Campania, Italy

Campania is an Italian region with ordinary statute in southern Italy of 5 588 862 inhabitants. It is the most populous and most densely populated region of the Mezzogiorno; nationally it is third in terms of number of inhabitants (after Lombardy and Lazio) and second in terms of population density, preceded only by Lombardy. Located between the Tyrrhenian Sea to the southwest and the southern Apennines to the northeast, it has an area of 13670.95 km². The region borders Lazio to the north-west, Molise to the north, Puglia to the north-east and Basilicata to the east. In addition to the regional capital Naples, the provincial capital cities are Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Along the coasts of Campania there are four gulfs: the gulf of Gaeta, the gulf of Naples, the gulf of Salerno and the gulf of Policastro.

The hinterland was already inhabited at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. by the Oscans, followed by the Samnites of Italian descent. From the 8th century BC. along the coast various settlements of populations of Greek civilization developed from which the Magna Graecia colonies of Pithecusa, Cuma, Parthenope, Neapolis and Poseidonia originated. The Campanian plain was also the extreme southern limit of Etruscan expansion. In the second half of the 4th century BC, with the Samnite wars, the region was placed under the influence of Rome, which renamed it Campania felix in reference to its prosperity, although the territory of ancient Campania only partially corresponded to that of the modern region. With the decline of Roman civilization, the political unity of the region also disintegrated, and from the 6th century it came to a large extent under Lombard influence and to a lesser extent under Byzantine influence.

In the 12th century, with the rise of the Norman dynasty, the region found political unity under the crown of the Kingdom of Sicily (with the exception of the city of Benevento, which was instead subjected to the State of the Church). From the 13th to the 19th century, with the succession of the Angevin, Aragonese and Bourbon dynasties, the kingdom of Naples, and in particular the capital and its court, became one of the main cultural, artistic and economic poles of Europe. In contemporary times, the region, with the rest of the South, is experiencing a situation of persistent socio-economic development difficulty compared to the north of the country, known as the southern question.

Campania is the first Italian region for sites and elements registered in the UNESCO World Heritage Lists, thanks to 10 awards: the Mediterranean diet, the art of the Neapolitan "pizza makers", the shoulder machines of Nola, the center history of Naples, the royal palace of Caserta, the monumental complex of Santa Sofia in Benevento, Pompeii with Herculaneum and Oplontis, the Amalfi coast, the Cilento national park with Paestum, Velia and the Certosa di Padula, as well as transhumance. In Campania there are 5 of the top 20 most visited state sites in 2020 according to the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities.


When to go

The region has always been a destination for seaside tourism: thanks to the long coast and the islands (Island of Capri, Ischia, Procida) it attracts tourists mainly in the summer.


Spoken languages

Italian and Neapolitan are the languages spoken in the region. In the territory, however, there are local variants, always belonging to the Neapolitan linguistic group.

A peculiarity is constituted by the municipality of Greci, located in the province of Avellino, which is the only village in Campania where the ancient Albanian, called arbëresh, is spoken. In addition to the language, many traditions have also remained intact over time in Greece.


Territories and tourist destinations

Agro Aversano with Aversa and minor towns.
Amalfi coast with Amalfi, Ravello, Vietri sul Mare.
Cilento coast
Sorrento coast
The green Irpinia, full of forests and mountains.


Urban centers

Naples — Capital of the region, of undisputed fame for its cultural and historical importance. It rises in a large basin between Vesuvius, the Campi Flegrei and the sea.
Caserta - It extends all around the great, famous Bourbon palace.
Benevento - Ancient Samnite city, teeming with monuments from all eras.
Avellino - It rises in the middle of a valley basin, squeezed between the mountains.
Salerno - In the center of the homonymous gulf, it had great importance in medieval times: the Salerno medical school was famous at that time.
Paestum — Ancient colony of Magna Graecia, preserves many monuments intact.
Pompeii - next to Vesuvius and famous for its excavations and for its Marian shrine.
Herculaneum - city famous for its excavations of the Roman city founded, according to legend, by Hercules and destroyed together with Pompeii by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD.
Pozzuoli — City of certain historical and cultural value with its testimonies of the Roman and seventeenth century. It is located in a unique landscape between the sea, volcanic lakes (for example Lake Averno), forests (the Cuma forest is nearby) and parks (a short distance away is the Astroni park nature reserve ). Land of myths and legends, it is enough to remember that here at the lake of Averno the ancient Greeks and Romans placed one of the entrances to the underworld. The volcanic nature of the area has made possible some excellent wines including the Falanghina dei Campi Flegrei (DOC). Pozzuoli is famous for its fish market and the restaurants with typical local products are renowned.
Ariano Irpino - It is the largest mountain municipality in Campania. Of early medieval origin, it is characterized by the many historical and religious museums, by the breathtaking views, as well as by its typical cuisine, rich in Apennine specialties.


Other destinations

Castel dell'Ovo

Matese lake
Monte Miletto — and Matese massif.
Isle of Capri
Island of Ischia
Procida Island
Campi Flegrei


Regional parks

Campi Flegrei Regional Park
Monti Lattari Regional Park
Monti Picentini Regional Park
Diecimare Natural Park
Sarno River Hydrographic Basin Regional Park
Matese regional park
Regional Park of Partenio
Taburno Regional Park - Camposauro
Roccamonfina-Foce Garigliano Regional Park — The Roccamonfina-Foce Garigliano Regional Park involves the municipalities of Sessa Aurunca, Teano and five municipalities that are part of the Monte Santa Croce mountain community: Roccamonfina, for the entire territory, partially Marzano Appio, Conca of Campania, Galluccio and Tora and Piccilli. The entire area is dominated by the extinct volcano of Roccamonfina and has the Garigliano river as its geographical limit. The course of the river has dug its riverbed between the volcanic soils of Roccamonfina and the calcareous soils of the Aurunci Mountains.
Punta Campanella protected marine natural area — Promontory and marine reserve in the Gulf of Salerno.


How to get

By plane
The airports that cover the area are those of Naples-Capodichino (NAP), located in the province of Naples, of Salerno-Pontecagnano "Costa d'Amalfi", located between the municipalities of Bellizzi and Pontecagnano Faiano and partly also that of Foggia ( FOG), in Puglia.

By car
The Autostrada del Sole (the A1) to the north starts in Naples, the A3 autoroute to the south and the A16 autoroute to the Adriatic (called the Autostrada dei Due Mari). The Naples ring road, also called A56 Casoria-Pozzuoli, runs along the outside of the city and connects all the districts of Naples, with the exception of the historic centre. Furthermore, between the provinces of Naples and Caserta, there is the median axis and the support axis, which cut the interior horizontally, connecting areas that are more difficult to access. The cities of Benevento and Avellino, on the other hand, are connected to the Due Mari motorway with two junctions. Furthermore, Benevento is connected to the A1 via the Telesina. Caserta and Salerno are connected to each other via the A30.

On boat
The ports of Naples and Salerno are among the busiest in Italy for the movement of goods and passengers as well as the places from which to access the region by ship; for the size of the passenger port, the Neapolitan one holds first place nationally and the second in the world, while the Salerno one is only recently specializing in the cruise sector.

Then there are other tourist ports in the region, such as the Marina d'Arechi in Salerno, or the small tourist ports of Sorrento, Amalfi, Positano and those of the gulf islands.

On the train
The central station of Naples is the main bell station for rail transport, connecting the urban center with the other important cities of Italy. Furthermore, Naples is part of the high-speed line that connects it with Salerno, Rome, Florence, Bologna, Milan and Turin.


Getting around

On boat
For travel within the region, the ship is excellent for reaching the islands from Naples and Sorrento.

On the train
The railway networks that connect the Campania municipalities are the Circumvesuviana, the Cumana and the Circumflegrea, as well as the Naples-Giugliano-Aversa line, which connects Naples with the province of Caserta. The regional metropolitan system, born in 2000, has increased and strengthened the integrated transport service extended to the entire region, managed by the Unico Campania Consortium.

In Mercogliano, in the province of Avellino, there is the Montevergine funicular; one of the steepest in Europe.


What to see

Campania can boast 6 World Heritage Sites included in the UNESCO list. They are as follows:
Historic center of Naples:
Capodimonte Park and Capodimonte Palace
Castel Sant'Elmo
Charterhouse of San Martino
Floridiana Villa and Park
Villa Rosebery
Municipal park of Naples
Botanical Garden of Naples (or Real Orto Botanico)
District of Villa Manzo, Church of Santa Maria della Consolazione in Villanova
Clear sea
District of Casale and Church of Santo Strato in Posillipo

Reggia di Caserta, the Carolino aqueduct and the complex of San Leucio
Archaeological areas of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata:
Announced Tower
Amalfi Coast
National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, with the archaeological sites of Paestum and Velia, and the Certosa di San Lorenzo
Region of Punta Licosa and Monte Stella
Region of Capo Palinuro, Punta degli Infreschi and Mount Bulgheria
Longobards in Italy: the places of power (568-774 AD):
Monumental complex of Santa Sofia with the Museum of Sannio (Benevento)
Archaeological park of Aeclanum


What to do

Traveling by bike The silent way.
Mulini in Festa (in Salerno). Two days in August. The event, in fact, renews the appointment with the two days of entertainment in the splendid setting of the Parco dei Mulini.
Watermelon Palio (In Altavilla Irpina). 16-17-18 August. Historical re-enactment with a spectacular costume parade of over 600 participants along the spectacular Corso di Altavilla decorated for the occasion.
Great Tirade (A Mirabella Eclano). The third Saturday of September. A 25-metre-high straw obelisk pulled by oxen is carried in triumph for the Sorrowful Madonna and managed along the way by expert funiologists who avoid its disastrous fall.



Campania cuisine is one of the most popular in the world, being able to export numerous products recognized nationally and in Europe.

The regional (and national) symbol of cuisine is undoubtedly the Neapolitan pizza, recognized by the European Union with the STG brand. Some typical dishes of Campania cuisine are: cardone (typical dish of the province of Benevento), pasta with beans typical of the province of Benevento, of the upper province of Caserta and of the Neapolitan area, eggplant parmigiana (dish from Campania), impepata di cozze (Naples), sasicc' e friariell' (Naples), caprese (Naples), maritata soup (Benevento), octopus 'alla luciana' (Naples), spaghetti allo scoglio (Naples), pasta and beans with mussels (Naples), paccheri with meat sauce (Naples), aubergines in chocolate (Salerno), spaghetti with clams (Naples), maccaronara (Castelvetere sul Calore - Avellino), crusìcchi (Salerno), mugnatiello (Benevento) .

As for desserts, however, the most famous are:
Nougat (Dentecane di Pietradefusi, Ospedaletto d'Alpinolo, Benevento, Grottaminarda, San Marco dei Cavoti)
Baba (Naples)
Castellammare Biscuits (Castellammare di Stabia)
Chiacchiere (all the region)
Lemon delight
Struffoli (all the region)
Sfogliatella (Naples)
Zeppole di San Giuseppe (whole region)
Pastiera (all the region)
Mustaccioli (all the region)
Pantorrone (Dentecane from Pietradefusi)
Roccocò (all the region)
Crunchy (San Marco dei Cavoti)
Roccagloriosa nougat
Honey (all region)

The wines with Denomination of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin (DOCG) are:
Taburno Aglianico
Fiano of Avellino
Tufo Greek
The wines with Denomination of Controlled Origin (DOC) are: Aversa, Campi Flegrei, Capri (white and red), Castel San Lorenzo, Cilento, Costa d'Amalfi, Falanghina del Sannio, Falerno del Massico, Galluccio, Irpinia, Ischia, Peninsula Sorrento, Sannio, Vesuvius.

The wines with Typical Geographical Indication (IGT) are: Benevento or Benevento, Campania, Catalanesca del Monte Somma, Colli di Salerno, Dugenta, Epomeo, Paestum, Pompeiano, Roccamonfina, Terre del Volturno.



Campania has very warm and sociable inhabitants, it is necessary to adopt the normal behaviors that a tourist must exercise to avoid being the victim of a crime, do not flaunt too much cash, do not visit infamous areas and always use common sense. Widespread crime stereotypes are often an exaggeration.

Vesuvius is constantly monitored by the various volcanological centres.

Driving can become very difficult, especially in large cities such as Naples, Salerno, Caserta and their respective metropolitan areas, as the rules are not followed by everyone.

The demonstrations of affection by LGBT couples do not always represent a danger in the city of Naples, even if it is still possible to be victims of homophobia (especially in smaller towns).


Origins of the name

The toponym Campania is not of certain etymology. It would derive, according to some, from the Latin term campus, which means countryside, and, by linguistic mixture, from the Oscan term Kampanom, which indicated the area near the ancient city of Capua, for centuries the main center of the Campanian Plain . Since the studies in this regard have not reached unequivocal conclusions, other scholars argue that the derivation coincides with the meaning of "countryside", as the well-known expression "Campania felix" would suggest. In this second sense it is emphasized that the Latin noun "campus" has the meaning of "field, plain, open countryside", which would indicate, together with the equally well-known favorable climate, the particular fertility and amenity of the area.



From its origins to the Roman Empire
The human population of Campania, and in particular of the internal Apennine areas, has been attested since the Middle Palaeolithic, i.e. since the age of Neanderthal man; in fact, the worked and chipped flints with a blonde patina that emerge in large numbers and in several points of the Camporeale plateau (near Ariano Irpino) and other neighboring territories date back to that period, while the nearby Neolithic settlement of La Starza constitutes the most ancient permanent settlement of the region.

In the 1st millennium BC. the presence of populations of Indo-European lineage is attested such as the Osci (or Opici), the Aurunci, the Ausoni, the Sidicini and the Sanniti; who spoke the Oscan language (an Indo-European language of the Italic group) and lived in the inland and mountainous areas, while the Agro Campania was occupied by the Etruscans and the coastal strip was subject to Greek colonization. The main Etruscan center was Capua, while the first Greek settlements led to the birth of centers such as Pithecusa (Ischia), Kyme (Cuma), first Parthenope and then Neapolis (Naples), Dikaiarcheia (Pozzuoli), Poseidonia (Paestum), Elea (Ascea ), Pixunte (Policastro Bussentino), the latter three, however, were in the ancient region of Lucania. Thus Campania became one of the most important cultural centers of Magna Graecia, which later exerted a decisive influence on Roman society and then on the entire western civilization. The Latin alphabet itself, in good probability, derives from the Chalcidian Greek alphabet of Cuma.

The first of the Greek colonies in Campania and in the entire western Mediterranean was the island of Ischia (formerly the site of Punic-Carthaginian settlements starting from the 10th century BC), where at the beginning of the 8th century BC. a technical cultural elite from Calcis of Eubea settled without weapons and with the consent of the Carthaginians in the bay of Lacco Ameno, a place well known to the Carthaginians, in order to observe the technological skills of the Etruscan communities in working the iron of Elba. The first settlement, called Pithecusa by the Greeks, had a mixed character between Greek and Carthaginian culture and temporally preceded even those of Naxos and Megara Hyblaea in southern Sicily (in reality, the geographer Strabone, as well as the careful study of the myth of the Siren Partenope and other historical facts attributable to that period, have provided good theses regarding an earlier Rhodian settlement located on the islet of Megaride (which, attributable to the 9th century BC, would constitute the first nucleus of the future Naples). Following the good relations woven by this avant-garde, among which the passage of the Greek alphabet to the Etruscans must be remembered, the settlement of settlers took place which first affected the island of Ischia and then expanded to the mainland to a limited and marginal area interest, for the pre-existing Etruscan-Samnite civilization, and in particular in the Neapolitan area.

At first they settled in Cuma (the closest point on the mainland to Lacco Ameno) and then they settled in Dicearchia (Pozzuoli), Parthenope and then in the definitive Nea Polis (i.e. Naples today), in which an urban layout was built chessboard made up of plateiai and stenopoi, which later became the area of the decumani of Naples in Roman times. It is also interesting to note how the populous and dense metropolitan city of Naples occupies a decidedly small space in the overall regional area. In fact, the Greek settlement took place only along the coasts, while the inner part was inhabited by the Etruscans who gave life to a league of twelve municipalities headed by Capua, Nuceria, Nola, Acerra, Suessula.

The Samnites, who came from the mountains, had already settled along the coast of Campania for some time, establishing commercial contacts with the Etruscans and the Greeks; at this point the Samnites split into two "factions" one agglomerated along the coast which had become familiar with the other populations, the other which continued to live in the mountains isolating itself from other cultures and seeing the other faction badly; in fact in 343 B.C. the rich Campanian city of Capua had asked the Romans for help against the Samnites, who practiced acts of guerrilla warfare, but the Romans failed to eradicate the Samnites, but in exchange they allied themselves with Capua. The anti-Roman coalition called "Lega Latina" was fed again, to which the Romans were part, but which due to "quarrels" did not come out without a fight; therefore after about 150 from its formation, the Latin league was dissolved (in 341 BC, when the first Samnite war ended) due to the interference in Roman affairs in Campania; cities that remained loyal to Rome were rewarded with Roman citizenship. Naples also asked for an alliance with the Romans only to obtain citizenship, but in this case the senate did not consult the opinion of the people and the Samnites returned to action, unleashing the second Samnite war (326-304 BC) managing to defeat the Romans at Caudium , in the province of Benevento, in the battle that took the name of "Forche Caudine". Because of this heavy defeat the Romans remodeled the army to be able to confront the Samnites who lived in the mountains. In the third Samnite war (298-290 BC) the Romans saw themselves against the Gauls, the Etruscans, the Samnites and other Italic peoples, who they managed to defeat in the battle of Sentino (295 BC) in the Marches; and in 290 BC. against the Etruscans when Manio Curio Dentato forced them to make peace. 290 BC . During the Second Punic War, only a few cities allied themselves with the Carthaginians, the most important being Capua, which was reconquered in 211 BC, while most of the region remained loyal to Rome. Administratively it was part of the Regio I Campania which was then transformed, in the times of Diocletian, into the Campaniae Province; both jurisdictions extended to the current southern Lazio, but did not include the areas of Cilento and Vallo di Diano (linked to Lucania) nor the extreme hinterland of Irpinia (aggregated to Apulia and Calabria). During the Roman period, many powerful people built their summer villas along the coast. Also from an economic point of view there was an extraordinary development of agriculture and commerce, the region had in fact always been one of the richest areas of the classical and Roman world and this earned it the nickname of Campania Felix. In Naples, near the present Castel dell'Ovo, the emperor Romulus Augustus died after 511, whose previous deposition in 476 had decreed the fall of the Western Roman Empire.


From the Lombards to the Spanish viceroyalty

From the 5th century AD. Campania progressively lost its unity as small parts of its territory went to Byzantium and all the rest to the Lombard princes. At the end of the 5th century AD, in fact, the Lombards descended into Italy arriving as far as Campania and there establishing the duchy of Benevento. With the fall of Pavia, the duchy of Benevento became a principality until it was annexed, towards the 11th century, to the possession of the pontiff (for this reason it is called by historians the Pope's balcony over southern Italy). From Benevento the principalities of Salerno and Capua had been detached, which did not become part of the State of the Church.

The duchy of Naples fell into Byzantine hands in 536, but soon this territory rebelled against the central authorities, becoming a truly autonomous state. Freeing themselves from the Byzantine government, similar independent state entities arose in Gaeta, Sorrento and Amalfi, representing on various occasions an effective barrier to Saracen expansion in the territories of Southern and Central Italy. Significant in this sense are the "leagues of Campania" formed between these four duchies in 849 and 915, when the battle of Ostia and the battle of Garigliano were fought victoriously.

In 1022 the Normans acquired the county of Ariano, then (in 1030) the feud of Aversa, ceded by one of the last dukes of Naples: these historical episodes caused the rise of the powerful Norman dynasty. Within a century, starting from those outposts, they were able to unify and politically subjugate a large part of the territories of Southern Italy. Campania was included in the Kingdom of Sicily, and entrusted to the respective sovereigns (Altavilla, Hohenstaufen, Angevins and Aragonese).

With the Sicilian Vespers, there was the beginning of the Ninety Years War. The Kingdom of Sicily was divided and the Angevin dynasty was left with southern mainland Italy which then became the Kingdom of Naples. Then followed the Aragonese dynasty, under whose reign Naples became one of the most important centers of the Renaissance and Humanism. Alfonso V of Aragon, managed to temporarily reconstitute the unification of the two kingdoms. Naples under this ruler became a real capital of the Mediterranean.

With Charles V the Kingdom of Naples became a viceroyalty of Spain, with Naples as its capital. The policy of the Spanish sovereigns was not infrequently centered on a heavy tax burden due to the many wars of the time in which Spain was involved; the Neapolitan viceroyalty was in fact one of the main suppliers of money and men for the Spanish cause: this sometimes triggered revolts by the poorer classes.


The Bourbon family and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

After the war of the Polish succession and the Austrian parenthesis, Campania passed to the kingdom of the Bourbons of Naples. The first king was Charles of Bourbon, known for having implemented many economic and legislative reforms, with which Naples underlined its status as a great European capital. Furthermore, during his reign, with the aim of giving a worthy representative seat to his realm, the Royal Palace of Caserta was built, the work of Luigi Vanvitelli completed in 1845 and defined as the last great achievement of the Italian Baroque.

In the context of the Napoleonic campaign in Italy and of the Jacobin republics, in 1799 the Parthenopean Republic was proclaimed in Naples which, amid financial problems and insurrectionary outbreaks, however, was short-lived, being defeated by the so-called Sanfedista army, which was followed by a ferocious repression with numerous sentences to death.[30] Subsequently, after this very brief but intense experience, Napoleon Bonaparte first appointed his brother Giuseppe and then his brother-in-law Gioacchino Murat as King of Naples, who definitively abolished the feud. After the Napoleonic age, the Congress of Vienna re-entrusted the Kingdom of Naples to the Bourbons who reunited it with the Kingdom of Sicily, giving life to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, with Palermo as its capital (the following year it was moved to Naples).

During the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, records and historical innovations were achieved in Campania: the largest metalworking industrial complex in Italy (Pietrarsa, which later became a museum) with over a thousand employees and also famous in Europe, the largest shipbuilding industry in Italy (in Naples and Castellammare di Stabia; the latter first in Italy in size with 1,800 workers), the first steamship in continental Europe (the Ferdinando I), the first steam warship in Italy (the pyrofrigate Ercole), the first ship propelled by propeller (the Giglio delle Onde), the first ship equipped with a steam engine built entirely in Italy (the Ettore Fieramosca), the first military ship powered by a propeller and in metal (the Borbone), the first experiment electric lighting in an Italian city (at Capodimonte), the first suspension bridges in Italy (the Real Ferdinando bridge over the Garigliano and the Maria Cristina bridge), the first hotel for the poor (the Real Albergo dei Poveri), the first railway and the first stations in Italy (1839, Naples-Portici line), the first opera house in Europe (the San Carlo), the first system of lenticular lighthouses in Italy, the first seismological observatory in the world (the Vesuvius Observatory), the first musical conservatories, various schools of "Arts and crafts", the first pension system in Italy (with the Law on Jubilations and Pensions of 3 May 1816) and the first socialist statute in the world (San Leucio silk factory).

Despite this, the kingdom remained an absolute monarchy and Campania was involved in the liberal uprisings of 1820, which manifested themselves in the revolt led by General Guglielmo Pepe: intimidated, King Ferdinand first bestowed a Constitution, then withdrew it and repressed the opposition by demanding Austrian military aid. This was repeated in the uprisings of 1848 when, after the umpteenth insurrection, Ferdinand II granted a constitutional charter; after a few months, however, the sovereign revoked it, dissolving the chambers and restoring absolutism.

Furthermore, the region was hit, like the rest of Europe, by cholera epidemics which decimated the population of the kingdom in 1835-37 and in 1854-55; in many places riots broke out which in several cases led to real riots.


From the unification of Italy to fascism

Even Campania was then involved in the liberal revolts and in the riots for the unification of Italy, until in 1861 the region was conquered and annexed to the nascent Kingdom of Italy. Also due to the new post-unification national policies in the economic field and the management of public goods, Campania, like the rest of Italy, experienced the problem of emigration. This contributed to increasing banditry which, born in Basilicata, spread to the rest of the South and was severely repressed by the Italian army.
At the end of the 19th century, Naples underwent a profound urban transformation with the demolition of numerous buildings and the construction of new districts and buildings; in this period there was the birth of numerous café-concerts and a dynamic cultural and social environment in the former capital.
The region was involved in the Great War, with Naples being bombed by German aviation in 1918 despite being far from the battlefront and complaining of many civilian casualties. The Neapolitan city was also the protagonist of the fascist rally of 1922, which was followed by the March on Rome which brought Mussolini to power.
In 1925 the first subway in Italy was inaugurated in the Neapolitan city, with the Naples-Pozzuoli section.


From World War II to the 21st century

During the Second World War, Campania was the scene of some famous military operations, such as the landing in Salerno and the Four Days of Naples. In the period following the landing, the city of Salerno hosted the first governments of post-fascist Italy and the royal family, becoming the de facto capital of Italy until the liberation of Rome (mid-August 1944).

After the war, Campania was part of that group of regions in Southern Italy, a source of emigration especially towards Northern Italy, while retaining a more solid economic structure than the rest of the South.

In 1980 the region was devastated by the Irpinia earthquake which struck at 19:34 on Sunday 23 November: a strong shock measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale, lasting about 90 seconds with a hypocenter about 30 km deep . Among the most devastated municipalities were Sant'Angelo dei Lombardi, Lioni, Torella dei Lombardi, Conza della Campania, Teora, Laviano, Calabritto, Senerchia and other neighboring countries. However, there was no lack of effects from the earthquake throughout the central-southern area of the peninsula, including Naples.

Finally, in 1994, the waste crisis began in Campania and the entire region was in a state of emergency relating to the ordinary disposal of municipal solid waste. The state of emergency then officially ceased after more than 15 years, on the basis of a decree law approved by the Italian government on 17 December 2009 which decreed the end of the state of emergency and of the extraordinary receivership.