Rome is the capital of the Italian Republic. It is the most
populous and extensive municipality in Italy and the fourth most
populous in the European Union . Place of origin of the Latin
language, it was the capital of the Roman Empire, which extended its
dominion over the entire Mediterranean basin and much of Europe , of
the Papal State, submitted to the temporal power of the popes, and
of the Kingdom of Italy (since 1871).
It would be an impossible task to tell Rome in all its aspects because too vast and rich in history you can only add a tip to the tourist: being able to listen to the voice of the city that springs from its deep soul and that speaks through the testimonies of its long evolution , perhaps early in the morning when the crowd is sparse and this empathy can be very intense.
The municipal coat of arms of Rome, which dates back to the thirteenth century, is a shield with a purple background color while the initials, with the gold letters put to scale, SPQR "Senatus Populus Que Romanus" which means "the Senate and the People of Rome", the two elements to which the republican institutions emerged. The two colors, purple and gold, were symbols of the Empire. The small Byzantine Cross indicates the Christian civilization that made Rome its center. The shield is dominated by an eight-pointed crown of which only five are seen. The municipal flag, established after 1870, instead consists of two bands that should be purple and gold with the coat of arms. In fact, you will see flags with varying shades of red-purple and yellow. The gonfalone, derives from the ancient period and consists of a purple cloth bearing the effigy, in gold of the city in a feminine form, but which today has been replaced by the coat of arms.
Animals symbols of the city are the lion, the eagle and the Roman she-wolf, this last true heraldic symbol while among the most common and widespread monuments are the Colosseum, the Cupolone (dome of San Pietro) and the Basilica of San Peter.
Rome, the heart of Catholic Christianity, is the only city in the world to host an entire state within itself, the enclave of Vatican City : for this reason it is often called the capital of two States. The territory of Rome presents different natural landscapes and environmental characteristics that give the city a privileged position at about 20m above sea level and 24 kilometers from the Tyrrhenian Sea. There are mountain ranges and hills (including the historic seven hills), the flat areas, the Tiber River and its tributaries, the Marrane, the Bracciano and Martignano lakes and the artificial ones, a fluvial island (the Tiberina Island), the sandy coast of the Lido di Ostia . Surrounded by a luxuriant volcanic countryside, the city lies on the various hills crossed by the river that pictorially describes a sinuous route and that constituted the primary way of communication.
The central and ancient core of the city consists of the historical seven hills: Palatino, Aventino, Campidoglio, Quirinale, Viminale, Esquilino and Celio. Originally it developed on the left side of the Tiber which crosses it, then extends to the right bank, called Trans Tiberim, from which the modern name of the Trastevere district derives. In this way it incorporated other hills, in addition to the historical seven mentioned above, such as Monte Mario (the highest), Pincio, Monte Vaticano, Gianicolo, Parioli and the hills of Villa Ada, Villa Borghese and Villa Glori. The city, as well as the Tiber, is also crossed by another river, the Aniene, which flows into the Tiber in the northern part of today's urban territory.
When to go
The city enjoys a typical Mediterranean climate, particularly mild and comfortable in spring and autumn. The wettest seasons are spring and autumn, mainly during the months of November and April. Summer is hot, humid and tendentially dry, while winter is generally mild and rainy, but with significant and sudden cold peaks, and rare snowy phenomena of a certain consistency.
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The forum was the center of political, commercial and judicial life in ancient Rome. The largest buildings were the basilica, where court cases were heard. According to playwright Plautus, the region was a gathering place for “lawyers and their supporters, bankers and brokers, shopkeepers and homeless people who expected tips from the rich.” As the population of Rome developed rapidly, the Forum became too small. In 46 BC e. Julius Caesar built a new forum, setting a precedent, followed by emperors from Augustus to Trojan. The emperors also erected triumphal arches in honor of their loved ones, and in the east of the Roman Forum, Vespasian built the Colosseum in the year 80, an entertainment center after the working day. The Colosseum was completed quickly, as the emperor tried to erase the memory of destruction of Pompeii in the year 79. Because of this, the laying of a large amphitheater was not even as different teams of craftsmen were involved on the project. They often used different measuring rulers. You can notice some uneven stones where sectors of workers met.
Trajan's Market (Rome)
Basilica Aemilia (Rome)
Mamertine Prison (Rome)
Rostra and Temple of Saturn (Rome)
Arch of Septimius Severus (Rome)
San Lorenzo in Miranda (Rome)
Column of Phocas (Rome)
Arch of Constantine (Rome)
|Temple of Vesta (Rome)
House of the Maidens or House of the Vestals (Rome)
Temple of Romulus or the Church of Saints Cosmas and Damian (Rome)
Santa Francesca Romana (Rome)
Forum of Augustus (Rome)
Caesar Forum (Rome)
Forum Nerva (Rome)
|Basilica Julia (Rome)
Temple of Castor and Pollux (Rome)
Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius (Rome)
Arch of Titus (Rome)
Casa de Cavalieri di Rodi (Rome)
Temple of Venus and Roma (Rome)
Torre delle Milizi (Rome)
Antiquarium Forensé (Rome)
The Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol, located on the southern top of Capitoline Hill, was the center of the Roman world. It could be reached by a winding path from the Forum. The temple was the site of all the most sacred religious and political ceremonies. The hill and its temple became a symbol of the authority of Rome and was known as caput mundi, the head of the world. Throughout the history of the city, the Capitol (Campidoglio) remained the seat of the municipal government. Today’s city council of Rome is found in the Renaissance palace of the Palazzo Senatorio. The position of Rome as a modern capital is resolutely expressed in the huge monument of Victor Emmanuel, which, unfortunately, hides the view of the Capitol from Piazza Venezia. The present location of squares and streets on a hill dates back to the 16th century, when Michelangelo created the beautiful Cordonata Square. The two capitals around the square now have capitol museums.
Piazza Del Campidoglio (Rome)
Palazzo Senatorio (Rome)
Tarpeian Rock (Rome)
Via di Monte Caprino and Via del Tempio di Giove
Santa Maria in Aracoeli (Rome)
Palazzo Venezia and Museum (Rome)
Via del Plebiscito 118
Tel. 06-6999 4318
Open: 9:30am- 7pm Tue- Sun
Closed: Jan 1, May 1, Dec 25
Palazzo Nuovo (Rome)
Palazzo dei Conservatori (Rome)
Piazza del Campidoglio
Tel. 06- 3996 7800
Bus: 63, 70, 75, 81, 87, 95, 160, 170, 204, 628, 716
Open: 9am- 8pm Tue- Sun
Closed: Jan 1, May 1, Dec 25
Victor Emmanuel Monument (Rome)
Roman Insula (Rome)
San Marco (Rome)
Piazza San Marco 48
Tel. 06-679 52 05
Open: 7:30am- 12:30pm, 4- 7:30pm Mon- Sat
8am- 1:15pm, 4- 7:30pm Sun
According to legend, Romulus and Remus were raised by a she-wolf in a cave. Traces of huts from the Iron Age, dating back to the 9th century BC, were found on the Palatina Hill, which provides archaeological support for the legendary links of the hill with the founding of Rome. Palatine Hill was a place for the elite of Rome, becoming home to some of the most famous inhabitants of the city. The great orator Cicero had a private mansion here, as well as the lyric poet Catullus. Augustus was born on the Palatine Hill and continued to live here in very modest circumstances, even when he became emperor. Two buildings, designated the House of Augustus and the House of Livia, his wife, are among the best preserved buildings of that time. The example of the first emperor was ignored by his successors Tiberius, Caligula and Domitian, who all built extravagant palaces here. The ruins of the palace of Tiberius are under the Farnese gardens of the 16th century. The most extensive ruins of the imperial complex are Domus Augustus and Domus Flavius, the two wings of the palace of Domitian and the later expansion built by Septimius Severus.
Tips: ticket to Palatine covers Colosseum. buy there to avoid long lines.
Tel. 06-3996 7700
Bus: 75, 85, 87, 117, 175, 186, 810, 850
Open: 9am- 1 hour before sunset
Closed: public holidays
Domus Flavia (Rome)
Domus Augustana (Rome)
House of Livia (Rome)
Huts of Romulus (Rome)
Farnese Gardens (Rome)
Temple of Cybele (Rome)
The Pantheon, one of the great buildings in the history of European architecture, stood in the center of Rome for almost 2,000 years. During this time, the historical situation around it was characterized by continuous economic and political activities. Palazzo di Montecitorio, built for Pope Innocent XII as a papal tribunal in 1694, is now the Italian parliament, and many nearby buildings are government offices. It is also the main financial district of Rome with banking headquarters and the stock exchange. Few people live here, but in the evenings the Romans walk through the narrow streets and fill the lively restaurants and cafes that make it the center of the social life of the city.
Piazza del Gesu
Tel. 06-69 70 01
Bus: H, 46, 62, 64, 70, 81, 87, 186, 492, 628, 810
Open: 6am- 12:30pm, 4- 7:15pm daily
Palazzo Doria Pamphilj (Rome)
Sant' Ignazio di Loyola (Rome)
Piazza di Sant' Ignazio
Tel. 06-679 44 06
Bus: 117, 119, 492
Open: 7:30am- 12:30pm, 3- 7:15pm daily
Temple of Hadrian (Rome)
Palazzo del Collegio Romano(Rome)
Piazza del Collegio Romano
Bus: 117, 119, 492
Closed to the public
The foundations of the buildings surrounding the elongated oval of Piazza Navona were the destroyed stands of the vast Stadium of Domitian. Piazza is still a dramatic spectacle with the obelisk of Fontana dei Cuatro Fiumi in front of the Church of Sant'Anzese or St. Agnes in Agon as its focal point. The predominant style of buildings in this area is Baroque, built during the time of Pope Innocent X (1644-55), patron of Bernini and Borromini. Of particular interest is the complex of Navona, the headquarters of Filippini, the Order, founded by San Filippo Neri, the 16th century "Apostle of Rome".
|Piazzo Navona (Rome)
Basilica of Saint Agnes in Agona (Rome)
Santa Maria del Anima (Rome)
Santa Maria della Pace (Rome)
San Luigi dei Francesi (Rome)
Sant Ivo alla Sapienza (Rome)
Sant Andrea della Valle (Rome)
Santa Maria in Valicella (Rome)
Oratorio dei Filippini (Rome)
San Salvatore in Lauro (Rome)
Palazzo Braschi (Rome)
Napoleonico Museum (Rome)
|Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers) (Rome)
Palazzo Pamphili (Rome)
Palazzo Madama (Rome)
Palazzo Masimo alle Colonna (Rome)
Clock Tower del Orologio (Rome)
Palazzo del Banco (Rome)
Santo Spirito or Holy Spirit Bank (Rome)
Palazzo Altemps (Rome)
Via del Governo Vecchio (Rome)
Via dei Coronari (Rome)
Hotel del Orso or Hostaria del Orso (Rome)
Esquiline - the largest and highest of the seven hills of Rome. In Imperial Rome on the western slopes of the hill, overlooking the Forum housed the crowded slums of Suburra. On the eastern side there were several villas owned by wealthy citizens, such as the Patron, patron of the arts and adviser Augustus. The essential character of this place has survived over two thousand years; it is still one of the poorest quarters of Rome. The area is currently heavily built up, with the exception of the rather run-down park on Colle Oppio, a small hill south of Eskilin, where you can see the remains of the Baths of Titus, the Baths of Traian and Don Door Aurea. The district’s main interest, however, lies in its churches. Many of them were based on private home sites where Christians were going to secretly worship in those days when this religion was banned.
|Santa Maria Maggiore (Rome)
San Martino a Monti (Rome)
San Pietro to Vincoli (Rome)
Santa Pudenziana (Rome)
Basilica of St. Prakceda (Rome)
Santa Bibiana (Rome)
|National Museum of Oriental Art (Rome)
Victor Emmanuel II Square (Rome)
Maecenas Gardens (Rome)
Seven rooms (Rome)
The Golden House of Nero (Rome)
Arch of Galliena (Rome)
y the 16th century, the increase in the number of visiting pilgrims and clergy had turned life into an already intolerable medieval center of Rome intolerable. A new triangle of roads was built to direct pilgrims from the northern gates of the city - Porta del Popolo to the Vatican as quickly as possible. By the 18th century, hotels sprang up throughout the area. Today, this attractive region of Rome offers magnificent works of Renaissance and Baroque art in Santa Maria del Popolo and Sant'Andrea delle Fratta, magnificent reliefs of the restored Ara Pasisa, art exhibitions in the Villa Medici, beautiful views of Rome from the Spanish Steps Pincio gardens, as well as Rome’s most famous shopping region, located near Via Condotti.
|Sant'Andrea Delle Fratte (Rome)
Trinita dei Monti (Rome)
All Saints Church (Rome)
Santa Maria dei Miracoli and Santa Maria in Montesanto (Rome)
Santa Maria del Popolo (Rome)
San Rocco (Rome)
Santi Ambrogio and Carlo al Corso (Rome)
Palace Propaganda Fide (Rome)
Villa Medici (Rome)
Keats-Shelley Memorial House (Rome)
Tea rooms Babington (Rome)
|Goethe House (Rome)
Column dell Immacolata (Rome)
Porta del Popolo (Rome)
Via Condotti (Rome)
Spanish Square (Rome)
Spanish Steps (Rome)
Piazza del Popolo (Rome)
Ara Pachis or the Altar of Peace (Rome)
Mausoleum of Augustus (Rome)
Pincio Gardens (Rome)
Antico Caffe Greco (Rome)
There are many different architectural styles between Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and the Tiber river. The open-air market Campo dei Fiori maintains the lively bohemian atmosphere of medieval hotels that once flourished here. While in the area, several Renaissance palaces were built, such as the Palazzo Farnese and Palazzo Spada, where powerful Roman families built their mansions alongside the road for papal ritual processions. Next to the view of the picturesque island on the Tiber is the former Jewish ghetto, where you can still see many traces of the daily life of past centuries. Portico Octavia and the Theater of Marcellus are fascinating examples of the multi-layered history of the city, built over the dilapidated remains of ancient Rome.
The Quirinal is one of the original seven hills of Rome. It was largely a residential area in imperial times. To the east of the hill were built the great Baths of Diocletian. They are located in front of the main railway station of Rome. This area was abandoned in the Middle Ages, but construction resumed at the end of the 16th century. The main site was taken by the popes for the Palazzo del Quirinale Palace. Rich families, such as Colonna and Aldobran Dini, owned palaces down the hill. With the end of papal rule in 1870, the surrounding territory, especially Via Nazionale, was redone because the Quirinal became the residence of the Italian king, and then the Italian president.
In the Middle Ages, the Lateran Palace served as the residence of the popes, and the Basilica of San Giovanni next to it competed with the Cathedral of St.. Peter in the glitter and decoration. After the return of the pope from Avignon at the end of the 14th century, the district clearly lost its importance. Pilgrims continued to visit San Giovanni and Santa Croce in Jerusalem, but the area remained sparsely populated. The ancient monasteries were located among gardens and vineyards until Rome became the capital of Italy in 1870. Then there was built a network of residential streets, which housed an influx of new citizens of Rome. Archaeological interest is mainly in the Aurelius Wall and the ruins of the Aqueduct of Nero.
The hill of Celius opens up at the Colosseum and takes its name from Celles Vibenna, the legendary hero of the struggle of Rome against King Tarquinius. In Imperial Rome, it was a fashionable place to live for the rich. The ruins of the mansions are evidence of former magnificence, which is still visible in the extensive ruins of Bani Caracalla. Today, thanks to the Archaeological Zone created at the beginning of the 20th century, this is a quiet area, with a green wedge that cuts into the city from the Aurelius wall to the city center. Through it passes the cobbled streets of Via di Porta San Sebastiano, part of the old Via Appia. This road leads to the Porta San Sebastiano gate, one of the best-preserved gate in the ancient city wall.
Aventine is one of the most peaceful areas of the city within the ancient city walls. Although it is a largely residential area, there are some unique historical sites. From the top of the Aventine Hill, topped with the magnificent Basilica of Santa Sabina (Saint Sabina), there is a beautiful view of the river to the area of Trastevere and St. Peter’s Cathedral. At the foot of the hill, ancient Rome is represented by two tiny temples of the Forum of Boaria and Circus Maximus. The busiest streets are located in Testassio, where there are shops, restaurants and clubs, and in the south, next to the single pyramid of Rome, the Protestant cemetery is another oasis of calm.
The proud and aggressively independent inhabitants of Trastevere, the region “beyond the Tiber”, consider themselves the most authentic of the Romans. In one of the most picturesque old quarters of the city you can still see scenes of everyday life, which, apparently, belong to past centuries. There are, however, signs that a large part of this region, with its peculiar proletarian character, may soon be destroyed due to the proliferation of trendy clubs, restaurants and boutiques. Some of the most fascinating medieval churches of Rome are hidden in a maze of narrow, cobbled streets. The only key to finding them is a random glimpse of the Romanesque bell tower. The church of Santa Cecilia was built on the site of the martyrdom of the patron saint of music. San Francesco a Ripa marks the visit of Francis of Assisi to Rome. The Church of Santa Maria in Trastevere is a traditional center of spiritual and social life in the area.
With a view of the Tiber on the side of Trastevere, Janiculum often played an important role in the defense of Rome. The last case was in 1849, when Garibaldi, the heroes of Italy, restrained the attacking French troops. The park on top of the hill is filled with monuments dedicated to Garibaldi and his soldiers and volunteers. This is a popular place for walking with a pleasant exit from the dense maze of Trastevere streets. There are often puppet shows and other children's entertainment. In the Middle Ages, most of the hill was occupied by monasteries and churches. Bramante built his miniature masterpiece, Tempietto, in the convent of San Pietro and Montorio. The Renaissance also saw the development of the coastal zone along Villas della Lungar, where rich and luxurious houses are located, such as Villa Farnesina.
In the Imperial period of Rome, it was a suburb where rich families owned luxurious villas and gardens. The ruins of this era can be seen at the excavations on Piazza Sallusio, named after the most extensive gardens in the area, Orti Sallustiani. After the fall of Rome in the 5th century, the area was turned into a countryside. Local peasants dismantled palaces and built their own shacks. Only in the 17th century, the government restored part of the lost splendor, with the Palazzo Barberini building and the villa Ludovisi disappeared now. When Rome became the capital of Italy in 1870, Ludovisi sold his land to build new houses. They kept a small territory for their mansion, but the tax on the profit from the sale was so high that they also had to sell this plot. By 1900, Via Veneto became known for its stylish, modern hotels and cafes. This was noticeable in the 1960s film “La Dolce Vita” (Sweet Life), a stinging satire about the lives of movie stars, idle and rich, but has since lost its place as a cult place.
Catacombe di Priscilla (Rome)
Via Salaria, 430
Tel. +39 06 8620 6272
Catacombe di Priscilla or the "Queen of the Catacombs" is a burial ground for 7 early popes and many early Christian martyrs who died for their faith. Its name was given after Priscila wife of consul Acilius, from an influental patrician family of Acilii, who was killed by emperor Domitian for his Christian beliefs. The catacombs were burial grounds for Christians and also places for their worship to escape watchful eye of the state. Cappella Greca or Greek Chapel still preserves stucco decorations from the third century. Today tourists can enter the catacombs through the cloister of the monastery of the Benedictines of Priscilla.
The Borghese Gallery (Rome)
Piazzale del Museo Borghese
Tel. +39 06 841 3979