Hospital (Vaporetto: hospital), ☎ +39 0415294111,
Pharmacies open 24/7

Public bathrooms
Service, Calle Cossetti 456A (Piazzale Roma).
Service, Cannaregio 1586 (Campo San Leonardo).
San Marco daytime service (Comunal baths), San Marco 1265-1266 (Napoleonic wing of Piazza San Marco (civic 1265-66)). from 9 to 19-20.30.
Service, Royal Gardens of San Marco. from 9 to 19-20.30. edit
Service, Ponte dell'Accademia (under the Accademia bridge, Dorsoduro side).


How to keep in touch

Calle Larga de l'Ascension, ☎ +39 041 2446711.
Sestiere Santa Croce, Sestiere Santa Croce , 511, ☎ +39 041 2446811.
San Polo, ☎ +39 041 787111.

From September 2021 Venice has 4G from Iliad and TIM and 5G from Vodafone and Wind Tre

The Municipality has joined the Free ItaliaWifi national network. The city is constantly building the municipal Wi-Fi network, which now covers almost the entire area around the Grand Canal and some of the larger squares in the centre. It is possible to purchase access for guests for around €5 a day at the same joint location of "Venezia Unica" where season tickets for transport and museums are sold.

Venice has several Internet cafes, but they are much more expensive than the rest of Europe with prices for an hour of access around €6: Wi-Fi is only available in some of them. There is a pub "Café Blue" in Dorsoduro, which has free wi-fi (password protected). Buy a spritz and a sandwich and hit the town. To use an Internet cafe, buy a mobile SIM card or get a contract for an Internet connection. Personal identification is required by law in Italy. Internet cafes will not allow you to use computers without a passport or national ID card. "Calle Delle Botteghe" at San Marco 2970 Venice is a cute art gallery type internet café with a bookshop - it's expensive at €3 for 15 minutes, but you can just pop in and play chess with a glass of wine.

At the "Telecom Italia Future Center" in Campo San Salvatore (San Marco) you can surf for one hour for free, once you register with your identity card.


Stay informed

I.A.T. Office, Piazzale Roma (shop adjacent to the Agenzia Venezia Unica (permanent)), ☎ +39 041 2722283,
IAT office, Tronchetto.
I.A.T. Office, Santa Lucia Railway Station - platform 1.
I.A.T. office, Marco Polo International Airport (arrivals area).
IAT office, Piazza San Marco 71/f.



Murano the island of glass. Homeland of artistic glass production, the greatest world center from which merchants began their journeys bringing with them objects of all shapes. The glass objects are made exclusively by hand, thanks to the experience handed down for generations.
Burano the island of lace and colored houses. It seems that the tradition of lace has medieval origins and derives from the need of women to embroider to recall the nets of their fishermen husbands. However, the reason and origin of the lively colors with which houses on the island are painted are not yet clear. Legend has it that sailors, returning home, needed a clear reference to find their home, hidden by fog. According to another hypothesis, each color is the symbol of a family given that island surnames are few, but very common.
Torcello stupendous island, near Burano, with notable paleo-Christian monuments.
Lido di Venezia: refined seaside resort and location of the Venice Film Festival.
Pellestrina: outside the mass tourism routes, it is a characteristic location, with wide, almost deserted beaches.
Cavallino-Treporti seaside resort, famous for its numerous campsites.
Jesolo famous seaside resort, the second Italian beach after Rimini, famous for its discos and nightlife.
Chioggia and Sottomarina.
Riviera del Brenta: urban area of the Venetian hinterland, in the direction of Padua. Numerous inhabited centers along the Naviglio del Brenta, known for their footwear production and the rich historical-artistic heritage consisting of the numerous Venetian Villas of the city's patricians and the numerous works carried out on the river (mills, locks, canals, embankments).

Venice in one day — Itinerary to discover Venice for a whole day.
Grand Canal — Discovering Venice's most famous waterway.
Secret Venice — The itinerary is aimed at tourists who are looking for curiosities, unusual and lesser-known places in a unique city in the world.
Walled cities of the Veneto - An itinerary to discover the strongholds and the history of the Veneto.


Useful information

Post: There are several post offices on the island where you can get stamps. It's a matter of luck whether you can get them in tobacco shops. There are two different boxes for posting letters: blue for domestic mail, red for international mail.
Orientation: Venice consists of a tangle of alleys, squares and canals and the system of house numbers is also not accessible to the visitor.
An impressive first overview of the city and the neighboring islands of the lagoon is available from the Campanile on San Giorgio Maggiore, the island opposite St. Mark's Square, which can be reached by vaporetto from e.g. B. can be reached from St. Mark's Square. It is almost as high as the Campanile of St. Mark's Square, not nearly as crowded as this one, and you can take the elevator up to the viewing platform without long waiting times.

A simple and effective orientation results from the signposts, which are usually attached as a sign on every corner. From the train station just follow "PER RIALTO", then continue "PER S.MARCO" and back go in the direction of "ALLA FERROVIA" (train station) or "PIAZZALE ROMA" (where most buses depart). It's really amazingly easy - and helps a lot for a rough orientation.

A navigation app (such as OpenStreetmap) or a good city map are helpful to get to the desired destination. Most hotels have a free city map. In the plans, all the streets are often drawn in with the same width, no matter how wide they actually are. It is therefore advisable to always be alert so as not to walk past small alleys or passageways. Incidentally, if you don't get lost in Venice, you're doing something wrong - you can't really get lost in the city anyway.

Language: In Venice, of course, the main language spoken is Italian. But since Venice lives almost exclusively from tourism, several foreign languages are often spoken. In many tourist restaurants the menus are multilingual. The frequently encountered carabinieri and auxiliary police officers also speak at least English, often also German, and despite the many questions they are consistently friendly and helpful.
Clothing: The high temperatures and humidity in the summer months call for light, airy clothing. However, it can still be very drafty in the shady alleys. Some will be happy about that, but if you are very sensitive, you should at least have a light shawl with you. This is also recommended for visiting churches. In Venice people are no longer so strict in this regard, but if you wear clothes that are too revealing, or even in bathing suits, you can be rejected. In most churches there are chiffon towels to borrow if a lady is wearing a sleeveless top.

luggage storage
Luggage storage in Italy is not usually done in lockers, but in privately run shops with limited opening hours (rarely longer than 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.), where billing by the hour is often not cheap.

Inside the Santa Lucia train station, platform 1.
In Mestre train station, platform 1.
Marco Polo Airport, outside the terminal near entrance 1.
Piazzale Roma:
Depot Cooperativa Trasbagagli in the Autorimessa Comunale car park.
The Golden Luggage, Santa Croce 516. Between Piazzale Roma and Santa Lucia Station.
Company Vaise. With machines: Terminal bus, Rio Terà Sant’Andrea 460. Second branch San Marco - Fenice, Calle de Piscina de Frezzaria 1657.
Near People Mover Terminal: Cooperativa Trasbagagli in Tronchetto.
In the port of Marittima, Fabbr. 103


Physical geography


From a geographical point of view, the municipality of Venice is divided into two parts: the island area and the mainland area. As far as seismic risk is concerned, Venice is classified in zone 4, i.e. very low seismicity.



July and August may be the worst time to visit. Summer months are very hot and often humid, there are mosquitoes flies. Additionally there are crowds of tourists and large crowds anywhere you go. Late spring and early autumn are probably best, a compromise between temperature (expect 5-15°C in March) and the tourist load. Between November and January, you may manage to feel you have Venice all to yourself, an interesting and quiet experience. Beware of the weather during the winter months: it can be quite cold, windy, and damp. Fog is an additional hazard if you are driving in or out, doubly so in the unlikely chance that you will pilot a boat. But if you've never been to Venice, it's better to go in summer than not to go. You won't regret it. Many cities are far worse in summer, and Venice has no cars, hence no smog.

Acqua alta (high water) has become a fact of life in Venice. The lagoon water level occasionally rises above the level of the squares and streets, flooding them. This can happen several times a year, at irregular intervals, usually in the colder months. Acqua alta usually lasts a few hours and coincides with high tide. You'll see raised walkways in side alleys ready to be pulled out when acqua alta hits. When the city begins to flood, sirens will sound to warn residents and businesses. If you speak fluent Italian, tune into news programs since their predictions of the times the flood begins and ends are usually accurate. Normally, the tide rises and falls in six-hour cycles.

You can get an acqua alta map at the tourist offices either at the railway station or St Mark's Square. This will show you the higher, dry routes and the ones with walkways set up during the various flood alerts. There is a tide measuring station at the Rialto vaporetto piers, and a noticeboard at the base of the Campanile in the Piazza San Marco that shows a live tide reading and predictions for the next few days.


The tides

The tide observed in Venice can be thought of as the sum of two components: the astronomical tide, correlated to the motion of celestial bodies, mainly the Moon and the Sun, and the meteorological contribution due to the state of the atmosphere. Under normal conditions the meteorological contribution is small and the observed level coincides approximately with the astronomical tide. In some cases the sum of the effects of atmospheric pressure and wind can determine an important meteorological contribution which leads to significant low tides or, on the contrary, produce the phenomenon of high water.


High water phenomenon

The term high water indicates particularly pronounced tidal peaks in the Venice lagoon, such as to cause flooding in the urban area. The phenomenon is frequent above all in the period between autumn and spring, when the high tide floods a large part of the city, making it difficult to move around the alleys and fields. The tide that exceeds the +80 cm threshold in Venice is commonly referred to as "high water"; at this altitude there are transport and pedestrian traffic problems in the lower parts of the city. When the tide exceeds 100 cm (5% of public land flooded), the phenomenon begins to affect more substantial sections of city routes. At an altitude of +110 cm, about 12% of the city is affected by flooding. On the other hand, when +140 cm is reached, 59% of the city is flooded.

The phenomenon of high water is generated by the combination of two main factors: the regular alternation of the tides combined with a meteorological cause made up of the combination of rain, wind and atmospheric pressure on the sea mass; high tide alone does not generate high water: it is the superimposition of these factors which, combined with the astronomical tide, brings the water level to reach higher altitudes in a less predictable way. The rise of the water above the tide level is a normal phenomenon in a closed basin such as the Adriatic Sea and the wind that favors it is not so much the bora, common in Venice, but the sirocco which acts longitudinally over the whole mass of water from the Adriatic.

Eustatism (rising of the sea level) and subsidence (lowering of the ground due to natural or anthropic causes) contribute to the variation in the frequency of high water events in Venice. It was once thought that the excavation of the Canale dei Petroli and the deepening of the port inlets (which increased the water exchange section between the lagoon and the sea) had amplified the phenomenon, given that in the past it was an extraordinary event for the city. It was then demonstrated that this specific contribution exists but is completely negligible when compared with the others.

In order to protect the Venice lagoon from exceptional high waters, the MOSE project has been underway since 2003, which consists of a series of mobile barriers made up of a variable number of sluice gates anchored to the bottom of the lagoon inlets, which they rise when the predefined tide level is exceeded, blocking the inflow of water from the sea.


Origins of the name

The toponym "Venezia" (and its ancient variants: Venédia, Venétia, Venésia, Venéxia, Vinegia) was initially used to indicate all the land of the pre-Roman Venetian populations.

Thus Venetia appears in the Augustan administrative subdivision of Italy (6 AD) and, alongside ancient Istria, was part of the X Regio. The toponym continued to be used under the Byzantines who called Venetikà, or Venetia maritima in Latin, the coastal strip from Chioggia to Grado. Consequently, the name then passed to indicate the Duchy of Venice and only later its capital: it is in fact known that the center arose in the late period by bringing together the settlements that arose on its islands.

A peculiarity of the Latin name of Venice is that it is a pluralia tantum, that is, it is declined in the plural Venetiae and not Venetia; this perhaps because the city was conceived as the union of several centers which arose on the various islets and then merged together, or in any case constituted by a plurality of elements. In ancient documents, therefore, the region appeared in the singular Venetia (Venetia et Histria, Venetia Maritima), but when referring to the city, the plural was used instead: Venetiarum Civitas, Venetiarum Respublica, Venetiarum Patriarcha.


History in Venice

Ancient times and the Middle Ages

The Venetian lagoon was formed in the 8th century BC. from a previous fluvial-marshy environment; it is assumed that there were human settlements since prehistoric times, allowed by the wealth of resources that could favor hunting and fishing. In the pre-Roman age, i.e. in the Paleo-Veneto period, civilization was well rooted in the area, with populations dedicated to fishing, salt production, maritime transport and other connected mercantile activities. A junction of intense commercial traffic that connected the Adriatic with central and northern Europe, in this period some settlements developed in the area, among which the center of Altino stood out, by now with a proto-urban physiognomy.

The coming of the Romans strengthened this situation: the system of ports was strengthened (Chioggia dates back to this period), while the hinterland was reclaimed and centuriated, as is still visible in the arrangement of roads and ditches. The lagoon probably became a holiday resort for the nobility, as evidenced by some finds.

According to the Chronicon Altinate of the 11th century, the first mythical settlement in Venice on the Riva Alta (Rialto) dates back to 25 March 421, with the consecration of the church of San Giacometo on the banks of the Grand Canal: although recent studies have however shown that San Giacomo di Rialto is much later, dating back to the mid-twelfth century, the fifth century is however the probable period of stable urbanization on the lagoon and, therefore, of the foundation of the future city of Venice, since at that time the inhabitants of the mainland sought refuge in the lagoons following the various waves of barbarian invasions, in particular that of the Huns (452) and the Lombards (568). At the same time, the major religious institutions moved to the lagoon, such as the bishop of Altino in Torcello. However, the lagoon area was then presented as a still very heterogeneous set of small distinct settlements, while some neighboring centers such as Torcello, Ammiana and Metamauco had greater importance.

United together with all of Italy to the Eastern Roman Empire with the pragmatic sanction of Justinian I in 554, the Triveneto was again overwhelmed by the invasion of the Lombards in 568. The Byzantines lost most of the area, keeping only the coastal strip: it is from this moment that the term Venetia, once referring to the whole of Veneto, comes to indicate only the area of the lagoons.

Venetia maritima was erected in 697 as a duchy dependent on the Exarchate of Ravenna, with its capital first at Eracliana and then at Metamauco. Following the attempted invasion of the Franks by Pepin (Carloman), in 821 the safer Rialto became the capital of the Duchy of Venice, over time assuming the name of the territory and the State and becoming definitively Venice. The proximity to the Holy Roman Empire of the Franks, the privileged relationship with the Byzantine East and at the same time the distance from Constantinople made it one of the main ports of exchange between the West and the East, allowing the development of a dynamic and enterprising who, over the course of about four centuries, transformed the city from a remote settlement and imperial outpost to a completely independent master power of the seas.

During the Late Middle Ages, Venice was counted among the Maritime Republics and, in memory of this, the lion of San Marco, emblem of the Serenissima, appears in the marine insignia of the Italian flag together with the symbols of Genoa, Pisa and Amalfi. The head of the government was the Doge (from the Latin dux), who saw, over time, his power increasingly constrained by new institutional bodies. Many Doges, especially before the year one thousand, were forced to take the vows because the citizens considered them too greedy for power: some were even killed or dazzled.

At the height of its power, in the thirteenth century, Venice dominated most of the Adriatic coasts, regions such as Dalmatia, Istria, many of the Aegean islands, Crete, Cyprus, Corfu, and was the most important military power and among the main mercantile forces in the Middle East. In the 15th century the territory of the Republic extended from the Adda to Istria, and part of the province of Belluno, to the Venetian Polesine. From the fifteenth century the Venetian primacy began to decline following historical events such as the increase in Ottoman power and the shift of trade towards the Americas, which severely affected the maritime vocation of the city, which ended up turning its economic interests towards the hinterland.


Modern and contemporary age

The progressive growth of settled commercial interests on the mainland, i.e. the growth in importance of agriculture and the relative construction of numerous villa-farms such as those of Palladio, also changed the economic condition and lifestyle of the Venetian ruling class. In the 18th century Venice was among the most important cities in Europe, with a strong influence on the art, architecture and literature of the time.

After more than 1,000 years of independence, on 12 May 1797 Doge Ludovico Manin and the Great Council were forced by Napoleon I to abdicate in order to proclaim the "Provisional Government of the Municipality of Venice". During the first decade after the loss of the sovereignty of the Republic of Venice, many interventions were carried out on the city, such as the silting of the Rio di Sant'Anna, which became Via Garibaldi, the demolitions to build the Gardens of Castello and the destruction of the granaries of Terranova to build the Royal Gardens in the Procuratie Nuove.

With the treaty of Campoformio between the French and the Austrians, on 17 October 1797 the "Municipality of Venice" ceased to exist and Veneto, Istria, Dalmatia and the Mouths of Cattaro were ceded to Austria, which went to form the " Venetian Province" of the Austrian Empire. Returned to the French with the peace of Pressburg of 26 December 1805, it was then again Austrian until the unification of Italy. In 1848 the city took an active part in the revolutionary uprisings and, under the initiative of Daniele Manin, was, albeit briefly, independent with the establishment of the Republic of San Marco. After a year of siege by the Austrians, the Republic had to surrender on 22 August 1849. In 1866 it became part of the Kingdom of Italy and the annexation was sanctioned by the plebiscite of 21 and 22 October 1866, which saw the victory of the with 99.9% of the votes in favor of the active electorate. In 1883 the municipality of Malamocco, including the entire Lido of Venice, was suppressed and incorporated into Venice.

On May 24, 1915, Italy entered the First World War on the side of the Entente powers. With the retreat of Caporetto, in a desperate attempt to defend Venice and its precious naval base, the Italian army took up positions on the Piave and repulsed two Austro-Hungarian offensives (one at the end of the year, the second in June 1918). Venice therefore found itself close to the front. In this context it suffered numerous air attacks by Austria-Hungary, which caused various damages to the city.

In 1917 the Bottenigo area (whose name was changed to Marghera) was integrated into the municipality of Venice, and the construction of the new port facilities of Porto Marghera began there. In the 1920s the city saw its territory increase considerably, thanks to the unification of the municipalities of Burano, Murano, Pellestrina (1923), Chirignago, Zelarino, Mestre and Favaro Veneto (1926). The annexation of the mainland, in particular, was linked to the birth of the industrial center of Marghera, wanted by the economic policies of those years. Venice, due to its urban conformation on the sea, proved in fact incapable of having its own complete industrial area: expansion onto the mainland became the necessary solution to give new development to the lagoon city and to work for the workforce.

In 1933 the road bridge between Venice and the mainland was built (alongside the previous railway bridge built in 1846). During the Second World War the centers of Marghera and Mestre suffered heavy air raids. On 21 March 1945, the lagoon city suffered its only air attack of the conflict: up to that moment, in fact, the Allies had concentrated on port installations and communication routes on the mainland, avoiding hitting a city of such great cultural and architectural value. The bombardment was very specific, hitting the port and its warehouses and sinking three merchant ships. Overall, Venice survived the war almost unscathed, thanks to the precautions taken by the warring powers as well as to its isolated position, easily recognizable by bomber pilots.

The post-war period saw the great building expansion of the Venetian mainland, which attracted immigrants from all over the Veneto hinterland and from the historic center itself. In parallel with this expansion, the majority of its population abandoned the historical centre. As a result of these phenomena, the Venetian mainland now has more than twice as many inhabitants as insular Venice.

The demographic growth of Mestre became dizzying starting from the sixties, when the disastrous effects of the 1966 flood added to the housing and labor policies, which did not favor the residents of the lagoon, which showed the vulnerability of low-rise houses in Venice . The incredible rapidity of development meant that this happened in a rather disorderly way and outside of a master plan (it is the so-called building sack of Mestre). On the evening of 11 September 1970, the historic center was hit by a whirlwind of intensity estimated at F4 on the Fujita scale, which caused serious damage including the sinking of an ACNIL motorboat which caused the death of 21 people. In the mid-1970s there was a decline in the chemical, industrial and shipbuilding sectors with a consequent major re-employment of human and economic capital in the tourism sector.

During the years of lead, even Venice was repeatedly the object of criminal acts such as the Veneto fire nights, the bombing of the headquarters of Il Gazzettino and various murders, including those of Giuseppe Taliercio, Alfredo Albanese and Lino Sabbadin. In the city there were cells of the Red Brigades, Prima Linea and Ordine Nuovo.



The historical newspaper of Venice is Il Gazzettino in its local edition dedicated to the city. Founded in 1887 by Gianpietro Talamini, the editorial staff of the newspaper was based until 1977 at Ca' Faccanon in Venice and then moved to via Torino in Mestre where it is located. Since 2002, Mestre has also had its own daily newspaper, Il Mestre. Also in 2002, the publications of the Venice-Mestre edition of the Corriere del Veneto began, which originated from the Corriere della Sera editorial staff. In 1984, a newspaper dedicated to the city and province was born, Nuova Venezia, part of the L'Espresso Publishing Group.

Furthermore, Mestre is home to the generalist television station Televenezia, born in 1978, which broadcasts in most of the Veneto and Emilia-Romagna regions.

The radio station in Venice is Radio Venezia, which broadcasts on FM 92.400 - 103.500 MHz. Since 1978 there has also been Radio Vanessa, the only radio to broadcast from the historic center of Venice on 101.800 MHz.

Starting from 3 July 2009, the municipality of Venice was gradually covered by Wi-Fi, guaranteeing residents a free connection.



The artistic history of Venice has developed over the centuries in a singular and anachronistic way, with respect to the rest of Europe, following a path of originality and slow elaboration of external influences. Born as a Byzantine city, Venice has long been artistically conditioned by its relations with the Arab world.

If the forerunner of Venetian painting was certainly Paolo Veneziano (1300-1365), to whom we can attribute the role of mediator between the Byzantine taste and the new influences of Giotto, the painter Giovanni Bellini (1433-1516) was the link conjunction between the Italian Renaissance and the developments of lagoon painting. In addition to Bellini, among the greatest exponents of the Venetian artistic scene of the 15th-16th century are Giorgione (c. 1478–1510), Tiziano Vecellio (c. 1488–1576) and Tintoretto (1518–1594). Again Palma il Vecchio (1480–1528) extolled by Vasari, Jacopo Palma il Giovane (1549–1628), the portraitist Lorenzo Lotto (1480–1556) or the mannerist Paolo Veronese (1528–1588) the canvas maker Vittore Carpaccio (1465 –1525/26) and again Sebastiano del Piombo (1485–1547), friend and collaborator of Michelangelo. iAmong the sixteenth-century artist El Greco (1541–1614) must also be mentioned, a citizen of the Republic of Venice who had enormous success in Spain.

In the 18th century, Venice is one of the most important cultural and artistic centers in the world. Many works were commissioned to the Venetian painters of this period, ranging from sacred painting for churches to the decoration of the numerous and sumptuous palaces that arise in the city. Among them we find Giovanni Battista Pittoni (1687–1767) and Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696–1770) who painted in Italy and Europe. A school of landscape painting develops where Canaletto (1697–1768), Francesco Guardi and Bernardo Bellotto (Canaletto's only nephew and pupil 1721–1780) emerge.

Towards the end of the 1700s, the sculptor Antonio Canova worked a lot in Venice, influencing the art of the time to such an extent that he was considered the greatest exponent of Neoclassicism.

There are numerous churches in the city that preserve the works of these great artists of the Venetian Renaissance; among the main city art galleries: the Accademia Galleries, the Correr museum and the Egidio Martini Art Gallery housed in Ca' Rezzonico.

With the fall of the Serenissima and the subsequent Austrian domination of the 19th century, the artistic life of the city died down until the Risorgimento. Among the numerous contemporary artists, we should mention the Venetian by adoption Virgilio Guidi (1891–1984), author of views of the lagoon, Emilio Vedova or the architect designer Carlo Scarpa or the painter Mario Deluigi.



Thanks to its environmental characteristics and its historical past, the city of Venice has been used as a backdrop for numerous films. In Italian cinema, Venice was the setting for the events narrated in Venice, the moon and you (1958) by Dino Risi, Anonymous Venetian by Enrico Maria Salerno (1970), Forgetting Venice by Franco Brusati (1979). The city was the background to tell, halfway between history and novel, the lives of characters such as Giordano Bruno by Giuliano Montaldo (1973) and Casanova directed by Lasse Hallström and played by Heath Ledger (2005).

The city was the scene of the Shakespearean works of Othello directed by Orson Welles (1952) and the Merchant of Venice by Michael Radford and starring Al Pacino (2004); Venice was also the obvious choice for the backdrop to the adaptation of Thomas Mann's novel Death in Venice, directed by Luchino Visconti (1971), and is one of the settings for Stephen Norrington's The Legend of Extraordinary Gentlemen (2003), an adaptation of comic of the same name by Alan Moore.

Hollywood has chosen the city as the scene for sequences in genre films between thriller and action, starting with Nikita (1990) by Luc Besson and passing through The Italian Job (2003) by F. Gary Gray with Mark Wahlberg and The Tourist (2010), directed by Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck and starring Angelina Jolie and Johnny Depp. Steven Spielberg's blockbuster Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989) has numerous scenes set in the city, just as James Bond's character transited Venice for Terence Young's A 007, From Russia with Love films ( 1963), Lewis Gilbert's Moonraker (1979) and Martin Campbell's Casino Royale (2006).



Among the best known Venetians is Marco Polo (1254-1324) author of Il Milione, which has become the most famous work for his knowledge of the Asian world and China in medieval Europe. Other important writers are Paolo Sarpi, Francesco Algarotti, Pietro Bembo and Riccardo Selvatico.

Venice is a city closely linked to writing, first of all from a technical point of view because it was the seat of the first Italian typography, led by Aldo Manuzio (1449-1515) and remained an important typographic center so much so that in the eighteenth century the half of the books produced in Italy. Among the works printed in Venice is also a mathematics text: the Practice of arithmetic and geometry by Lorenzo Forestani.

In Venice they wrote: Maffio Venier (1550–1586), erotic poet, Carlo Goldoni (1707 –1793) and Carlo Gozzi (1720–1806) among the main authors of the dialectal and Italian commedia dell'arte, and Giacomo Casanova (1725– 1798), prolific writer remembered above all for his autobiography Histoire de ma vie (Story of my life), which is identified with Venice also for the libertine fame that the city had in the eighteenth century, already sung by the poet Giorgio Baffo.

Other illustrious writers are Ugo Foscolo (1778-1827) born in Zante at the time Republic of Venice, and Giacinto Gallina (1852-1897) playwright and heir to Goldonian comedy.

Much has been written about Venice, just remember Shakespeare (1564-1616) who sets Othello and The Merchant of Venice here.

Thomas Mann is the author of the novel Death in Venice (1912).

Venice hosted and inspired the poetics of Ezra Pound, who published and wrote his first literary effort A lume OFF in the city. Also in Venice, Pound died in 1972 and his remains are buried in the local cemetery on the island of San Michele.

French writer Philippe Sollers spent most of his life in Venice and published a Dictionary for Venice Lovers (2004).

Gabriele D'Annunzio sets Il fuoco in Venice and during his convalescence while staying in the residence he calls "Casetta Rossa" on the Grand Canal, writes the Notturno.

Iosif Brodsky spent long periods in Venice to which he dedicated the book Fondamenta degli incurabili. Other authors who spent periods in Venice during which they wrote also include Henry James, Marcel Proust and John Ruskin.

The illustrator Hugo Pratt has spent most of his life in Venice working closely with the cartoonist Lele Vianello.

The writer Tiziano Scarpa sets the novels Venice is a fish, Eyes on the grill, Stabat Mater, A trip to Venice with Tiziano Scarpa and The frown of the owl in Venice.



The first musical testimonies in Venice can be found around the 6th century during the Byzantine period, but the period of maximum activity was between the 15th and 19th centuries when the Venetian school established itself as one of the most important musical realities in the world.

The center of the Venetian school was the basilica of San Marco with its two organs that accompanied the a capella choirs in vocal polyphony. The figure of Maestro di Cappella was born in 1436 with Johannes de Quadris and stabilized with Pietro de Fossis (1491-1525) succeeded by the Flemish Adrian Willaert (1527-1562) who had the merit of having made the city a training and innovative center in the musical field, coming to define the "Venetian style". If in this period the production of secular music is dominant, sacred music has as valid exponents Andrea (1533-1588) and Giovanni Gabrieli (1557-1612) who will represent the highest expressions. The composer Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643) marked the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music, abandoning the a cappella form for the concert form, the madrigals.

Other exponents of the 16th-century Venetian music scene include the organist Claudio Merulo (1533–1604), the composer Giovanni Croce (1557–1609) and the music theorist Gioseffo Zarlino (1517–1590). The Venetian school also welcomed musicians from other countries, including Hans Leo Hassler and Heinrich Schütz, "the father of German music".

In 1637, the first public theater was inaugurated in Venice, the famous San Cassiano where, thanks to the contribution of Francesco Mannelli, the first public opera season was organized on the occasion of the carnival. In the following years numerous new theaters will be opened, Venice thus becoming an important propulsive center of melodrama in competition with Rome.

In the following century, the musical style of the lagoon city began to be influenced by foreign influences. The playful drama was predominant on the musical scene and its greatest exponent was the composer Baldassare Galuppi (1706–1785). In those years Venice was also the birthplace of the famous violinist Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741), a great exponent of ensemble music, who was joined by the composers Tomaso Albinoni (1671-1751) and Giuseppe Tartini (1692-1770). Also worth mentioning is Alessandro Marcello (1673-1747), author of the famous "adagio for oboe in D minor" and older brother of Benedetto Marcello (1686-1739) to whom the city's Conservatory of Music is named.

The Marciana Chapel, directed by Marco Gemmani, is still active and is considered, together with that of the Sistine Chapel, one of the two historically most important liturgical choirs in Italy. Since 1490 there have always been a Maestro and an organist in San Marco.

In the twentieth century we remember: Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (Venice, January 12, 1876 - Venice, January 21, 1948), the composer Luigi Nono (1924-1990) and the conductor Giuseppe Sinopoli (1946-2001).

From 1965 until 1981 it was the seat of the international pop music exhibition, awarding the Golden Gondola as a prize.

From 1966 the musical group Le Orme, exponents of progressive rock, burst into the Italian and international music scene.

On July 14, 1989, the city hosted a hotly contested Pink Floyd concert. The concert, free and broadcast worldwide, was held on a floating stage in front of Piazza San Marco. In those years a reggae group was active in the city, Pitura Freska, who in 1991 released an album with a song about it.

The Venice Biennale organizes contemporary music festivals.

In 2014, the city of Venice was the venue for the 8th Venetian Choir Festival held in the Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista.



Venetian cuisine is obviously characterized by fish, but not only: products from the island gardens, rice from the mainland, game, fishing in the upper Adriatic, polenta. Venice mixes local traditions with very distant influences that come from millenary commercial contacts.

Sardines in saor, marinated sardines that can be preserved during long voyages. Risi e bisi, Venetian liver, black risotto with cuttlefish, cicchetti, refined and delicious bites, appetizers or to be enjoyed throughout the day with a glass of prosecco. Not only that: Venice is famous for its marinated eel (in Venetian bisàto); for the oval and golden biscuits called baicoli, and for the various types of desserts such as the "pan del pescatore", with almonds and pistachios; Venetian fried cream; the bushes of the island of Burano (biscuits with butter and shortcrust pastry made in an "S" or ring); chiacchiere also called galani, or lies, or crostoli; the fregolotta (a crumbly cake with almonds); the milk pudding called rosada and the yellow semolina biscuits called zaléti.



Venice hosts a large number of events of international value. With over 300 public and private bodies and associations involved in the organisation, 2,886 events spread over 20,214 days, equal to an average of 56 events per day (2014 data).

In the cultural field, the most important event is the Venice Biennale, born as a cultural society in 1895, which includes various multidisciplinary exhibitions divided into sectors including: the International Art Exhibition (every odd year) , the International Architecture Exhibition (every even year) and the International Film Art Exhibition held annually between the end of August and the beginning of September.

Among the folklore events, the famous Carnival of Venice, which takes place from the thirteenth day of Lent to the day before Ash Wednesday. It turns out to be one of the oldest carnivals in the world, famous for its masks and attracts many visitors.

The Regatta of the Ancient Maritime Republics is a historical re-enactment, established in 1955, which is held every four years on a day between the end of May and the beginning of July, while the Historical Regatta is held on the first Sunday of September of each year that mixes folklore with the sporting event. In May the Vogalonga takes place, a non-competitive event that attracts boats and rowers from all over the world.

The Venice Marathon takes place in October, while since 2015 the CMP Venice night trail, a 16 km night race, has been held in June.

Among the religious celebrations, the feast of the Madonna della Salute (November 21) which is a local holiday, the feast of the Sensa on the occasion of the Ascension, the feast of the Redeemer (third Sunday in July) and the feast of San Marco which is held every 25 April.

Among the trade fairs of considerable importance there is the international boat show in spring. A popular spring event is also the non-competitive walk Su e zo per i ponti which winds through the streets and bridges of the historic centre.

The Veleziana sailing competition organized by the Compagnia della Vela takes place in October.


Anthropogenic geography

Urban planning
The territory of the municipality of Venice is administratively divided into six municipalities and is clearly divided into the two realities of insular Venice (historical center and islands) and the mainland.

The historic center of Venice rises in the middle of the homonymous lagoon on a total of one hundred and eighteen small islands, consolidated over the centuries thanks to wooden pilings, which have allowed its urbanization. Some of these islands are grouped together in organic groups while others are more dispersed. The 118 islets are separated by navigable canals and connected by bridges for pedestrian use only.

The total extension of the historic centre, excluding inland waters and the major islands, is equal to 797.96 hectares, which makes it one of the largest historic centers in Italy and Europe. Calculating the extension of the entire I Municipality, thus including the islands of the Lagoon such as Murano and Burano, the total area of insular Venice amounts, excluding internal waters, to 1 688.91 hectares.

The historic part of the city is traditionally divided into six districts: Dorsoduro, Santa Croce, San Polo, San Marco, Cannaregio and Castello. The sestieri of the ancient city are organized around the double bend of the Grand Canal, the main waterway from which a dense network of about 158 minor canals winds its way.

After the Second World War many new areas were built on the island of Venice. For example, the newly built district of Sacca Fisola, the new Tronchetto island (with 17 hectares of underground lagoon) and the Saffa area in Cannaregio.

In the lagoon around the historic center there are numerous built-up islands, some now uninhabited. Among the major islands (which are also part of the municipality) we remember Murano and Burano, famous respectively for the manufacture of glass and lace, Torcello, Sant'Erasmo, Pellestrina and the long and thin island of Lido with its establishments bathing.

On the mainland there are the two large centers of Mestre and Marghera, as well as other smaller towns. These centers have had a great development after the Second World War, as an outlet for the building expansion of Venice, which did not have building spaces in the surrounding lagoon, and therefore have the appearance of modern cities. About two-thirds of the municipality's population reside on the mainland.

The municipal territory of Venice can be divided into the historic centre, to which the first nucleus of the city belongs and which consists of a set of islands located in the center of the Venice Lagoon and the part located on the mainland which extends for 130.03 km².

The historic center has always been isolated from the mainland (which on several occasions represented an efficient defensive system) until 1846, when the railway bridge was completed, flanked, in 1933, by the Ponte della Libertà, open to road traffic. The main body of the city seen from above has the appearance of a fish, with its tail pointing east.

The historic center of Venice was divided into six districts in the 11th century: Cannaregio, Castello, Dorsoduro, Santa Croce, San Marco and San Polo. From an ecclesiastical point of view, Venice is divided into 70 parishes.

The districts are developed on 118 islets connected by 354 bridges and divided by 177 between rivers and canals. In Venice you can also find various urban environments characteristic of the city, such as the calle, the sotoportego, the wrinkle, the corte, the campo, the campiello, the riva, the fondamenta and the salizada. The names of the streets and squares are painted on the walls (these are the so-called nizioleti) with the exception of Corte Cappello, in Castello.

The main canals of the city are the Grand Canal and the Giudecca Canal. The first cuts the city in two by tracing an "S" (dividing Venice into two clearly distinct areas: "de ultra", beyond the water, and "de citra", on this side, a still current distinction, deeply felt by the population), the second, located south of the city, separates the historic center proper from the island of Giudecca and is heavily trafficked by large cargo and passenger ships that dock at the Maritime Station. In ancient times, the most used streets were precisely those of water, which provided the main view of the city: this explains why some important facades of palaces overlook not very wide canals.

Discussions about the future of Venice took place over time. Already in the sixteenth century there were those who, the proto Cristoforo Sabbadino, planned the maintenance of water and those who, the writer Alvise Cornaro, hoped for redemption from the past by eliminating the canals. Water has always been a concern. It requires care, substantial investments to avoid swamping as well as flooding. At the same time, however, water attracts and fascinates and, without it, Venice would lose meaning.
A 2014 research conducted in collaboration with UNESCO in Venice identified the main wear and tear phenomena that compromise the stability of the system balance and the survival of the urban fabric: the problem of high water, the wave motion from the wind and water traffic, pollution, deterioration of the building heritage and flooring, changes in intended use due to the progressive loss of the resident population, changes in the structure of local trade, in addition to the growing anthropic pressure caused by tourist flows .

The conformation and land on which Venice stands required the solution to various problems in the construction of buildings and in the urban planning of the city:
The consolidation of the foundations, obtained by planting wooden poles in the unstable ground of the lagoon islands.
The absence of sources of drinking water led to the development of campi and campielli, where the same urban area was used as a huge cistern, isolated from the infiltrations of the lagoon with clay and filled with sand for the collection and filtering of water rainwater, finally a well in the center of the campiello allowed the supply of drinking water. Often the wellheads are real works of art in white marble, there are about 600 of them but, before the construction of the aqueduct in 1858, there were 6,782 of them in the whole city.
The adaptation of houses with entrances via water for the access of people and warehouses for the loading and unloading of goods.

Architecture, in Venice, also means "architecture" of the landscape and the environment.

The delicate balance of the lagoon, which is affected by the contribution of sediments and fresh water from the rivers, by the invasion of sea water based on the tides and the wind, has made it necessary to carefully control the water regime over the centuries Venice has been a master in this in the past, modeling the lagoon with hydraulic and environmental management interventions and finding a balance between the lagoon and the city. This balance was broken during the twentieth century due to human intervention leading to the aggravation of the phenomenon of high water. The MOSE project, now decided by the national government to save Venice from high waters, is contested by some city circles.

A typical element of Venetian architecture is the patera.

As already mentioned, the first nucleus of the city, ergo, the historic centre, consists of a set of islands located in the middle of the Venice lagoon, on the north-western Adriatic coast (Gulf of Venice), for a total of about 60,000 inhabitants. To these must be added most of the islands of the estuary (about 30,000 inhabitants) and the mainland (about 180,000) which, with its 130.03 km² extension, represents 83% of the emerged surfaces of the territory.

The historic center has always been isolated from the mainland (which on several occasions represented an efficient defensive system) until 1846, when the railway bridge was completed, flanked, in 1933, by the Ponte della Libertà, open to road traffic; 4 km long, it connects Mestre to piazzale Roma. It is about 37 km from Treviso and 40 km from Padua.


Historical subdivisions

Venice has traditionally been divided into six districts since the 11th century: Dorsoduro, Santa Croce, San Polo, San Marco, Cannaregio and Castello. However, after the unification of Italy, the municipal territorial boundaries underwent numerous changes. In 1883 the municipality of Malamocco was annexed. Subsequently Marghera di Mestre (1917), Pellestrina (1923), Murano, Burano and Ca' Savio di Burano (1924) and finally Chirignago, Zelarino, Mestre, Malcontenta di Mira and Favaro (1926) became part of the municipality of Venice.

In the seventies the debate on the separation from the municipality of Venice of the whole area of the so-called Venetian mainland was heated. In the three consultative referendums of 1979, 1989 and 1994, the majority of the population spoke out against the separation. The Cavallino-Treporti area instead became an independent municipality in 1999 following the positive result of the referendum held on 13 December 1998. Following the positive experience of the Cavallino-Treporti municipality, in 2003 the issue was proposed again to the citizens for the fourth time the separation of the Mestre area and the mainland from the island of Venice; this last referendum consultation also had a negative outcome and also the quorum was not reached as well as in the fifth referendum of 2019, despite the fact that for the first time the majority of voters who went to the polls expressed themselves in favor of the separation.



Venice was for almost a millennium a city of trade, which became powerful thanks to its defensive position (from land invasions) and its institutions used by merchants.

After the nineteenth-century decadence, in the twentieth century the city found new resources in tourism.



Agriculture relies on the rural areas of the mainland, especially those extending south of Marghera and east of Mestre. Also noteworthy is the horticulture still practiced on various islands in the lagoon which, more for quantity, stand out for the quality and specificity of the products (the violet artichoke of Sant'Erasmo is typical). In 2007 there were 917 farms in the municipal area (including Cavallino-Treporti), a clear decrease compared to the previous five-year period.



Fishing is based on 366 enterprises.

The Philippine clam (Tapes philippinarum), different from the Italian clam (Tapes decussatus), called in Venetian caparòssoło, introduced in the Mediterranean in the seventies and recently spread in the lagoon, has influenced traditional forms of fishing, fishing for juveniles and fishing of the mołéca; the mołéca is the crab in a phase of development (that is, during the change of moult) in which there are no hard parts and is completely soft, it is a gastronomic delicacy and its fishing, now carried out by only a few, takes place according to a technique unchanged from centuries, handed down from father to son and requiring around ten years for the fisherman's training. In recent years there have been episodes of crime linked to the illegal fishing of clams in polluted land.

According to the 2001 Census of Industry and Services, 760 workers participated in the primary sector, equal to 0.5% of the workforce employed in the municipality.



Given the importance of tourism, typical craftsmanship is very much alive in the city. Among the best-known products, we mention Murano glass and Burano lace. Some squero are still active, the shipyards where Venetian boats, such as gondolas, are built and repaired according to traditional methods.



The municipality's industry is based on the Porto Marghera pole, considerably reduced compared to a few decades ago. Air pollution is a well-known problem that involves the whole area of the Po Valley, even if vehicular traffic is practically non-existent in the historic city, the same levels of PM10 particulate matter are recorded as on the mainland.

The Marghera petrochemical plant generates emissions of pollutants in the air and water of the lagoon. A recent survey revealed the quantities for a series of substances emitted into the atmosphere by sector of activity, we read that in one year (data relating to 1999) 23,000 t of nitrogen oxides, 27,000 t of sulfur oxides, 1 500 t of suspended particles and more metals such as 9 t of iron, 3 t of copper, 1.5 t of lead and so on. If initially, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the industrial center was seen as a source of progress and economic well-being, over the decades an increasingly critical attitude has developed among the population, leading to the famous, and tormented, mega trial against the petrochemical which saw workers and family members of petrochemical workers, the civil authorities (including the Veneto Region, the Province and the Municipality of Venice together with the Prime Minister and the Ministry of the Environment) face each other as civil parties, associations environmentalists and trade unionists against the major chemical companies (Edison, Syndial (formerly EniChem), Eni and Montefibre) accused and civilly liable, the trial ended in May 2006 with the sentence of the Cassation.

The energy sector (water, electricity, gas) employs 2,214 workers. There are 7,176 employees in the extractive and chemical industries, those in the metallurgical industries 9,203; construction workers are 7,144. Other industries employ 4,983 workers.

The naval industry is important with Fincantieri.



The leading sector of the Venetian economy is that of services. 35,629 units operate in trade, 7,346 in transport, communications and information technology; credit and insurance concern 22,262 workers, while those employed in other services and public administration are 37,070.

Municipal waste collection and water service are carried out by Veritas.



The official data on tourist presences place Venice in third place in Italy for the number of visitors after Rome and Milan in 2015 and 2016 with over 10 million presences. To adequately evaluate the phenomenon, however, it must be considered that several million people visit Venice every year, staying in the nearby municipalities of Cavallino-Treporti (until 1999, district of the Municipality of Venice, 6 million tourists in 2017), Jesolo (5 .3 million), Caorle (4.2 million), connected to the city with both private and public direct lines. Daily visits to Venice are organized by various tour operators in the Lake Garda area and in all the main tourist resorts in the Veneto region, as well as - via catamaran - from the nearby Istrian coasts, with daily trips in the summer period from Rovinj, Porec, Pula , Piran and Umag.

A travel destination for centuries, the first texts dedicated to the discovery of Venice for travelers still date back to the 15th century. Venice was an obligatory stop on the Grand Tour (an expression from which the word tourism derives) which, starting from the 17th century, was undertaken by young European aristocrats to perfect their knowledge. Some of the greatest European and world writers and thinkers, such as Goethe, Mann, Nietzsche, Proust, Stendhal, Byron, Pirandello, D'Annunzio, Hemingway, Dostoevsky and many others left their travel impressions, thoughts or aphorisms on Venice.

Tourism has increasingly assumed a decisive weight for the city's economy, so much so that over the years the relationship between the historic city with its delicate balances and the masses of tourists visiting, often hurried, has become increasingly problematic.

The budget law for 2019 introduced the possibility of introducing an advance "landing fee" by transport carriers (coaches, planes, cruise ships) accessing the ancient city of Venice, extending the possible municipal imposition of the tourist tax also to the daily flows of tourists. The taxation also aims to "achieve a selective effect and moderate the access of the so-called large ships to the lagoon area".



One of the various causes of pollution is the passage of cruise ships and other tourist boats in the lagoon. Through a study carried out by Transport & Environment, the scholars compared the environmental impact of 68 cruise ships with the approximately 111,000 cars registered in the municipal area (Marghera and Mestre included): the former emitted sulfur dioxide in amount twenty times greater than the latter. Furthermore, 138% more nitric oxide was also detected (a gas always deriving from combustion that can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract and a reduction in lung activity) and 20% more PM2.5. The latter two pollutants in particular were attributed respectively to 20,000 and 60,000 premature deaths in Italy in 2018 alone. If 68 ships pollute much more than 111,000 cars, it is easy to deduce the environmental impact of cruising in Venice, where these giants pass an average of two a day. Moreover, due to the lack of suitable infrastructures, during the stop the ships keep their engines running to guarantee services on board. In addition to emissions, they also generate enormous noise, electromagnetic (due to radars) and marine pollution, due to the antifouling paint on the hulls.


Infrastructure and transport

Due to its peculiarity of developing both on the mainland and on the lagoon, the city of Venice has developed a complex transport system both by land and by water, capable of allowing it to fulfill any need for connection, supply or service, both public be private. A similar peculiarity is evident in the historic center of the city and in the islands where any movement of people or things takes place either by boat or by footpath.

Navigation within the lagoon edge, although it falls under various regulations and jurisdictions (Municipality of Venice, Port Authority of Venice, Metropolitan City of Venice, Magistrato alle Acque, Municipality of Chioggia, Port Authority of Chioggia, Municipality of Cavallino- Treporti) has recently been unambiguously regulated with the application of a single regulation established by a government commissioner and the application of speed limits, limited traffic zones and in general a system of signs similar to that in use on the roads. This reorganization of water traffic is aimed in particular at reducing the wave motion caused by motor boats which causes navigation difficulties for traditional rowing boats and damages the banks, which are constantly subjected to an intense erosion phenomenon.

The territory of the metropolitan city is affected by the A4 motorway, the A27 motorway and the A57 Mestre bypass motorway.

The city is also served by several state and provincial roads:
Regional road 11 Padana Superiore (SR 11), former state road 11 Padana Superiore;
State road 13 Pontebbana;
State road 14 of Venezia Giulia;
Regional road 245 Castellana (SR 245), former state road 245 Castellana;
State road 309 Romea.

The entire network is connected to the historic center through the Ponte della Libertà, which connects the mainland with the two road terminals of the city:
the island of Tronchetto, intended for the tourist and private flow, equipped with car parks and interchanges with the ferry lines for the Lido and the urban navigation lines. Since April 2010, it has been faster to reach the "pedestrian" city from Tronchetto thanks to the people mover;
piazzale Roma, terminus of the urban and suburban bus lines and interchange pole with the main urban navigation lines.

Venice is an important railway hub for north-eastern Italy where the lines converge:
Milan-Venice: connects the lagoon capital to north-western Italy, passing through Vicenza, Verona and Brescia. Some trains then continue to Turin. Trains heading towards central-southern Italy (Bologna, Florence, Rome, Naples, Salerno, Bari, Lecce) also travel along this line up to Padua, from where they continue on the Padua-Bologna line.
Venice-Trieste: it is the connection with Slovenia and Eastern Europe and the Balkans.
Venice-Udine: allows connections with northern Veneto (in Conegliano it connects with the line for Ponte nelle Alpi) and with Austria and central and northern Europe.
Trento-Venice through the Valsugana passing through Bassano del Grappa and Castelfranco Veneto
Adria-Mestre line connecting Venice with the local territories of the metropolitan city and passing through the city of Piove di Sacco, the largest in the surrounding area
The trains are sorted out at the Venezia Mestre station, from where the railway continues towards the long Ponte della Libertà up to the terminal station of Venezia Santa Lucia, located at the western end of the Grand Canal and a place of interconnection with urban transport lagoons.

Venice is one of the destinations served by the famous Venice-Simplon Orient Express.

You bring
The port of Venice is the sixth port in Italy by volume of commercial traffic. The movement of goods sees the transit of 6% of the total national traffic, with approximately 29,000 thousand tons (2004 data). On the other hand, passenger traffic is relatively low: the overall movement between landings and embarkations of 1 365 375 units represents 3.06% of the national total (2005 data). Approximately 70% of passenger traffic comes from the cruise sector: the highest added value sector. In addition to this, the growth trend of this sector has been very rapid: in ten years it has gone from less than half a million to 1,453,513 passengers (2006 data), making Venice the leading Italian cruise port and one of the leading in the world: out of a world fleet of 282 cruise ships, no less than 80 touch the Venetian port of call.

Ships enter the lagoon through the two "mouths" of the Lido and Malamocco. The piers and docks are located over a large portion of the territory and broken down by function:
on the mainland, in Porto Marghera, commercial traffic is concentrated, especially with container ships and oil tankers that supply the interport and the industrial area;
in the historic centre, at the Maritime Station, the ferries to Greece and Turkey and the large cruise ships dock;
still in the historic center, mainly along the Sette Martiri bank, large private yachts are moored.



Marco Polo International Airport, inaugurated on 31 July 1961 in the locality of Tessèra, quickly became the reference airport in the Veneto region and third in Italy in terms of passenger traffic volume. In the transport of goods, Tessera is the second airport in the region after the Treviso-Sant'Angelo airport.

Since 2002, the airport has used the new terminal, equipped with boarding bridges for airplanes and designed to operate with 15 million passengers a year; in 2017 the number of passengers was 10 355 205 with an increase of 7.7%.

For private and amateur aviation there is also the Giovanni Nicelli tourist airport (ex Venice-San Nicolò) located on the Venice Lido.


Urban mobility

These water vehicles have landing places, the so-called piers, made up of floating pontoons moored to sturdy pilings and connected to the banks by footbridges: there are almost a hundred of various kinds and sizes scattered around the city and the lagoon. Alilaguna, a private company with a public shareholding of 30% of ACTV, has been operating since 1999 in the sphere of scheduled public transport, guaranteeing the connection by water between the Venice airport and the historic centre. Alilaguna fares are not integrated with ACTV fares.

At Venice-Piazzale Roma and Lido-Santa Maria Elisabetta the interchange between water and road public transport takes place, there are also connections to and from the Fusina terminal, the airport and Punta Sabbioni, in the municipality of Cavallino-Treporti .

With regard to public transport, the tram line connecting Venice and Mestre has been active since 15 September 2015. A people mover is active which connects Piazzale Roma to Tronchetto. The Imob electronic ticketing system came into operation on 1 May 2008.

Also in the context of public transport, in the historic city there is a taxi service on boats that works exactly like any other public car service in the world.

Finally, a typical system for crossing the Grand Canal is the public ferry, an inexpensive service carried out with the typical "da parada" gondolas maneuvered by two gondoliers. The service is active in the five "stazi" of Dogana, Santa Maria del Giglio, Riva del Vin/Riva del Carbon, San Tomà, Santa Sofia.


Lagoon boats

Due to its characteristic of having always been a city in which the waterways have been used as the main transport route, in Venice there are numerous types of boats for different uses.

The most characteristic of the lagoon boats is certainly the gondola. Due to its characteristics of maneuverability and speed, until the advent of motorized vehicles, it was the most suitable Venetian vessel for transporting people. Historically it was built and stored in small shipyards called squèri, such as the squero di San Trovaso, for example, this boat is used above all for tourist purposes, but also for ceremonies such as weddings and funerals or for sporting events, such as the famous Historical Regatta.

For private transport there is a very wide range of boats, of the most varied shapes and sizes, the most numerous of which are mostly typical Venetian boats. For this private vessel there is a dense network of services, with boathouses for hauling and launching, construction and maintenance yards, fuel stations and private moorings, both temporary and licensed.

As for people and public services, goods also follow a double water and land route in the historic city, the main junction of this system is the island of Tronchetto, where the goods are unloaded from trucks and transhipped onto boats that provide then to distribute them throughout the city (and vice versa). Similarly, any other work activity, from the transport of valuables to construction companies, are equipped with their own water vehicles capable of allowing them to carry out their jobs.

In the historic centre, all the public utility services and public administrations have their own boats for the most varied activities, from the representation service to the health emergency, so you can meet boats of the State Police, the Carabinieri, the Guardia di Finanza, water ambulances of the Urgency and Medical Emergency Service, fire-fighting boats of the Fire Brigade, patrols of the Coast Guard, of the local and Provincial Police, of which the Lagunare detachment is present, boats of the Penitentiary Police, of the Postal Service, of the garbage or funeral services. Many of the institutions use boats designed exclusively for the Venetian lagoon.



The oldest and most famous football team in the city is the Venezia Football Club: founded in 1907 from the merger of the football sections of the multi-sports gym Palestra Marziale and Costantino Reyer, it adopted the name Venezia Foot-Ball Club and the red-blue social colors (later replaced by black -green in 1909 and transitionally from Venetian red in the five-year period 1930–1934). Over time, this club has changed its name on various occasions and has gone through various interruptions of activity and re-foundations: in 1987 the merger with the Mestre team brought orange as the third social color and the names of Unione and Venezia- Mestre. The current corporate name and structure were achieved in 2015 following the takeover of the club by American entrepreneur Joe Tacopina. The maximum success of Venezia (which includes several participations in the first series championships) is the victory of the 1940-1941 Italian Cup. The team played in Serie A for the 2021-2022 season.

The second city team is A.C. Mestre, representative of the mainland town of the same name. Founded in 1927, in 1987 it merged with Venezia, to then be refounded in 1991 and again in 2003 and finally (assuming the current structure) in 2015. It boasts the most successful participation in the Serie B championship 1946-1947, when this was divided into three groups.

The two main city stadiums are the "Pier Luigi Penzo", located on the island of Sant'Elena, and the "Francesco Baracca" in Mestre.

In 1872 the Reyer Venezia company was founded, which controls the city's basketball team which has been playing in Serie A since the 2011-2012 season and which has won four league titles in the course of its history, the last one in the 2018-19 season and the Coppa Italia 2020. In 2017–18 he won the FIBA Europe Cup 2017–2018.

The Reyer Venezia Feminine women's team also plays at the highest level, competing in the Serie A1 national championship in its palmares it can count on two championships: 1945-46 and 2020-21; one Coppa Italia 2008, two Italian Super Cups (2008 and 2020), one WABA Liga (2014–2015).

The Giants Basket Marghera 2016–2017 team plays in the women's A2 series, which also won an Italian cup in Serie A2.

Venice has always had a strong fencing tradition. The two historic clubs (no longer existing) Circolo della Spada of Venice (winner of two absolute Italian fencing championships) and the Circolo della Spada of Mestre (winner of four absolute Italian fencing championships) together with the existing circles of the Dlf Venezia the club Foscarini Scherma and the Circolo Scherma Mestre have trained a series of Italian, world and Olympic champions including Andrea Cipressa, Dorina Vaccaroni, Mauro Numa, Antonella Ragno-Lonzi, Fabio Dal Zotto, Andrea Borella, Francesca Bortolozzi, Luigi Narduzzi, Matteo Zennaro.

Venetian rowing
Venetian rowing is widely practiced at a competitive level: numerous regattas for typical boats are held in the city throughout the year and culminate in the competitions that take place on the occasion of the Historical Regatta. In the municipal area there are 33 sports clubs that participate in more than 120 regattas.

Other disciplines
In the field of rugby, Veneziamestre Rugby, now dissolved, dates back to 1986. Also present was the Lido di Venezia rugby club which plays in Serie C.

In the field of volleyball, the city teams play in Serie C.

San Marco is home to the Compagnia della Vela, founded in 1911 and winner of the Louis Vuitton Cup as part of the XXIII America's Cup with Il Moro di Venezia.

Water polo is practiced by three clubs: Pallanuoto Sant'Alvise (coached by the former Kazakh Olympic champion Julija Pyreseva), based in the Sant'Alvise swimming pool, and by Pallanuoto Venezia based in the "Rari Nantes" swimming pool in Sacca Fisola and the Mestrina water polo that plays in Serie B.

Competitive swimming and synchronized swimming are practiced in the clubs Rari Nantes, Nuoto Venezia, Serenissima Nuoto and Polisportiva Terraglio.

Rowing is also practiced a lot in many clubs among which the most famous are the Royal Society Canottieri Bucintoro (born in 1882), Canottieri Diadora (1898), Canottieri Giudecca and Reale Società Canottieri Querini (1901).

From 1908 to 2009 the Pavia-Venice powerboat race was held across the Po River.

Since 1990, the Motonautica Venezia association has organized the Venice-Monte Carlo race.

Archery is practiced in the Arcieri del Leon company and the Arcieri Conte di Carmagnola company.

Target shooting is practiced at the ancient TSN Venezia company (1858).

Finally, the University Sports Center of Venice carries out numerous activities.