Rome is the capital of the Italian Republic. It is the most
populous and extensive municipality in Italy and the fourth most
populous in the European Union. Place of origin of the Latin
language, it was the capital of the Roman Empire, which extended its
dominion over the whole Mediterranean basin and a large part of
Europe, of the Papal State, subjected to the temporal power of the
popes, and of the Kingdom of Italy ( since 1871).
It would be an impossible undertaking to tell Rome in all its aspects because it is too vast and rich in history, one can only add one piece of advice to the tourist: being able to listen to the voice of the city that springs from its deep soul and that speaks through the testimonies of its long evolution , perhaps in the early morning when the crowds are sparse and this empathy can be very intense.
The municipal coat of arms of Rome, which dates back to the
thirteenth century, is a shield with a purple background color while the
initials, with scaled gold letters, S.P.Q.R "Senatus Populus Que
Romanus" evokes the Senate and the People, the two elements which gave
rise to the republican institutions. The two colors, purple and gold,
were symbols of the Empire. The small Byzantine cross indicates the
Christian civilization which made Rome its centre. The shield is
surmounted by an eight-pointed crown of which, however, only five are
The municipal flag, established after 1870, instead consists of two bands that should be purple and gold with the coat of arms. In reality, you will see flags with varying shades of red-purple and yellow.
The gonfalon derives from the ancient period and consists of a purple drape bearing the effigy, in gold, of the city in a feminine form, but which today has been replaced by the coat of arms.
Animal symbols of the city are the lion, the eagle and the Roman she-wolf, the latter a real heraldic symbol, while among the most common and widespread monuments are the Colosseum, the Cupolone (dome of St. Peter) and the Basilica of San Peter.
Rome, the heart of Catholic Christianity, is the only city in the
world to host an entire state, the enclave of the Vatican City: for this
reason it is often defined as the capital of two states.
The territory of Rome has various natural landscapes and environmental characteristics which give the city a privileged position at about 20m above sea level. and 24 kilometers from the Tyrrhenian Sea.
There are mountains and hills (including the historic seven hills), flat areas, the Tiber river and its tributaries, the marrane, the lakes of Bracciano and Martignano and the artificial ones, a fluvial island (the Tiber island), the sandy coast of the lido di Ostia.
Surrounded by a luxuriant countryside of volcanic origin, the city lies on the various heights crossed by the river which picturesquely describes a sinuous route and which constituted its primary communication route.
The central and ancient nucleus of the city is made up of the historic seven hills: Palatino, Aventino, Campidoglio, Quirinale, Viminale, Esquilino and Celio.
It originally developed on the left of the Tiber that crosses it, and then extended to the right bank, called Trans Tiberim from which the current name of the Trastevere district derives.
Thus it incorporated other hills, in addition to the historic seven mentioned above, such as Monte Mario (the highest), Pincio, Monte Vaticano, Gianicolo, Parioli and the hills of Villa Ada, Villa Borghese and Villa Glori.
In addition to the Tiber, the city is also crossed by another river, the Aniene, which flows into the Tiber in the northern area of today's urban territory.
The city enjoys a typical Mediterranean climate, particularly mild and comfortable in spring and autumn. Summers are hot, humid and dry, while winters are mild and relatively rainy. Snowfalls are a rarity and in the last 60 years there have been only 4 snowfalls with accumulation (dating back to 1985, 1986, 2012 and 2018). The rainiest seasons are spring and autumn, mainly in November and April. That said, excluding possible excesses of summer heat, Rome can be easily visited in any season. However, it is advisable to visit the city in the months of May and October, in which the city has particularly favorable climatic conditions, as indicated by the saying "Ottobrata Romana".
Founded according to tradition on April 21, 753 BC, during its three millennia of history it was the first great metropolis of humanity, the heart of one of the most important ancient civilizations, which influenced society, culture, language, literature , the art, architecture, philosophy, religion, law and customs of the following centuries, making it "of all peoples a single homeland" and "of modern civilization, the mother". In the western artistic world it boasts a situation of eminence that develops almost continuously from 200 BC. to advanced 1700.
But Rome had truly humble origins, from shepherds' villages to the foundation of "square Rome" by Romulus, the last of the Aeneas to land at Lavinio, who was its first king after having killed his twin Remus for having violated its borders. Romulus built the first wall, of which a few blocks of tuff remain on the Palatine Hill and a water cistern while his tomb, actually only the most archaic found, is located in the Roman Forum called Lapis Niger. The first king was succeeded by six others: Numa Pompilius, Tullio Ostilio, Anco Marzio, Tarquinio Prisco who surrounded the city with walls in the 6th century. BC, Servius Tullius who enlarged them calling them Servian Walls. Numerous remains of these remain: the most important in Via Salandra and in the vicinity of Porta San Paolo. Tarquinius the Superbus, the last king, was driven out putting an end to the Etruscan domination, the Republic was then established in 509 BC, whose debut was not easy due to the struggles between the social classes of patricians and plebeians for equal civil rights and for the submission of neighboring peoples, Etruscans, Volsci, Sabines, Aequi and Latins. It suffered the first invasion of the Gauls in 390 BC. but in 282 BC. won the Ten Year War against the Greek colony of Taranto and its ally Pyrrhus, king of Epirus (part of Greece and Albania). The following period was characterized by the wars against Carthage (in the territory of today's Tunisia), a great rival in the Mediterranean, Macedonia and Mesopotamia (Iraq, and part of Syria, Turkey, Iran) and with the destruction of Numantia it was also definitively conquered all of Spain. The most important work is the famous Etruscan she-wolf in bronze, from the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which has become one of the symbols of the city and whose twins were added in the 14th century. perhaps by Pollaiolo but there are numerous disputes on the dating and origin of the find. Today the Lupa is located in the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Campidoglio. The modern territories are reported in a purely indicative manner and further study is left to personal interest.
With the defeat of the kings Jugurtha of Numidia (part of Morocco and Tunisia) and Mithridates of Pontus (Turkey, coast of the Black Sea) and of the peoples of the Cimbri (Denmark) and Teutoni (Germany) other lands were annexed to the Empire. In the first century the city was devastated by conspiracies, dictatorships and civil wars up to Julius Caesar who in 50 BC conquered Gaul (France) and the mysterious Britannia (Great Britain) bringing the eagles of the Roman legions and returning triumphant to Rome which from that moment was called "Caput mundi" (Capital of the World). But the dictator Julius Caesar in 44 BC, ignoring the fatal warning omens, was killed with 23 stab wounds in the senate because he tried to limit the aristocratic power and for wanting to extend Roman citizenship to the conquered peoples. After a second triumvirate, he was succeeded by his nephew Octavian Augustus who had himself declared emperor and brought marble Rome "to a splendor never seen again". Roman art flourished learning from the Greek one whose statues already adorned the whole city, great poets and historians were born including Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Catullo, Tibullo and Tito Livio and in distant Bethlehem (Palestine), Jesus Christ. Unfortunately Octavian Augustus was succeeded by mediocre and cruel emperors such as Tiberius, under whom the death sentence of Jesus Christ, Caligula and Claudius took place. With Nero, who set fire to Rome, the martyrdom of Christians also began and on his death there was again disorder over the succession. In 69, Flavio Vespasiano was proclaimed emperor, to whom we owe the Colosseum, and followed ten years later by his son Tito, the year in which there was the tremendous eruption of Vesuvius which destroyed Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabia. Domiziano, Nerva followed and in 98 with the appointment of Marco Ulpio Traiano, a strong impulse was given to public works including the Trajan Forum. The empire was in its maximum expansion while Rome had about one million inhabitants. Many other emperors followed including in 161, Marco Aurelio prince philosopher, in 211 Aurelio Antonino known as Caracalla, builder of the famous Baths of Caracalla, and in 270 Aurelian who built another wall around the enlarged city, the Aurelian Walls. After a period of military anarchy, with Diocletian (284) and the tetrarchy, made up of two Augusti and two Caesars, the diminished importance of Rome took shape and a recrudescence of persecutions against Christians until the appointment as emperor of Constantine who freed the Christian cult and founder in 313 of Constantinople (Istanbul). Christianity became the official religion of the empire with an edict issued in 380 by Theodosius on whose death, in 395, the empire was divided into two parts: the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire with Rome continuing its catastrophic decline , undergoing invasions by the Visigoths (Romania and Moldavia) and Vandals (East Germany).
The Western Roman Empire ended with Flavius Romulus Augustus, known as Augustulus, deposed by Odoacer, king of the Heruli (Scandinavia and Selandia) in 476 and thus began the Middle Ages where Rome depopulated until it contained its thirty thousand inhabitants but was equally dominated later, in 493, by the Ostrogoths (southern Russia), by the Byzantines of Constantinople in 527 and also by the Lombards in 568 (territories east of Hamburg) who forced Pope Stephen II to ask for help from the Franks ( territory between France and Germany) with which it allied. In 756 the Papal State was born (Vatican City) made up of the lands donated by the king of the Franks and of which Rome became the capital, thus initiating the temporal power of the popes but still undergoing an invasion, that of the Saracens (coming from Saudi Arabia) who also sacked the Basilica of San Pietro (846). Following this devastation for which Pope Sergio II died of grief, the territory was fortified with a wall called the Leonine Walls because they were erected between 848 and 852 by Pope Leo IV. In the Investiture Controversy, Henry IV of Franconia (Central Germany) conquered Rome, sacked it and decimated its population with the horrendous "Sack of Rome" in 1084. With the Concordat of Worms (1122) the struggles ended and the city it was confirmed as the center of Christianity when Boniface VIII, in 1300, proclaimed the first Jubilee. A few years later (1309), given the large number of French popes appointed due to the interference of the French monarchy, the papacy moved to Avignon leaving the city in the chaos of struggles for supremacy between the most powerful families and thus triggering the Great Schism of the West, with the simultaneous advent of three popes: one in Rome, one in Avignon and one in Pisa. This crisis will last until 1417 when finally elected a single pope, Martin V, the seat of the Papal State will return to Rome now reduced to about twenty thousand inhabitants and in a complete state of abandonment.
The years passed on the Roman ruins up to the historical period of
the Rome of the Popes when, although there were internal struggles
between the most important families for supremacy and power, a spiral of
light was ignited, in so much decay, with the rebirth of the arts. Above
all, the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries were true golden ages which saw a
succession of great popes such as Nicholas V (1447), a humanist who
wanted to beautify the city, left the papal residence in the Lateran
Palace and began enlarging the basilica of San Peter and the Apostolic
Palace. Far away, Constantinople fell, in 1453, into the hands of the
Turks thus putting an end to the Eastern Roman Empire. Even the popes
Julius II (1503) and Leo X (1513), true patrons, embellished the city
with the masterpieces of great artists such as Bramante, Raffaello
Sanzio, Michelangelo Buonarroti. But with the Landsknechts of the
emperor Charles V, in 1527, there was one of the most terrible looting,
which lasted about a year and ended only with the promise of Pope
Clement VII to convene what will be the Council of Trent and the Reform
catholic. With successive popes, including Sixtus V (1585), the city
continued to be rebuilt with magnificence. But the invasions were not
finished because, in 1798, Napoleon and his troops entered Rome, took
Pope Pius VI prisoner who died in France and returned there later, in
1808, transferring Pope Pius VII to Fontainebleau who will return only
in 1814 In this period Antonio Canova distinguished himself with his
Capital of Italy
Claimed by the Kingdom of Italy in 1870, the ancient city was conquered by the Italian army through a breach in the walls near Porta Pia with which "Italy returned to Rome" and where the Monument to the taking of Rome was later built , thus "ensuring Italy possession of its capital". In 1922, the March on Rome brought the Fascist period to life and launched the construction of the EUR. With the Second World War, in 1940, it suffered massacres including that of the Fosse Ardeatine, and bombings such as that of 19 July 1943 ( 16 San Lorenzo) until its liberation in 1944. Two years later it became the capital of the Italian Republic.
Its historical centre, delimited by the perimeter of the Aurelian walls, superimposition of testimonies of almost three millennia, is an expression of the historical, artistic and cultural heritage of the Western European world and, in 1980, together with the extraterritorial properties of the Holy See in the city and the basilica of St. Paul outside the walls, has been included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Historic center of Rome — Enclosed within the ancient Aurelian Walls, the historic center of Rome has been declared a World Heritage Site. It is divided into 22 districts and includes the Vatican City, the seven hills and the Tiber area with the Tiber Island. Here are the main monuments such as the Colosseum and the Circus Maximus and the main squares such as Piazza Venezia, Campo de' Fiori, Piazza del Quirinale, Piazza del Popolo, Piazza di Spagna, Piazza Navona, Piazza della Repubblica and the Trastevere district.
Outside the walls extend the 35 districts which generally bear the name of the ancient Roman consular roads and which arose, almost without exception, after the proclamation of Rome as capital of the kingdom of Italy. They can be grouped into sectors as follows:
Northern Rome — Flaminio, Parioli, Pinciano, Salario, Nomentano (northern part), Monte Sacro, Trieste, Monte Sacro Alto are the neighborhoods on the left bank of the Tiber. The opposite bank is occupied by the Tor di Quinto, Trionfale and Della Vittoria districts, which includes Monte Mario, the highest point in Rome (139 meters above sea level) below which the area of the Foro Italico and the stadiums extends.
West Rome — Gianicolense, Aurelio, Primavalle.
East Rome — Includes the districts of Nomentano (eastern part), Tiburtino, Prenestino-Labicano, Tuscolano, Appio-Latino, Prenestino-Centocelle, Pietralata, Collatino, Alessandrino, Don Bosco, Ponte Mammolo, Appio-Claudio, Appio-Pignatelli, San Basilio .
Southern Rome — Ostiense, Portuense, Ardeatino, Giuliano-Dalmata, Europe-EUR, Lido di Ostia Ponente, Lido di Ostia Levante, Lido di Castel Fusano, Garbatella.
Suburbs of Rome means "beyond the neighborhoods" and there are currently only six: Aurelio, Della Vittoria, Gianicolense, Portuense, Tor di Quinto and Trionfale.
The Zones of Rome are 53, representing the last level of the toponymy division and are the following: Acilia Nord, Acilia Sud, Acqua Vergine, Ciampino Airport, Borghesiana, Capannelle, Casal Boccone, Casal Morena, Casal Palocco, Casalotti, Castel di Decima, Castel di Guido, Castel di Leva, Castel Fusano, Castel Giubileo, Castel Porziano, Cecchignola, Cesano, Fonte Ostiense, Grottarossa, Isola Farnese, La Giustiniana, La Pisana, La Storta, Labaro, Lenght, Maccarese Nord, Magliana Vecchia, Marcigliana, Mezzocammino, Ostia Antica, Ottavia, Polline-Martignano, Ponte Galeria, Prima Porta, San Vittorino, Santa Maria di Galeria, Settecamini, Tomb of Nero, Tor Cervara, Tor de Cenci, Tor di Valle, Tor San Giovanni, Tor Sapienza , Torre Angela, Torre Gaia, Torre Maura, Torre Spaccata, Torrenova, Torricola, Torrino, Val Melaina, Vallerano.
The tourist can also have indications according to the town halls. The division of Rome into municipalities is of an administrative nature; there are 15 municipalities and they can group various districts, neighborhoods, suburbs and zones.
Beyond the ring road
Ostia Antica - The site of the ancient port of Rome includes interesting ruins such as the Theater which can seat up to 4000 people, the Terme dei Sette Sapienti and the forum.
Lido di Ostia - It houses the tourist port.
Fiumicino - Today's municipality was born as an ancient fishing village. Located near Leonardo da Vinci International Airport, it is highly regarded for its restaurants.
Veio - Ancient Etruscan town conquered by the Romans and crossed by the Cremera river.
Cesano Borgo - Hilltop village with two churches (11th and 17th centuries), a manor house (formerly owned by the Chigis), a castle (remodeled by the famous parish priest Don Morotti), a Lombard tower, ancient walls and caves dug into the tuff by the you extrude. In the itinerary of the Via Francigena, recognized as "Sutri Minor" with the passage of the street along Via dei Tinelli for Via della Fontana Secca and subsequently Via della Fontana Morta.
The forum was the center of political, commercial and judicial life in ancient Rome. The largest buildings were the basilica, where court cases were heard. According to playwright Plautus, the region was a gathering place for “lawyers and their supporters, bankers and brokers, shopkeepers and homeless people who expected tips from the rich.” As the population of Rome developed rapidly, the Forum became too small. In 46 BC e. Julius Caesar built a new forum, setting a precedent, followed by emperors from Augustus to Trojan. The emperors also erected triumphal arches in honor of their loved ones, and in the east of the Roman Forum, Vespasian built the Colosseum in the year 80, an entertainment center after the working day. The Colosseum was completed quickly, as the emperor tried to erase the memory of destruction of Pompeii in the year 79. Because of this, the laying of a large amphitheater was not even as different teams of craftsmen were involved on the project. They often used different measuring rulers. You can notice some uneven stones where sectors of workers met.
Rostra and Temple of Saturn
Arch of Septimius Severus
San Lorenzo in Miranda
Column of Phocas
Arch of Constantine
Piazza Del Campidoglio
Santa Maria in Aracoeli
Victor Emmanuel Monument
Temple of Hadrian
Santa Maria Maggiore
The prehistoric period in Rome and Lazio is well illustrated in the
"L. Pigorini" National Prehistoric Ethnographic Museum in the EUR
The Etruscan period is documented by the collections of the Gregorian Etruscan Museum, an integral part of the Vatican Museums, (in the Vatican) and by that of the Valle Giulia Museum.
Examples of Greek art, especially Hellenistic, abound in the Vatican Museums, these are copies from the Roman era. There are many other collections of ancient art: the Capitoline Museums are the oldest public collection in the world. Remarkable, also for the setting up in an industrial archeology site, is the seat of the Capitoline collection itself at the Centrale Montemartini. Important and very rich are the seats of the National Roman Museum (Palazzo Massimo), Baths of Diocletian, Palazzo Altemps and Crypta Balbi). The Roman Forum and Fori Imperiali are the largest archaeological area in the city and among the largest in the world. They give the idea of Roman art. The Pantheon is the best preserved Roman monument.
Early Christian art is attested by numerous churches and basilicas. Santa Sabina, Santo Stefano Rotondo, Santa Costanza, San Paolo and San Lorenzo outside the walls are the best examples.
The Renaissance — In Rome the Renaissance was experienced above all between the end of the 1400s and the beginning of the 1500s, in this period the whole area of Campo de' Fiori was built with the Via Giulia, the Ponte Sisto, Palazzo Madama and the Church of Santa Maria della Pace. Great artists embellished the city with their masterpieces, such as Bramante who designed the Basilica of San Pietro and built the Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio; Raffaello Sanzio who, in addition to collaborating on the basilica, created the Loggia of Psyche at Villa Farnesina and numerous frescoes. Even Michelangelo Buonarroti contributed to St. Peter's Basilica and designed its dome, also building Porta Pia, the Piazza del Campidoglio, the Tomb of Julius II, the statue of the Pietà and among the frescoes those of the Sistine Chapel.
Baroque art — Rome was the cradle of Baroque art in the early 1600s as it was here that the two best artists of the period worked: Bernini and Borromini. The greatest example of Baroque art in the city is the Basilica of San Pietro with its Baldacchino and its Piazza, but the Churches of Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza, the Church of Gesù and San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane are also worthy of note. The city continued to be adorned with churches, palaces, monuments and fountains always signed by notable artists such as Vignola, Palladio and Domenico Fontana and mostly operated in the seventeenth century. Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Borromini, Carlo Fontana, Girolamo and Carlo Rainaldi, and Carlo Fontana.
Neoclassical art — The Vittoriano, the monument inaugurated in 1899 to celebrate Vittorio Emanuele II, the king who reunified Italy, is the greatest example of neoclassical art in Rome and one of the greatest in Italy.
Eclectic art of the 19th century — It lasted well beyond the end of the 19th century as attested by the houses in the Coppedè district around via Tagliamento named after its architect Gino Coppedè who mixed medieval and baroque art in a very imaginative way.
Art of the '900; Among the historical avant-gardes, rationalism is the only one to be well documented in Rome. The EUR district is the prime example of this. The National Gallery of Modern Art houses works by numerous exponents of 20th century art as does the Collection of modern religious art in the Vatican. In addition, Piazza Vittorio, in the Colle Esquilino area, is a clear example of Umbertine architecture.
Modern Art; In the last twenty years in Rome, as in other European cities, modern art has been spreading: examples are the Eur district, where you can admire numerous buildings over 50 meters tall, the Auditorium Parco della Musica, designed by Renzo Piano, the Church of God the Merciful Father, structured with three tall smog-eating concrete sails designed by Oscar Nyemeier in the Alessandrino district and museums such as the National Gallery of Modern Art and the Museum of Contemporary Art in Rome.
Rome from above; Historically, Rome was born and developed around the 7 hills. Nowadays, this peculiarity allows you to have natural views from above inside the city, normally possible only with visits to the upper floors of monuments or skyscrapers. Furthermore, very often these hills deserve to be visited simply for their attractions. Following the list reported by Cicero to which are added, for tourist reasons, Gianicolo and Pincio we have:
Aventino: Home of the Giardino degli Aranci, which offers a comprehensive view of the historic center, from San Pietro to Piazza Venezia. Also not to be missed is the Piazza dei Cavalieri di Malta, designed by Piranesi in 1765 and home to the Villa del Priorato di Malta. The villa is not normally open to the public but includes one of Rome's most hidden marvels. Try to take a look through the keyhole of the Villa's entrance. You will be amazed!
Campidoglio: Headquarters of the Municipality of Rome and the Capitoline Museums, both located in Piazza del Campidoglio. The Piazza was designed by Michelangelo and is one of the most beautiful squares in Rome. Pay attention to the view from the small terraces surrounding the square and from the Rupe Tarpea. Especially at night, the splendor of the Roman Forum seen in its entirety is incredible.
Celio: Seat of the Basilica of Saints John and Paul.
Esquiline: It is the highest and most extensive hill in Rome. Among the many monuments, we can underline the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, one of the four Papal Basilicas of Rome.
Palatino: It is practically an open-air museum. You will not regret a complete visit to this hill which overlooks the Circus Maximus on one side and the Roman forum on the other.
Quirinale: Seat of the residence of the President of the Republic and of the Constitutional Court, this hill allows a particular view of St. Peter's. Furthermore, the Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane is the work of Borromini. Finally, it is possible to access the Quirinale from suggestive streets starting from the Trevi Fountain or from via Nazionale.
Viminale: Headquarters of the Ministry of the Interior and of the Rome Opera House. It is the smallest hill of the seven.
Gianicolo: It is not one of the 7 traditional hills. Famous for its terraces, it offers a spectacular panorama of part of the city in which the Altare della Patria stands out. In addition, every day at noon sharp, a cannon fires a blank shot. Originally this practice was introduced by Pope Pius IX to have a standard timetable that all the Churches of Rome had to follow.
Pincio: It is not one of the 7 traditional hills. You get to this hill going up from Piazza del Popolo and for this reason it is possible to look down on this fantastic square from one of the most famous Roman terraces. Thousands of years ago, the Ancient Romans watched from here their boys learning the arts of combat on the Campus Martius. Part of the Villa Borghese park is located on the hill, one of the green lungs of Rome. Also on this hill is the Church of Trinità dei Monti and the famous staircase leading to the Spanish Steps.
1 St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican (Basilica Vaticana), Piazza San
Pietro, 00120 Vatican City, ☏ +39 0669883653, fax: +39 06 69885518.
Mon-Sun 07:00-18:00. Papal or major basilica.
2 Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls (Basilica Ostiense), Via Ostiense, 184, 00146, Rome, ☎ +39 06 9880800, fax: + 39 06 698 80 803, email@example.com. Free. Mon-Sun 06:45-18:00. Papal or major basilica.
3 N.S. of Guadalupe and St. Philip (National Church of Mexico and
Latin America), Via Aurelia 675, ☎ +39 0666411730. Minor Basilica - West
Sector - Prefecture XXXIII - Suburbio Aurelio - 18th Municipality.
4 S. Agostino in Campo Marzio, Via della Scrofa 80, ☎ +39 0668801962. Minor basilica - Central sector - Prefecture II - Rione Sant'Eustachio - 1st Town Hall.
5 S. Croce a Via Flaminia, Via Guido Reni 2/D, ☎ +39 063240509. Minor Basilica - Northern Sector - Prefecture VI - Flaminio District - 2nd Town Hall.
6 S. Heart of Christ the King, Viale Mazzini 32, ☎ +39 063223418. Minor Basilica - West Sector - Prefecture XXXII - Vittoria District - 17th Town Hall.
7 S. Immaculate Heart of Mary in Parioli, Via del Sacro Cuore di Maria 5, ☎ +39 068070359. Minor Basilica - Northern Sector - Prefecture VI - Pinciano District - 2nd Town Hall.
8 S. Eugenio, Viale delle Belle Arti 10, ☎ +39 063201923. Minor Basilica - Northern Sector - Prefecture VI - Pinciano District - 2nd Town Hall.
9 S. Giovanni Battista dei Fiorentini (Regional Church of the Florentines), Via Acciaioli 2, ☎ +39 0668892059. Minor basilica - Central sector - Prefecture II - Rione Ponte - 1st Town Hall.
10 S. Giovanni Bosco, Viale dei Salesiani 9, ☎ +39 067480470. Minor Basilica - East Sector - Prefecture XX - Don Bosco District - 10th Town Hall.
11 S. Giuseppe al Trionfale, Via Bernardino Telesio 4/B, ☎ +39 0639730889. Minor Basilica - West Sector - Prefecture XXXII - Trionfale Quarter - 17th Town Hall.
12 S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura, Piazzale del Verano 3, ☎ +39 06491511. Minor Basilica - North Sector - Prefecture VIII - Tiburtino Quarter - 3rd Town Hall.
13 S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Piazza della Cancelleria 1, ☎ +39 0669887521. Minor Basilica - Central Sector - Prefecture II - Parione District - 1st Town Hall.
14 S. Maria Ausiliatrice, Piazza Santa Maria Ausiliatrice 54, ☎ +39 067827892. Minor Basilica - East Sector - Prefecture XIX - Tuscolano Quarter - 9th Town Hall.
15 S. Maria Regina degli Apostoli alla Montagnola (International Marian Shrine), Via Antonino Pio 75, ☎ +39 0659602716. Minor Basilica - South Sector - Prefecture XXIII - Ostiense District - 11th Town Hall.
16 S. Pancrazio, Piazza di San Pancrazio, 5, ☎ +39 065810458. Minor Basilica - West Sector - Prefecture XXX - Gianicolense Quarter - 16th Town Hall.
17 S. Sebastiano fuori le Mura, Via Appia Antica 136, ☎ +39 067887035. Minor Basilica - South Sector - Prefecture XXII - Ardeatino Quarter - 11th Town Hall.
18 S. Teresa d'Avila, Corso d'Italia 37, ☎ +39 0687420568. Minor Basilica - Northern Sector - Prefecture VI - Pinciano District - 2nd Town Hall.
19 Sant'Andrea della Valle, Piazza Vidoni, 6, ☎ +39 066861339. Minor basilica - Subsidiary place of worship Parish of Saints Biagio and Carlo ai Catinari - Central sector - Prefecture II - Town Hall 1st.
20 Sant'Apollinare, Piazza Sant'Apollinare 49, ☎ +39 066875211. Minor basilica - Subsidiary place of worship Parish of Sant'Agostino in Campo Marzio - Central sector - Prefecture II - Town Hall 1st.
21 Sant'Eustachio in Campo Marzio, Via di Sant'Eustachio 19, ☎ +39 066865334. Minor Basilica - Subsidiary place of worship Parish of Sant'Agostino in Campo Marzio - Central Sector - Prefecture II - Town Hall 1st.
22 Santi Benedetto e Scolastica all'Argentina (Regional Church of the Nursini), Vicolo Sinibaldi 1, ☎ +39 066877180. Minor Basilica - Subsidiary place of worship Parish of Santa Maria in Aquiro - Central Sector - Prefecture I - 1st Town Hall.
The Roman catacombs were originally private cemeteries owned by the
great patrician families. However, they were also used for the burial of
the first Christians until the third century, when others were created
intended only for them. Subsequently, with the persecutions, they also
became a place of meetings, prayer and refuge before being abandoned in
the fourth century. They were usually decorated with various symbols of
Christianity and with scenes from the life of Jesus.
23 Catacombs of Domitilla, Via delle Sette Chiese 282, ☎ +39 065110342. €8/5. Wed-Mon 9:00-12:00 and 14:00-17:00. Guided tours only. Closed Tues, Easter, from 17 Dec to 13 Jan (variable winter period). Perhaps they are the largest catacombs in Rome, a place of prayer and burial for the first Christians of the 3rd century. They include an underground basilica, galleries and cubicles on three levels with numerous frescoes on the walls. They originated from the family tomb of Flavia Domitilla, granddaughter of Vespasian.
24 Catacombs of San Sebastiano, Via Appia Antica 136, ☎ +39 06 7850350. €8/5. Mon-Sat 10:00-16:30; closed Sun, January 1st, the whole month of December. Truly extensive, they are divided into four levels. They were used for the burials of pagans and Christians and in the 4th century they took this name because San Sebastiano was buried there.
25 Catacombs of San Callisto, Via Appia Antica 110, ☎ +39 065130151. €8/5. Thu-Tue 9:00-12:00 and 14:00-17:00. Guided tours only. Closed Wed, Dec 25, Jan 1, Easter, Jan 29 to Feb 25. Very ancient catacombs, dating back to the 2nd century and made up of different levels with numerous tunnels for about 20 km. Of notable interest are the crypts of Lucina, of the popes and of Santa Cecilia.
26 Catacombs of San Pancrazio, Piazza di San Pancrazio, 5, ☎ +39 065810458, fax: +39 0658345414. Tues 09:00-12:00; Wed 9:30-12:00 and 16:30-19:00; Thu 9:30-12:00. The catacombs take their name from San Pancrazio who, after suffering martyrdom, was buried there. They date back to the first centuries and are spread over several levels with traces of paintings, halls for worship and funerary crypts in one of which the more famous Santa Sofia and her daughters are supposed to have been buried. The finds found constitute a small museum. For visits at different times, contact the number indicated.
Catacombe di Priscilla
Rome can also be called "The City of Churches" since there are about
three hundred of them, certainly more. Some of them are mentioned here,
while others will be illustrated in their districts.
Those interested are advised to carry out visits with small binoculars in order to be able to admire the frescoed ceilings and domes in detail.
27 S. Luigi dei Francesi, Piazza San Luigi dei Francesi 5, ☎ +39 06688271. Built at the behest of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, the future Pope Clement VII, it has three valuable paintings by Caravaggio and frescoes by Domenichino.
Churches of other religions
28 Di Cristo, Via Messala Corvino, ☎ +39 067615055.
29 Evangelical Assemblies of God, Via Bruzi 11, ☎ +39 06491165.
Rome is full of fountains, from the monumental to the simplest, which
document the wealth of water enjoyed by the city since the time of the
imposing baths and which, however, must not be confused with water
displays. Numerous popes commissioned great artists to make fountains in
memory of having redistributed water, with utilitarian purposes, in the
popular districts after the dark times of the Roman Middle Ages or for
purely ornamental reasons in squares. The most famous fountains are
those built in the 16th and 18th centuries by Della Porta and the
Berninis. The Water Exhibitions, on the other hand, are a sort of
monument with large niches which attest to the creation of aqueducts
from particular sources, but above all attest to their end in Rome.
Among the numerous fountains and exhibits we have:
30 Barcaccia Fountain, Spanish Steps. Built by Pietro Bernini, father, it would have the appearance of a boat but it is not, even if tradition has it that Pietro wanted to reproduce a boat wrecked there due to a flood of the Tiber.
The ancient Romans created the public market as a place of business and retail. The first can be considered to all intents and purposes the Roman Forum but there were other "specialized" markets for each type of goods. They therefore created the Foro Boario for livestock, the Foro Olitorio for fruit and vegetables and the Foro Piscario for the fish trade. In the Porticus Margaritaria, near the Via Sacra, there were goldsmith shops selling pearls and precious stones whose traders were called margaritarii. Another lively market was near the Arch of Septimius Severus, but Pope Sixtus IV decided to move it to Piazza Navona. There was also the Emporium, built by the censors M. Emilio Lepido and M. Emilio Paolo in 193 BC. and subsequently transformed, in 174 BC, into a quay on the Tiber with large steps and inclined planes for loading/unloading goods and of which the remains are visible.
For its ancient history and its Renaissance, Rome is full of museums
and collections of works of art, science and technology. As already
mentioned above, in 1734, with Pope Clement XII, the first public museum
was founded, the Capitoline Museums. Since then, thanks also to the
collections donated by noble families, many have been created for every
interest, so it is possible to illustrate some of them only in the
articles of the relative districts. For those who love novelty, the
latest addition (March 2015) is the Museum of Casal de' Pazzi, a small
jewel on the Pleistocene period of Lazio, for adults and children.
Among the most famous we have: Capitoline Museums, Villa Borghese Museum and Gallery, Colonna Gallery, Doria Pamphilj Gallery, National Gallery of Ancient Art - Palazzo Barberini, Museum of Roman Civilization, National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia, National Roman Museum - Palazzo Altemps and Planetarium and Astronomical Museum.
31 Villa Borghese Museum and Gallery, Piazzale del Museo Borghese 5, ☎ +39 0632810. Tue-Sun 08:30-19:30; closed Mon, Jan 1, Dec 25. Museum with artistic exhibits ranging from the 15th to the 18th century such as sculptures, mosaics and bas-reliefs. Paintings by great painters including Raphael, Titian, Correggio, Antonello da Messina. For the statuary there are masterpieces by Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Antonio Canova.
32 National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia, Piazzale di Villa Giulia 9, ☎ +39 063201951. Tue-Sun 08:30-19:15; closed Mon, 1 Jan, 1 May, 25 Dec. Splendid collection of finds from the Etruscan tombs of Upper Lazio, including the famous "Sarcophagus of the Spouses".
33 National Roman Museum - Palazzo Altemps, Piazza di Sant'Apollinare, 46, ☎ +39 0639967700. Tue-Sun 09:00-19:45; closed Mon, 1 January, 25 December. Sixteenth-century palace full of frescoes and houses an important collection of Greek and Roman statuary as well as other Egyptian finds. The Ludovisi, Boncompagni, Del Drago and Mattei collections are truly remarkable.
34 Planetarium and Astronomical Museum, Piazza G. Agnelli 10, ☎ +39 060608. From Sep to Jun: Tue-Fri 09:00-14:00; Sat-Sun 09:00-13:30 and 14:30-19:00; from Jul to Aug: Tue-Fri 8.30pm-11.30pm; Sat-Sun 16:30-19:00 and 20:30-23:30. Closed Mon, 1 Jan, 1 May, 25 Dec. Models and simulations of planetary movements with projections of celestial bodies and nebulae: an interactive experience in the universe! Currently closed for renovation.
In ancient times, squares were created for various reasons such as
popular gatherings, parties and markets. Only in the 1600s did they
acquire importance also from an aesthetic and architectural point of
view, so much so that they are still fascinating today both by day and
by night while still remaining places of intense popular life.
Campidoglio square. We owe the construction of the square to Pope Paul III in 1536, assigning the task to Michelangelo who created it with the unusual trapezoid shape, beautiful star-shaped pavement and the access ramp. In the square, in addition to Palazzo dei Conservatori (right), Palazzo Senatorio (centre), Palazzo Nuovo (left) there is also a copy of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, the authentic pair of Roman statues of the Dioscuri, the statues of Constantine and Constantine II with milestones, and the sculptures of the Trophies of Marius. In the center of the Palazzo Senatorio, Michelangelo arranged a fountain with the statues of Triumphant Rome (ancient Minerva) and those of the Nile and the Tiber on the sides. Above the building the Capitoline Tower with the Patrina Bell which rings only in rare events.
4 Piazza Navona. It is considered to be one of the most beautiful squares, the brainchild of various famous artists, and stands on the ancient stadium of Domitian. It is embellished at the ends by the Fountain of Neptune (designed by Della Porta) and by the Fontana del Moro (designed by Bernini) while in the center, at the behest of Pope Innocent X, another masterpiece by Bernini or the Fountain of the Rivers, built in 1651. The obelisk is of Roman origin and was taken from the Via Appia. In the square there is the baroque 38Church of Sant'Agnese in Agone which stands on the site of the martyrdom and built by the Rainaldi and Borromini with the interior rich in frescoes and gilding. In Renaissance style is the other church, that of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart. There is also Palazzo Pamphili where Giovanni Battista Pamphili lived, the future Innocent X who liked to embellish the square.
5 Campo de' Fiori Square. Built by Pope Sixtus IV, it did not later have a good reputation as torture, burnings and beheadings were carried out there. It is dominated by the dark statue of Giordano Bruno, a heretic monk who was burned alive in the 1600s and who seems to watch the incessant movement of the popular and well-known market. Eight other heretics are immortalized at the foot of the statue. In the past there were numerous taverns including, in the building on the corner of via dei Cappellari and Vicolo del Gallo, the Hostaria della Vacca which belonged to Vannozza Caetani, the lover of Rodrigo Borgia, the future Pope Alexander VI, to whom he gave numerous children, including Cesare and Lucrezia. It can be recognized by the coats of arms that decorate the building.
6 People's Square. A spectacular masterpiece by Valadier, architect of popes Pius VI and Pius VII, it was built in 1816 in a neo-classical style. It is one of the largest squares in Rome and the obelisk placed in the center on four lions is an Egyptian work from 1200 BC. The square, adorned with allegorical statues of the seasons and fountains, has the churches of Santa Maria in Montesanto and Santa Maria dei Miracoli on one side and the basilica of Santa Maria del Popolo and the Porta del Popolo on the other. This Gate opens between the Aurelian Walls and corresponds to the ancient Porta Flaminia. Among thick vegetation, monumental terraces and arches connect the square to the Balconata del Pincio: a timeless panoramic view of the Eternal City among secular trees.
7 Spanish Steps. The square formed by two triangles was the true center of Rome in the 18th century and had in the Caffè Greco the meeting point of great artists such as Listz, D'Annunzio and Leopardi. There is also the Keats-Shelley House where he died there. The square takes its name from the Palazzo di Spagna of the Spanish Embassy to the Holy See. In the initial part there is a commemorative (Roman) column called the Column of the Immaculate Conception erected by Pius IX which every 8 December, with a famous ceremony, is covered with roses, by the Fire Brigade and in the presence of the Pope. In the central area of the square there is the Fontana della Barcaccia at the foot of the famous "Scalinata di Trinità dei Monti". The latter, built by F. De Sanctis in 1723, is in travertine with 12 flights for 135 steps with shelves and balconies to allow for rest. The staircase combines baroque and tromp-l'œil creating a soft undulating effect between stairs that widen and narrow, divide and reunite. At the top, in 1789, Pope Pius VI placed the Sallustiano Obelisk of Roman origin from the ancient Sallust Gardens, while the Church of Trinità dei Monti is French property, was built in 1495 by King Charles VIII of France and stands on the ancient villa of Lucullus. In the wider stretch, cafes, meeting places and commercial activities and some centuries-old palm trees.
Numerous traditional events and festivals that represent the roots of
the Roman people but also very important tourist attractions. Some
recurrences have become extinct with the oblivion of time and among the
current ones we mention:
Epiphany, Piazza Navona. From 1 Dec to 6 Jan. Appointment that has now become a Christmas "market" with an exhibition of toys, handicrafts, sweets, books and much more. There is also an old style carousel. The real gathering is on the night of January 5th. The event ends on Epiphany day with the Befana distributing sweets and coal to the children. It could be an opportunity to have a beautiful portrait done, as an unusual souvenir.
Saint Frances of Rome. March 9th. Gathering and blessing of cars.
Saint Joseph. March 19th. Ancient craftsmen's festival which is celebrated in the Roman Forum (Church of San Giuseppe dei Falegnami) and in the Trionfale district (Church of San Giuseppe al Trionfale) with a side dish of pancakes and cream puffs.
Azaleas of the Spanish Steps, Spanish Steps. April 16th. From 16 April and throughout the flowering time, there is an exhibition on the elegant Staircase of selected Capitoline azaleas, of rare species and not on the market. In fact, this ancient variety of azalea comes from the Semenzai di San Sisto. Riot of colors and heady scent guaranteed for about a month.
Christmas in Rome. April 21st. The foundation of the city is celebrated on the symbolic date of 21 April 753 BC. with solemn ceremonies including the homage to the Unknown Soldier but above all with "signature" night lighting on the Forums. Timeless show. The anniversary includes demonstrations, events, free museums and the opening of the Capitoline Museums until late at night. Numerous concerts in various squares, from military bands to that of the National Academy of Santa Cecilia. Educational initiatives at the Colosseum and Campidoglio. The anniversary can begin a few days earlier (in 2015 on April 19) with the opening of the Circus Maximus, the lighting of the fire and the representation of the Palilia. Via dei Fori Imperiali is generally closed to traffic on the 21st and 22nd until 1am. Times and events may change each year, consult the tourist office for the schedule of events.
Travels in Ancient Rome, Fori Imperiali, ☎ +39 060608. From the end of April to the end of October. For the second consecutive year, after the great success of the Forum of Augustus, as part of the project for the revaluation of the Forums, curated by Piero Angela and Paco Lanciano, the journey to the Forum of Caesar was created, a show with reconstructions, and special effects of all kinds on Ancient Rome. In 2016 the Trajan Forum will be illustrated with the restoration of six other columns. Entrance from Via Alessandrina but for confirmations, information, prices and timetables, consult the website.
Art Exhibition of the Hundred Painters, Via Margutta. from 30 April to 3 May (variable date). Art exhibition in the picturesque street, a meeting place for artists since 1953. Great festival of paintings between easels and umbrellas (to shelter the canvases from the sun).
May Day Concert (Concertone), Piazza San Giovanni. Afternoon and evening. Musical review with numerous Italian and foreign artists and groups. The concert starts in the afternoon, finishes late at night and is attended by an incredible crowd.
International Tennis (International BNL of Italy), Via dei Gladiatori. Various. In May. Important sporting event, in its 72nd edition, with the participation of world tennis stars. Simultaneous matches like in the Grand Slam, on a clay court.
Visit of the Seven Churches. May 16th. Ancient Roman tradition which consists in going "on foot", before the anniversary of the Ascension, to visit the four major and three minor basilicas, namely San Lorenzo outside the walls, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, San Sebastiano all'Appia antica. The custom was instituted by San Filippo Neri, patron saint of Rome, and should be completed in one day (but two or more are also fine).
International Horse Show, Piazza di Siena. From 21 May to 24. An event that combines sport with the great tradition of this competition and the truly unique show of the Carosello dei Carabinieri, performed in the magical atmosphere of sunset.
Isola del Cinema, Tiber Island, ☎ +39 0658333113, firstname.lastname@example.org. From June to September. Event that takes place on the Tiber Island and is considered a cultural festival with numerous film screenings, events, competitions and the participation of famous people.
Vino Forum, Lungotevere Maresciallo Diaz, email@example.com. From 12 to 21 June. Event dedicated to taste with wine tastings combined with gourmet menus. With numerous wine brands and national and international chefs.
Quadrennial of Rome, Villa Carpegna, ☎ +39 069774531, fax: +39 0697745309. From June to September. The Quadriennale di Roma is a foundation with the task of promoting Italian contemporary art exhibitions in various venues, in Italy and abroad. For events, visit the website.
San Giovanni (Night of St John), Piazza di San Giovanni. June 24th. Once a very heartfelt Roman festival that recalls the witches' sabbath gathered by the ghost of Herodias, the one who had John the Baptist beheaded. It generally lasts three days and ends with the papal mass in the basilica but it is always advisable to consult the calendar of scheduled events.
Saints Peter and Paul. June 29th. Recurrence of the martyrdom of the SS. Peter and Paul, patron saints of the city. The former was crucified in the Circus of Caligula (corresponding roughly to the area of St. Peter's basilica and the square) while the latter was beheaded at the Acque Salvie where the miracle of the Three Fountains took place. The celebrations take place in the Basilica of San Pietro, in the Basilica of San Paolo and end in Castel Sant'Angelo for the wonderful fireworks.
Roman summer. From June to September. The event offers a rich series of appointments in 42 locations scattered throughout the Capitoline area. Intended to satisfy all the most varied needs, the calendar is full of concerts, operas, ballets, culture, wellness, crafts, theatre, cinema, exhibitions, beer tasting and much more. Always consult the events calendar for further details.
Feast of Noantri. July 18th.
Film Fest, Via degli Scialoja, 3 (Inside the Auditorium Parco della Musica), ☎ +39 06 40 401 900, fax: +39 06 40 401 700, firstname.lastname@example.org. October-November. Born in 2002 with great pomp, it tries to align itself with the most important Italian festivals of Italian cinema: Venice, Turin and Taormina. Every autumn the Auditorium Parco della Musica in Rome is filled with onlookers, cinema lovers, filmmakers and big screen stars for a party that has become a point of reference for Roman life.
Romics, Via Portuense, 1645, ☎ +39 06 93956069. Spring and autumn. International festival of comics, animation and games.
Learn Italian. In case of long stays, you could take the opportunity to learn or improve your Italian, with courses taught by native-speaking teachers.
The busiest "shopping streets" in Rome are Via del Corso, Via
Nazionale, Via Cola di Rienzo and Via Veneto. However, the most
exclusive shops are concentrated in the area between Via del Corso and
Piazza di Spagna and in particular in Via dei Condotti, Via Frattina and
Via Borgognona. However, in recent years slightly peripheral areas such
as Via Tuscolana, Via Appia Nuova, Via Tiburtina and Viale Marconi have
become a valid alternative to the decidedly too high prices of the more
well-known areas. In addition, in Rome there are numerous shopping
centers, concentrated around the city, including the most important:
1 Roma Est Shopping Center, Via Collatina, 858, 00132, Rome (Ponte di Nona area), ☏ +39 06 22511377, fax: +39 06 22510140, email@example.com. Mon-Sun 10am-8pm. edit
2 Porta di Roma Shopping Center (Galleria Porta di Roma), Via Alberto Lionello, 201, 00139, Rome (Zona Nomentana), ☎ +39 06 87070275. Mon-Sun 10am-8pm. The largest in Europe.
3 Parco Leonardo Shopping Center, Via del Perugino, 20/b, 00054, Fiumicino (Fiumicino area).
4 Euroma 2 Shopping Center (Eur Zone).
5 Cinecittà 2 Shopping Center (Cinecittà area).
Rome is also famous for its markets, some of very ancient origins, among which we mention:
6 Campo de' Fiori market, Piazza Campo de' Fiori. Mon-Sat 07:00-14:00. The old market stands in one of the most characteristic squares of the city and was one of the most important until the end of the 19th century.
7 Via Sannio market. Famous clothing market: clothes, shoes, sporting goods and equipment. It is possible to find well-known brands at a good price and a lot of used clothing, practically semi-new.
8 Fontanella Borghese Antiques Market, Piazza Borghese. Those who love antiques cannot fail to go to this market.
9 Flower market, Via Trionfale 47. Tues 10:30-13:00. This flower market, third in Italy, for cut flowers holds the first place for ornamental plants. It is a wholesale market but it does retail one day a week. On 5,000 square meters you can find all kinds of plants: from exotic flowers to dwarf palms.
Dedicated sections can be consulted in the major national newspapers
such as Corriere della Sera or Repubblica. The latter maintains special
web pages on events in the capital, "The Best in Rome".
Testaccio and Ostiense are districts known to Roman night owls although there are many trendy clubs scattered in the districts of the historic center (especially Trastevere and Campo de'Fiori) and in the outer districts (especially in the lively university district of San Lorenzo).
After a night at the disco or a walk to discover the nocturnal beauties of the city, you may feel like a snack. In the Roman tradition, the freshly baked croissant at dawn is a ritual and there are numerous pastry shops that work to supply the bars when they open but which, mercifully but certainly not free, also open their doors to night owls. To find them, go here.
The surroundings of Via Veneto are teeming with clubs of dubious fame. They are often offered by touts who stop on the way to sweet life with the aim of accosting solitary male passers-by. Taking the hook is foolish unless you want to pay an astronomical amount for the consumption of alcohol by the girl in charge of keeping the unfortunate people company. No sexual services are included in the price.
Ambra Jovinelli Theatre
Quarticciolo Library Theatre
Margherita Hall Theatre
Theater of Satyrs
To access many of the establishments mentioned below, you will need
to subscribe to an annual card which will be issued to you upon
presentation of a document.
E.M.C. (Europe Multi Club) (Sauna), Via Aureliana 40 (On a side street of via XX Settembre, via Veneto- Porta Pia area. Closest metro stop: Repubblica, line A.). The most famous and most popular of the gay saunas in Rome. Open 24 hours on Sundays (Weekday hours: 13-24)
Hangar (gay cruising bar), Via in Selci 69 (Crossroad of via Cavour. Metro B: via Cavour.). Renowned little place set up by an American back in 1984 but still on the crest of the wave thanks above all to its central position. Informal environment, no dressing code required. Exhibitionists and snooties sit continuously at the bar (two). Practical types go straight to the dark room (small and overcrowded)
Skyline Club (gay cruising bar), Via Pontremoli 36 (Metro: San Giovanni, line A.), ☎ +39 06 700 9431. Middle-class and familiar atmosphere (they even play Christmas bingo) but there's plenty of action. Before it was located in the student district of San Lorenzo.
Leather Club. — Leather-themed evenings in various venues listed in this same section
K Men’s Club (gay cruising bar), Via Amato Amati 6-8 (Via Casilina corner via Acqua Bullicante. Bus 105), ☎ +39 06 217 012 68. Informal place (no code dressing) with booths. It is a private club for which you will be asked for a non-valid membership card for the others listed in this section. K Men's Club comes alive especially on weekends thanks to the influx of kids from the countryside (agro romano).
Il Diavolo Dentro (gay cruising bar), Largo Itri 23 (Via Prenestina roughly at the crossroads with viale Telese. Tram 5, 14, 19). Check the evening's theme on the website before you go. A particular type of dress may be required (often undressed code). Clients getting on in years. '
Fruits and Vegetables (After Hour parties). Meeting place for trans Romans and their suitors. Strong, no-nonsense action until 9am. Famous since the days of Killer Cow parties.
Gate (gay cruising bar, bears-friendly), Via Tuscolana 378-380 (Metro A: Furio Camillo). Frequent parties without the Adam's leaf
How to get
Rome has two airports reserved for passenger traffic:
1 Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport (IATA: FCO) – Rome's main airport.
2 Giovan Battista Pastine Airport (IATA: CIA) – With less traffic, Ciampino airport is reserved for low cost airlines. Currently there are two companies:
Ryanair - To/from numerous European destinations, including as of August 2018 Brussels-Charleroi, Cagliari, Dublin, East Midlands, Edinburgh, Eindhoven, Glasgow-Prestwick, Frankfurt-Hahn, Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden, Lisbon, London-Stansted, Madrid, Manchester, Paris-Beauvais, Porto, Santander, Stockholm-Skavsta, Trieste, Valencia, Weeze;
Wizz Air - From/to Bucharest-Otopeni, Katowice, Chisinau, Skopje and other destinations in Romania such as Timișoara and Craiova (August 2018).
How to reach the center from Fiumicino
Taxi service active 24 hours a day with a predetermined rate established by the Municipality of Rome for the single route, Fiumicino Airport - Rome center (inside the Aurelian walls) or vice versa, at 48.00 Euros. The amount is inclusive of all supplements and is intended per journey and not per person.
For destinations outside the Aurelian walls, the amount to be paid will be indicated on the meter that is always present in the taxis that regularly service the Municipality of Rome. There is never free negotiation for the taxi service.
The Leonardo Express express train service which directly connects Termini Station with the airport in 31 minutes, departing from platforms 23 and 24 of Termini Station every 30 minutes, also operating in the event of strikes.
The single journey ticket costs 14 Euros, and can be purchased on the specific website or at the Termini newsstand, the ticket office and the self-service ticket machines, valid for 90 minutes after validation. At the airport, the ticket can be purchased at the ticket office of the Fiumicino railway terminal and at the dedicated self-service ticket machines.
FL1 ordinary trains to numerous stations in the municipality of Rome and its surroundings, such as Trastevere, Ostiense, Tuscolana, Tiburtina, Fara Sabina, Poggio Mirteto and Orte. Connections with line B of the Rome underground can be made at Tiburtina and Ostiense; with a short walk it is also possible to reach line A from the Tuscolana station.
The journey time of the FL1 is not necessarily longer than the Leonardo Express (about 30 minutes for the Trastevere and Ostiense stations), but the ticket costs 8 Euros for a single journey.
Again with a ticket for a total of 8 euros, in addition to the FL1, it is possible to take another train in the metropolitan area of Rome (for example, with a ticket from Fiumicino to Rome San Pietro, also for 8 euros, you can take the FL1 to Roma Trastevere, then either the FL3 or the FL5 to San Pietro).
Terravision Shuttle Bus with destination Termini FS station, runs 7 times a day with an expected journey of 70 minutes (variable depending on traffic). The cost is 9 Euros for a single journey, 15 Euros for a return journey.
Sit Bus Shuttle runs frequently for €6 to and from Rome Termini.
Ordinary buses to various destinations. They leave from the ground floor, near the arrivals of terminals B and C. Tickets can be purchased in the tobacconists of the airport. Journey times and timetables vary according to the destination.
How to reach the center from Ciampino
By taxi, service active 24h/24, with a predetermined rate established by the Municipality of Rome for the single route, Ciampino Airport - Rome Center (inside the Aurelian walls) or vice versa, in Euro 30.00. The amount is all-inclusive of all supplements and is intended per journey and not per person.
For destinations outside the Aurelian Walls, the amount to be paid will be indicated on the meter always present in the taxis that regularly service the Municipality of Rome. There is never free negotiation for the taxi service.
By bus of the public service COTRAL and Schiaffini Travel. The latter company ensures two connections with the centre. One is directed to the Ciampino railway station in coincidence with trains going to Termini, the other to the metro terminus of line "A" (Anagnina).
At about 300 meters from Ciampino airport (Via dell'Aeroscalo) the ATAC 720 bus stops, useful for reaching the Laurentina metro station, at EUR, and then eventually taking the metro B. Note that the 720 does not run on public holidays.
Car rental at the airports
From the airports of Rome Ciampino and Rome Fiumicino it is possible to rent a car with the major national and international car rental companies. It is worth visiting the websites of the individual agencies present at the airport to check whether you can save money on car rental.
On the train
Rome's main railway station is Termini, in the Esquilino area. It is also the interchange station for lines A and B of the underground. The other two important stations are: Ostiense station, in the Piramide area located in southern Rome, and Tiburtina station, located in southeastern Rome, both connected to the underground line B. Rome is served by the high-speed trains of Italo and Trenitalia, coming from Florence to the north and Naples to the south. Using the railway operators indicated, it is possible to reach Rome without changing trains starting from Milan, Venice, Padua, Ferrara, Bologna, Florence S.M.N. and Naples.
The most important bus terminal in Rome is the Tibus bus station which is just ahead of the square of the Tiburtina station. Tibus-Roma Tiburtina is a terminal for long and medium-distance buses, both for Italy and abroad.
Civitavecchia is the commercial and passenger port of Rome.
ATAC is the company in charge of urban transport, which is joined to Cotral and Trenitalia in the Metrebus consortium. It allows the same travel tickets to be used within the territory of Rome to simplify urban transport.
Page with useful information and line expectations in real time, of Rome mobility services
Search route with public transport in real time, Rome's mobility services
Rome has three subway lines, indicated by the M symbol:
M Line A: Battistini ↔ Anagnina. Distinguished by the orange color, it crosses the city in a southeast-northwest direction connecting the Vatican to Termini station up to the Cinecittà districts.
Pass through areas of tourist interest such as Piazza Barberini and Piazza della Repubblica. Ottaviano station is the closest to the Vatican Museums while Spagna has two exits: one on the homonymous square, the other (through a long pedestrian tunnel) near Porta Pinciana, one of the access points to Villa Borghese.
M Line B: Rebibbia ↔ Laurentina. Distinguished by the blue colour, it includes the B1 Jonio - Laurentina branch (the last shared station is Bologna). It crosses the city in a southwest-east/northeast direction, connecting the university districts of Sapienza and the Tiburtina railway station to the EUR district.
Among the stops of tourist interest, the Colosseum and Circus Maximus are worth mentioning; the first arrives exactly in front of the Colosseum, the ideal starting point for a walk through the monumental area of the city, from the Forum to the Altare della Patria and the Campidoglio (or to the Tiber Island). The second one is located in the immediate vicinity of the Baths of Caracalla.
Piramide station is located in front of the Pyramid of Cestius and the Non-Catholic Cemetery of Rome.
M Line C: San Giovanni ↔ Montecompatri-Pantano. Distinguished by the green color, it serves the eastern area of the city and connects the center to numerous districts such as Centocelle, Torre Angela, Borghesiana, etc.
The extension to the Colosseum is under construction, creating a new interchange with line B. The completion of the works is scheduled for 2022.
The runs start every day at 5:30 and end at 23:30 with the departure of the trains from each terminus; every Friday and Saturday the timetable of lines A and B is extended to 1:30 the following morning. The first ride from/to Jonio is a few minutes later than the indicated times and, vice versa, the last departure from/to Jonio is a few minutes earlier. Consult the ATAC website for more information.
Trenitalia suburban railways
In the Rome area there are 8 suburban railway lines that connect the capital with the rest of Lazio:
FL1: Fiumicino Airport - Roma Tiburtina - Orte
FL2: Rome Tiburtina - Tivoli
FL3: Viterbo - Rome Ostiense - Rome Tiburtina
FL4: Rome Termini - Frascati / Albano Laziale / Velletri
FL5: Rome Termini - Civitavecchia
FL6: Rome Termini - Frosinone - Cassino
FL7: Rome Termini - Formia
FL8: Rome Termini - Neptune
ATAC suburban railways
There are three railways belonging to the Lazio Region but managed by ATAC (hence the name granted railways used to indicate them):
Rome-Lido: Porta San Paolo - Christopher Columbus
Rome-Viterbo: Flaminio - Viterbo
Rome-Giardinetti: Termini Laziali - Centocelle (the section from Centocelle to Giardinetti was suspended in August 2015)
Trams and trolleybuses
The surface lines are managed by ATAC.
2: Piazza A. Mancini ↔ Piazzale Flaminio
3: Valle Giulia ↔ Trastevere Station
5: Termini Station ↔ Piazza dei Gerani
8: Piazza Venezia ↔ Via del Casaletto
14: Termini Station ↔ Viale Palmiro Togliatti
19: Piazza Risorgimento ↔ Piazza dei Gerani
Trolleybus 60: Piazza Venezia ↔ Largo Pugliese
Trolleybus 90: Termini Station ↔ Largo F. Labia
Below are the fares of the main tickets for the Roman transport system, updated to August 2015:
BIT (Integrated Time Ticket) – It costs €1.50 and is valid for 100 minutes for an unlimited number of journeys by bus, tram and a single journey by metro or train in the Municipality of Rome.
ROME 24H – It costs €7 and is valid for 24 hours from the first validation for an unlimited number of journeys within the Municipality of Rome.
ROME 48H – It costs €12.50 and is valid for 48 hours from the first validation for an unlimited number of trips within the Municipality of Rome.
ROME 72H – It costs €18 and is valid for 72 hours from the first validation for an unlimited number of trips within the Municipality of Rome.
CIS (Weekly Integrated Card) – It costs €24 and is valid for 7 days from the first validation until midnight of the seventh day, for an unlimited number of journeys within the Municipality of Rome.
The use of the bicycle in the city of Rome is the ideal solution if used as a means of transport, fast, economical and ecological, plus it is good for health. Various Bicibuses have already been created by the Salvaiciclisti group of Rome which bring together cyclists who make similar itineraries and in these Bicibuses safety has increased considerably. Furthermore, Piazza San Silvestro, now become Bike Square, the first in Italy, where cyclists meet in the late afternoon on Thursdays and Saturdays. For those wishing to visit the city by bicycle, keep in mind that it is built on hills with no shortage of ups and downs and intense traffic.
It is also possible to rent high-end bicycles or take a guided bicycle tour. For example:
Rome StarBike e-Bike Tours & Experiences, Via Capo d'Africa, 29, D, 00184 Rome - Tel: +39 06 45430118 - Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
TopBike Rental & Tours, via Labicana 49, tel: 06 4882893, email: email@example.com
It is possible to move around the historic center of Rome by renting a segway, an ecological vehicle that allows you to move quickly and has free access to all the narrow streets of the centre. Segway riders are considered pedestrians to all intents and purposes, so they can travel on sidewalks. Some of the main places where you can rent Segways are:
Rome on Segway, via Labicana 94, tel: 06 97602723, 39 3486121355
Rex-Tours and Rent, Via dei Balestrari 33, tel: 06 87690040
Ecogo Segway, Piazzale Ammiraglio Bergamini 10, tel: 39 3409345441
Furthermore, it is possible to book segway tours in Rome also online, through tour operators who offer thematic packages. Some of the main ones are:
Rome by Segway
Italy by Segway
Biga Bike Rental & Tour Via Pellegrino Matteucci n.136 Ostiense station tel: 06.57.41.053. Scooter and bicycle rental, tours with expert guides, delivery and collection of scooters and bicycles at the clients' hotel. For information and reservations +39.322.214.171.1246
In Rome it is possible to eat in any way and at any price. From
restaurants and trattorias that serve regular meals to pizzerias,
rotisseries and cafeterias where you can also eat standing up but in any
case the price is related to the service.
Roman cuisine is varied, well seasoned and rather spicy and for those who are not used to it, it may remain difficult to digest. It is therefore advisable to ask for detailed explanations when ordering something.
There are several specialties including:
appetizers: mixed cold cuts, fried vegetables with batter, olives and bruschetta, provatura crostini and anchovies, pandorato, panzerotti alla romana, white pizza, supplì;
first courses: egg fettuccine with meat sauce, potato and semolina gnocchi, tagliatelle alla articiofara, bucatini all'amatriciana, tonnarello cheese and pepper rigatoni with straw, rice rice balls, polenta alla spienatora, pasta and chickpeas, stracciatella, spaghetti alla carbonara, alla gricia and in many other ways;
main courses: roast lamb rigorously with potatoes, porchetta, Roman saltimbocca, beans with pork rinds, oxtail, tripe, scottadito cutlets, fried cod, Jewish and Roman-style artichokes, all kinds of omelettes;
desserts: castagnole, frappe, pangiallo, panpepato, Easter pizzas, donuts with "li Castelli" wine, cream puffs (typical of San Giuseppe), mostaccioli, ricotta pizza and trifle (which is not English but probably Roman origin);
DOC wines: Est Est Est, Frascati among the whites; Velletri, Cesanese di Olevano Romano among the reds; Sangiovese among the rosés.
The grattachecca is not a slush but snow ice (strictly scratched by hand), with colored syrups and pieces of fruit. It can be found in the kiosks among which the oldest and most famous is La Fonte d'Oro and thus refresh yourself between one tourist stop and another.
ice cream shops
Going out to get ice cream is part of the daily life of the Romans and is always and strictly the "melted" one. Each district offers a vast choice of high quality and each citizen has his own preferences so strong and deeply rooted that they border on the religious. One sure thing is that you will rarely leave an ice cream parlor disappointed. The peculiarity of this city is the cream: once you have chosen the flavors and type of ice cream, whether cone or cup, you are always asked if you want cream, strictly free. It is usually added above, but some ask for it below or both below and above. If someone refuses nothing happens, but surely he is not a Roman. In summer it is quite normal to eat two/three ice creams a day, alternating them with coffee.
1 Martini Bed, via dei Fulvi, 67 (Metro A Porta Furba Quadraro), ☎ +39 0683088202, firstname.lastname@example.org. Check-in: 10am, check-out: 11am. Eco & bike friendly guesthouse. Double, twin, triple, quadruple and quintuple room all with wifi, air conditioning, safe, private internal or external bathroom and shared use of the kitchen. Single room with shared bathroom. 24-hour self-service breakfast included. Discounted parking. Affiliated bike rental.
2 Abitart Art Hotel, Via P. Matteucci, 10/20, ☎ +39 064543191, fax: +39 06454319899, email@example.com. from 80 €. Thematic rooms and design suites inspired by 20th century artists, contemporary art exhibitions, wi-fi, meeting rooms and corporate conventions for business trips, internal restaurant with music and DJ set, breakfast included.
3 Hotel Madrid, Via Mario de Fiori, 93-95 (near the Spanish Steps), ☎ +39 06 6991510, fax: +39 06 6791653, firstname.lastname@example.org. 3-star hotel with a terrace overlooking the rooftops where breakfast is served, a babysitting service, laundry and ironing.
4 Hotel Flavia, Via Flavia, 40, ☎ +39 06 488 3037.
5 Hotel Relais Bocca di Leone, Via Bocca di Leone, 36, ☎ +39 06 69190994.
6 Hotel Residenza KI, Via Rasella 53, ☎ +39 064 201 4488.
7 Hotel King Suite Rooms Rome, Via Francesco Crispi 10, ☎ +39 064 566 5169.
8 BQ House Trevi - Luxury Rooms, Vicolo Scavolino 61, ☎ +39 06 42014488.
9 Hotel NH Giustiniano, Via Virgilio, 1 E/F/G (In the Prati district, 500 meters from the Lepanto metro stop), ☎ +39 06 68281601, email@example.com. from.
10 Hotel Stendhal, via del Tritone 113 (near the Spanish Steps), ☏ +39 06422921, firstname.lastname@example.org. Elegant 4-star hotel.
Violence against tourists is quite rare, much less scams. However,
avoid the extreme suburban areas. Beware of pickpockets downtown,
especially in tourist spots like the Colosseum and Trevi Fountain, as
well as on buses and subways. If you keep your valuables in a backpack,
make sure you carry it across the front rather than over your shoulders.
Municipal Police, ☎ +39 0667691.
Traffic Police, ☎ +39 0622101.
Railway Police, ☎ +39 064620341.
Emergency Medical Service, ☎ +39 06570600.
CCISS traffic and road information, ☎ 1518.
For the large crowd of tourists it can happen that a child gets lost, the number for reporting missing children is 116 000.
Policlinico Umberto I, Viale del Policlinico, 155 (Quartiere Nomentano), email@example.com.
Almost all telephone operators cover the entire territory of Rome, with 3G and 4G lines. Rome is also one of the first centers in Italy enabled for data transmission in 4.5G (LTE+) by the operator TIM. A large part of the urban area is covered by fiber optic connections, and some areas are also served by FTTH (up to 1 Gbps).
Starting from June 2017, the major cellular operators have removed roaming charges between the countries of the European Union, so in many cases in Rome it is possible to call and navigate from your mobile phone as if you were in your home country. However, it is advisable to inquire with your telephone operator.
However, it is advisable to request information on the Wi-Fi connection from the managers of the facility where you will be staying.
The Municipality has joined the national FreeItaliaWifi network.
The foundation between legend and history
According to tradition, founded by Romulus on 21 April 753 BC, Rome was governed for a period of 244 years by a monarchical system, with sovereigns initially of Latin and Sabine origin, and later of Etruscan origin. Rome, therefore, historically was born from the cultural syncretism of the peoples of Lazio.
Furthermore, the legend of Romulus and Remus links the birth of the city to that of the Mediterranean peoples: Rea Silvia would have generated them with the god of war, Mars. However, these, in danger of life because dangerous heirs to the throne, were left in the waters of the Tiber (Tiber) in a basket. She picked them up a she-wolf and nursed them. For others, this she-wolf was a shepherd's wife, called Acca Laurentia. When the brothers grew up, they decided to fulfill the rite of founding the city. Romulus on the Campidoglio, Remo on the Aventine would have counted the passing birds. Whoever saw the most would be chosen to found a new great city and become its king. Romulus won, Remus - not accepting the divine verdict - dared to climb over the pomerium - the sacred furrow traces as a border - and his brother killed him.
Tradition hands down seven kings: Romulus himself, Numa Pompilius, Tullo Hostilius, Anco Marzio, Tarquinio Prisco, Servio Tullio and Tarquinio il Superbus.
Romulus at his death was deified as a god and assumed the name of Quirinus. Since then the Romans were also called Quiriti.
After the last Etruscan king was expelled from the city and an oligarchic republic was established in 509 BC, a period began for Rome marked by internal struggles between patricians and plebeians and by continuous wars against the other Italic populations: Etruscans, Capenati, Falisci, Latins, Volsci , It's here. Having become mistress of Lazio, Rome waged various wars (against the Gauls, Osco-Samnites and the Greek colony of Taranto, allied with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus) which allowed it to conquer the Italian peninsula, from the central area to Magna Graecia.
The 3rd and 2nd century BC were characterized by the Roman conquest of the Mediterranean and the East, due to the three Punic Wars (264-146 BC) fought against the city of Carthage and the three Macedonian Wars (212-168 BC) against Macedonia. The first Roman provinces were established: Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, Spain, Macedonia, Greece (Acaia), Africa.
In the second half of the II century and in the I century BC. there were numerous revolts, conspiracies, civil wars and dictatorships: these are the centuries of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, of Jugurtha, of Quintus Lutatius Catulus, of Gaius Marius, of Lucio Cornelio Silla, of Marco Emilio Lepidus, of Spartacus, of Gneo Pompeo, of Marco Licinio Crassus, of Lucio Sergio Catilina, of Marco Tullio Cicero, of Gaius Giulio Cesare and of Ottaviano, who, after being a member of the second triumvirate together with Marco Antonio and Lepidus, in 27 BC. he became princeps civitatis and was given the title of Augustus.
The empire of Rome
Once the Empire was established de facto, which experienced its maximum expansion in the 2nd century, under the emperor Trajan, Rome confirmed itself as caput mundi, i.e. capital of the world, an expression that had already been attributed to it in the republican period. The territory of the empire, in fact, ranged from the Atlantic Ocean to the Persian Gulf, from the central-southern part of Britain to Egypt.
The first centuries of the empire, in which, in addition to Octavian Augustus, the emperors of the Julius-Claudian dynasties ruled, Flavia (to whom we owe the construction of the amphitheater of the same name, known as the Colosseum) and the Antonines, were also characterized by the diffusion of the Christian religion, preached in Judea by Jesus Christ in the first half of the 1st century (under Tiberius) and disseminated by his apostles throughout most of the empire.
The crisis of the third century
In the third century, at the end of the Severan dynasty, the crisis of the principality began, which was followed by a period of military anarchy. When Diocletian came to power (284), the situation in Rome was serious: the barbarians had been pressing from the borders for decades, the provinces were governed by corrupt men. To better manage the empire, Diocletian divided it into two parts: he became Augustus of the eastern part (with residence in Nicomedia) and appointed Valerius Maximian Augustus of the western part, moving the imperial residence to Mediolanum. The empire was further subdivided with the creation of the tetrarchy: the two Augusti, in fact, had to nominate two Caesars, to whom they entrusted part of the territory and who would later become the new emperors.
A decisive turning point came with Constantine I, who, following
numerous internal struggles, centralized power again and, with the Edict
of Milan of 313, gave freedom of worship to Christians, committing
himself to give stability to the new religion. He had several basilicas
built, handed over civil power over Rome to Pope Sylvester I and founded
the new capital, Constantinople, in the eastern part of the empire.
Christianity became the official religion of the empire thanks to an edict issued in 380 by Theodosius, who was the last emperor of a unified empire: on his death, in fact, his sons, Arcadius and Honorius, divided the empire . The capital of the Western Roman Empire became Ravenna.
Rome, which no longer held a central role in the administration of the empire, was sacked by the Visigoths commanded by Alaric (410); embellished again by the construction of sacred buildings by the popes (with the collaboration of the emperors), the city was sacked again in 455 by Genseric, king of the Vandals. The reconstruction of Rome was supervised by the popes Leo I (defensor Urbis for having convinced Attila, in 452, not to attack Rome) and by his successor Ilario, but in 472 the city was sacked for the third time in a few decades (by Ricimer and Anicius Olybrius).
The deposition of Romulus Augustus on 22 August 476 decreed the end of the Western Roman Empire and, for historians, the beginning of the Middle Ages.
Rome between Goths and Byzantines
With the end of the Western Roman Empire, a period marked by the barbarian presence in Italy began for Rome and, above all, by the affirmation of the Church (headed by the Pope), which replaced the empire and built the bridge that would unite antiquity to the new world.
Numerous struggles in the city and in Europe did not allow the establishment of a constant political structure in Rome, which thus passed through various forms of government: it was first dominated by the Goths, then by the Byzantines. In this period the existence of a Roman duchy is attested, which roughly corresponded to the city and the surrounding area.
Capital of the Papal State
In 756, after definitively defeating the Lombard king Astolfo, Pepin the Short, king of the Franks, donated the conquered lands to Pope Stephen II, sanctioning the birth of the Patrimonium Sancti Petri, the Papal State, of which Rome became the capital.
On Christmas night in the 1800s, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor in the ancient basilica of San Pietro in the Vatican, thus establishing the Carolingian Empire/Holy Roman Empire: Rome was not its capital (located in Aachen), but served as religious center of the new theocratic state.
Around the middle of the 9th century, Pope Leo IV, after the Saracen incursion of 846, had the Civitas Leonina fortified (corresponding roughly to the Vatican City), confirming the political power assumed by the popes, who were protected by noble families. Even the latter fortified their residences, to the point of making them real castles: it is the period between 1100 and 1200, a period in which Rome established relations with the municipalities located in its vicinity.
In this period of time the great aristocratic families displayed their power with the construction of tall tower-houses and sumptuous palaces: the Crescenzi, the Annibaldi, the Frangipane are among the most influential in the city.
Around the middle of the 12th century, the Roman citizens established the Consular Commune (which settled on the Campidoglio), rival of the papal authority and the autonomy of the nobles; in this period Rome was equipped with new and efficient defense systems.
Furthermore, the medieval era was characterized by the struggles between the pro-papal and pro-imperial noble families, which held back the development of the central area of the city until the 16th century.
Rome, the political center of the world and symbol of the Christian religion, was confirmed as a papal city and of power when Boniface VIII, in 1300, proclaimed the first Jubilee (an event that brought about two million pilgrims to the city); the same Pope, three years later, founded the Studium Urbis.
But when Pope Clement V withdrew to Avignon in 1309, Rome was governed by noble families in constant mutual struggle: the city underwent an involution, and in the fifteenth century it had just 20,000 inhabitants.
The radical change in medieval Rome was initiated by Pope Nicholas V, who decided to build the new center of Rome from scratch, the center of the Christian faith, different from the pagan center of ancient Rome. He moved from the Lateran and conceived the idea of building the new St. Peter's basilica: from that moment, for about four centuries, Rome was under the complete dominion of the popes.
Following the Lutheran reform (1517) and the sack of Rome by the
Landsknechts of Emperor Charles V in 1527, the city became the fulcrum
of the Counter-Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent centered on
papal absolutism, although from that period the figure of the Pope
ceased to substantially influence European politics.
The Baroque age was characterized by a great urban renewal of the city, both by the nobles and powerful cardinal families, who built new residences in the center and on the hills, and by the popes. The real architect of the great work of architectural, cultural and economic modernization of the city was Pope Sixtus V, pontiff for only five years (1585-1590). In 1626 the new basilica of San Pietro was inaugurated in the Vatican, emblem of papal dominion.
Among the artists who best embodied this period, there were Caravaggio in painting and Bernini and Borromini in sculpture, from whose rivalry the city drew several popular stories.
Papal absolutism was interrupted only when the upheavals created by
the French Revolution led to the proclamation of the first Roman
Republic on February 15, 1798 and the deposition of Pope Pius VI.
The new form of government lasted just a year, but with the advent of Napoleon Bonaparte, Rome became part of the First French Empire (1808), with an important symbolic role, so much so as to establish the title of King of Rome for his heir. Napoleon himself commissioned the artist Antonio Canova to renovate the city; on his orders, moreover, archaeological excavations began (especially at the Roman Forum) led by the French Quatremère de Quincy.
During the French period, there were numerous Napoleonic plunders of works of art in Rome.
At the conclusion of the Napoleonic era, despite a fleeting occupation by Joachim Murat in November 1813, Pope Pius VII returned to Rome in 1814, restoring papal temporal power as sanctioned by the Congress of Vienna.
In Rome, on February 2, 1836, Napoleon Bonaparte's mother, Maria Letizia Ramolino, died in the palace in Piazza Venezia that still today takes her name, Palazzo Bonaparte.
«Rome is the only city in Italy that does not have exclusively
municipal memories; the whole history of Rome, from the time of the
Caesars to the present day, is the history of a city whose importance
extends infinitely beyond its territory; of a city, that is, destined to
be the capital of a large state.
(Cavour, Speech to the Parliament of Turin, 25 March 1861)
The Restoration of the temporal power of the popes lasted a few
decades, suffering the effects of the Italian Risorgimento.
Following the uprisings of 1848, after the escape of Pope Pius IX to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Second Roman Republic was established in 1849, governed by the triumvirate of Carlo Armellini, Giuseppe Mazzini and Aurelio Saffi. Old and young patriots from all over Italy participated in the Roman Republic of Mazzini, including Goffredo Mameli, Felice Orsini, Luigi Zuppetta, Enrico Dandolo, Luciano Manara, Emilio Morosini.
A strongly symbolic figure is that of Ciceruacchio, born Angelo Brunetti, a popular leader loyal to the Pope and to Catholicism who, following the betrayed promises of reforms and freedom, was able to unite the Roman people and the patriots in resisting the reactionaries.
It lasted only a few months, despite the defense led by Giuseppe Garibaldi on the Gianicolo, due to the intervention of the French army of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte commanded by General Oudinot. Bonaparte needed the political support of French Catholics and so he decided to put an end to an experience which, in fact, albeit with many differences, referred to the French revolution itself.
In this period the talking statues of Rome were very active (Madama Letizia, Marforio, Abbot Luigi, the Baboon), which for centuries had criticized, commented, mocked Popes, nobles, emperors and the deeds and misdeeds of the city and the world.
The most famous, the statue of Pasquino, a bust - perhaps of the Greek hero Menelaus - found during the construction of Palazzo Braschi, mocked with famous verses called "pasquinate".
In 1861, following the unification of Italy sealed by Cavour,
pressure began from the first king of Italy, Vittorio Emanuele II
against Pius IX, who was repeatedly invited to leave his temporal
dominion. The various attempts (including Garibaldi himself, stopped in
Mentana) to forcibly annex the city of Rome to the Kingdom of Italy were
also in vain, and the situation remained unchanged until the fall of
Napoleon III in 1870.
On 20 September the Bersaglieri commanded by General Raffaele Cadorna opened a breach in the circle of walls, near Porta Pia, and entered Rome. Pius IX shut himself up in the Vatican palaces declaring himself a political prisoner, although with the law of guarantees he had been guaranteed sovereign prerogatives. Rome, through the plebiscite of 2 October, was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, of which it became the capital on 3 February 1871.
The first decades of the new capital saw a great building ferment, with the construction of a large part of the area enclosed within the walls to the detriment of the large pre-existing villas, such as Villa Ludovisi, both for public buildings and ministries, and for new residential districts. The urban expansion occurred in parallel with the influx of many new inhabitants, which exceeded half a million at the beginning of the 20th century, but it was also the cause of the financial scandal of the Banca Romana.
After the First World War, the city found itself in a climate of
unrest and political uncertainty which, in 1922, favored the rise to
power of Benito Mussolini (October 28, the march on Rome). During the
Fascist period, Rome was at the center of a drastic urban revolution
desired and implemented by Mussolini himself: the Duce had several
medieval and Renaissance buildings demolished to allow the opening of
some large roads (via dei Fori Imperiali, via del Teatro di Marcello and
via della Conciliazione) and the isolation of ancient monuments
(Mausoleum of Augustus, Campidoglio, Colosseum). Furthermore, new
neighborhoods (including the suburbs) and new structures were born, such
as the EUR (built for the Universal Exposition of Rome in 1942, but
never inaugurated due to the outbreak of war), the garden city Aniene,
that is, the current district of Monte Sacro, the university city, the
Mussolini forum and the Cinecittà studios. With the signing of the
Lateran Pacts on 11 February 1929, the new independent state of the
Vatican City was established, with jurisdiction over the homonymous hill
and other extraterritorial properties.
In 1940 Italy entered the Second World War, which did not directly involve Rome until, following the unfavorable trend for the Axis, on 19 July 1943 it was subject to a heavy bombardment by allied air forces which caused the death of over 3000 people in the San Lorenzo, Tiburtino, Prenestino, Casilino, Labicano, Tuscolano and Nomentano districts.
After Mussolini's arrest on 25 July and the armistice on 8 September, Rome was occupied by the Nazis, despite the attempted defense at Porta San Paolo and Montagnola and although it had been declared an open city. During the nine months of occupation, the city was the scene of the deportation of Roman Jews on 16 October 1943, of attacks on the Wehrmacht by the Roman resistance such as the one that occurred in via Rasella, and of massacres by the Nazis such as at the Fosse Ardeatine, to then be finally liberated by the Allies on 4 June 1944.
After the war, Rome, following the referendum of 2 and 3 June 1946,
became the capital of the newborn Italian Republic. In the fifties and
sixties the city developed urbanistically and demographically and,
starting from the Jubilee of 1950, it became one of the most
sought-after tourist destinations, transforming itself, in a short time,
into one of the world capitals of entertainment and cinema, thanks to
the numerous films established filmmakers.
The fifties and sixties are remembered as the period of the sweet life, narrated by Federico Fellini in the homonymous film. Rome, which has become one of the international capitals of cinema, is frequented by the most important personalities of the international jet set, who meet in the clubs in via Veneto. In the same period it becomes one of the centers of Italian high fashion, with the opening of the boutiques of the big names on Via dei Condotti, via Borgognona and via Frattina.
In this period, the city expanded rapidly: new neighborhoods were built and the peripheral areas, until then in the open countryside, were urbanized. The new Termini station was built and new infrastructures were built (including the first section of the underground network and the Grande Raccordo Anulare) and the sports facilities for the Olympic Games that Rome hosted in 1960. Furthermore, on 25 March 1957, the Rome the two treaties which established the European economic community and the European atomic energy community; from 1962 to 1965, the Second Vatican Council took place in St. Peter's Basilica.
Today Rome, the most populous and largest city in Italy, serves as the center of national political life and the center of the Catholic religion; also by virtue of its importance as the capital of the state, it has been endowed with a particular administrative system which has supplanted the previous municipality and has been called Roma Capitale.
Furthermore, with the suppression of the province of Rome, the metropolitan city was established, which although it maintains a certain administrative autonomy with respect to the special municipality, is governed by the mayor of the city.
There are truly numerous excursions from Rome and there are some for
The Castelli Romani, already inhabited in ancient times, are of important tourist interest since the nobles and popes built their residences there, thus populating the area with sumptuous villas and magical gardens around which picturesque residential areas developed, including:
Albano Laziale: remains of the Porta Pretoria, church of Santa Maria della Rotonda, swimming pool called Cisternone, Tomb of the Horatii and Curiazi, Archaeological Museum, remains of the Roman Amphitheater, lake of Albano.
Ariccia: Palazzo Chigi, church of Santa Maria dell'Assunzione. Events: Porchetta festival in July.
Castel Gandolfo: Piazza del Plebiscito with Bernini's fountain, church of San Tommaso, papal palace (summer seat of the pope), Villa Barberini (Vatican Observatory). Excursion: walk to Lake Albano.
Frascati: Villa Aldobrandini, Villa Falconieri, Villa Mondragone, Piazza Marconi, Piazza San Pietro with the cathedral. Excursion: ruins of Tusculum. To buy: the typical wine.
Genzano di Roma: Nemorense Museum, panoramic point from Piazza Frasconi, Palazzo Sforza-Cesarini. Events: Infiorata with procession to Corpus Domini.
Grottaferrata: Abbey, Catacombs Ad Decimum.
Marino: Palazzo Colonna, church of San Barnaba. Events: Grape festival (famous white wine of the castles).
Monte Porzio Catone: with the splendid residence of Palazzo Borghese.
Nemi: Palazzo Ruspoli, Museum of Roman Ships.
Rocca di Papa: church of the Assunta. Excursion: Monte Cavo
Rocca Priora: Excursion to the Castelli Romani Regional Park. Events: Porcini mushroom festival
Towards the Tiburtini Mountains we have places rich in spas and holiday resorts with both historical and artistic characteristics such as:
Palestrina: 12th century Cathedral, remains of the ancient Temple of Fortuna Primigenia, Prenestino Archaeological Museum, the Antro delle Sorti. To buy: handicraft embroidery. Excursion: Castel San Pietro Romano.
Subiaco: Monastery of Santa Scolastica, Monastery of San Benedetto or Sacro Speco, ruins of the Villa of Nero, church of San Francesco. To buy: handicrafts of copper, ceramics and wrought iron. Excursion: Monte Livata (ski resort).
Tivoli: Villa d'Este with its stupendous garden, Villa Gregoriana with the Aniene waterfalls, church of Santa Maria Maggiore, cathedral, Rocca Pia, Roman temple of Vesta, Temple of the Sibilla, Terme delle Acque Albule, Villa Adriana with its monumental complex of Roman buildings. To buy: copper crafts.
Other interesting destinations are the Monti della Tolfa and Lake Bracciano. Taking the Via Aurelia you can reach places of great archaeological-Etruscan importance and seaside resorts. Among them we mention:
Pompeii - ancient Roman city destoyed during eruption
Allumiere: Palazzo Camerale, Antiquarium, Natural History Museum.
Bracciano: Orsini-Odescalchi Castle, Historical Museum of the Air Force.
Cerveteri: famous for the Etruscan necropolis with tombs of great historical importance, the Cerite National Museum, Palazzo Ruspoli and Etruscan and medieval walls. Events: Art and crafts exhibition, the Via Crucis and the Grape Festival.
Civitavecchia: Fortilizio Michelangelo, National Archaeological Museum, remains of the Roman port with the Trajan's Markets reopened with the Terminal del Gusto di Campagna antica.
Isola Farnese: medieval castle.
Monterano: the mystery of an abandoned town.
Monti della Tolfa: with ancient alum quarries and extensive woods.
Ladispoli: seaside resort. Event: Artichoke Festival in April.
Palo: present an ancient Roman villa rich in mosaics and the Odescalchi Castle.
Santa Marinella: Odescalchi Castle and renowned seaside resort.
Santa Severa: Medieval castle and remains of ancient Pyrgi. Excursion: Macchiatonda nature reserve.
Terme Taurine: remains of ancient Roman baths.
Terme di Stigliano: thermal baths with iodine-salt and sulphurous waters.
Trevignano Romano: Church of the Assunta, Church of Santa Caterina, Town Halls, Clock Tower.
Tolfa: Etruscan-Roman museum, panoramic point from the Belvedere of the Rocca di Frangipani. To buy: handicrafts with leather goods.
Veio: remains of the ancient Etruscan city.
Vicarello: Nymphaeum of Apollo, Roman villa of Domitian, Trajan's aqueduct, prehistoric village, Terme Apollinari.
Roman coast: in summer the Romans flock to one of the numerous seaside resorts that line the low and flat coast of Lazio which in 1991 became the "State Natural Reserve of the Roman coast" together with the final stretch of the River Tiber. The reserve includes areas of great naturalistic interest such as the Castel Fusano pine forest and the Capocotta dunes. There are also areas of archaeological interest such as the ancient city of Ostia, imperial ports and prehistoric settlements.
Among the coastal towns, Ostia is the closest, followed by Torvaianica, Fregene, Anzio and Nettuno.
Via Carolingia — European itinerary that crosses the places traveled by the court of Charlemagne between the eighth and ninth centuries to go from Aachen to Rome, where Pope Leo III crowned the Carolingian sovereign emperor of the Holy Roman Empire on Christmas night in the 19th century .