Probably the most famous of Napolitan songs "O sole Mio"


Description of Naples

Naples is an Italian municipality of 962 260 inhabitants, capital of the homonymous metropolitan city and Campania region. It is the third largest municipality in Italy by population, Naples is among the most populous and densely populated metropolitan areas of the European Union.

Founded by the Cumans in the 8th century BC , it was one of the most important cities of Magna Græcia, thanks to its privileged relationship with Athens, and exerted a significant commercial, cultural and religious influence on the surrounding Italic peoples so as to become the seat of the Epicurean school of Filodemo di Gadara and Sirone. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, in the 8th century the city formed an autonomous duchy independent of the Byzantine Empire; later, from the thirteenth century and for about six hundred years, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Naples; with the Restoration it became the capital of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies under the Bourbons until the Unification of Italy. For cultural, political, historical and social reasons it has been, from ancient times up to the present day, one of the cardinal cities of the West.

Seat of Frederick II, the oldest state university in Europe, also houses the Oriental , the oldest university of Sinological and Oriental studies of the continent and the Nunziatella, one of the oldest military academies in the world, elected historical and cultural heritage of Mediterranean countries by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean. Place of origin of the Neapolitan language, has exercised and exerts a strong role in numerous fields of knowledge, culture and collective imagination at national and international level.

Center of the naturalistic philosophy of the Renaissance and European illuminist center, it has long been a global reference point for classical music and opera through the Neapolitan musical school, giving to the comic opera.

Town impressive tradition in the field of fine arts, which has its roots in the ' classical era, gave rise to the original architectural and art movements, such as the Neapolitan Renaissance and Neapolitan Baroque, the Caravaggio, the school of Posillipo and the Neapolitan Liberty, as well as minor arts but of international importance, such as the Capodimonte porcelain and the Neapolitan crib.

It is at the origin of a distinctive form of theater, of a world-famous song and of a peculiar culinary tradition which includes foods that take on the role of global icons, such as Neapolitan pizza, and the art of its pizza makers which has been declared by UNESCO as the intangible heritage of humanity.

In 1995 the historic center of Naples was recognized by UNESCO as a world heritage of humanity , for its exceptional monuments, which testify to the succession of cultures of the Mediterranean and Europe. In 1997 the Somma - Vesuvio volcanic system was elected by the same international agency (with the nearby Miglio d'Oro, which also includes the eastern neighborhoods of the city) among the world biosphere reserves.


Geographic hints

Naples rises almost in the center of the gulf of the same name, dominated by the volcanic massif of Vesuvius. The historic city has been developing predominantly on the coast and its territory is mainly made up of hills, but also of islands, inlets and peninsulas overlooking the Tyrrhenian Sea. Naples enjoys a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers.


When to go

Enjoying a mild climate all year round, the city can be visited at any time. Being a seaside city, a seaside holiday in Naples and its beautiful surroundings is ideal from spring to autumn. Even during the Christmas period, however, the city takes on an incomparable charm, the smell of incense, the colors and the voices of the nativity scenes are truly magical. Climatically, daytime temperatures are around 15°C in the three winter months and 30°C from June to September inclusive. April, May and October enjoy daytime temperatures generally between 20 and 27 °C. In March and November, the daytime temperature generally reaches 20 °C. These characteristics make Naples an ideal destination to visit in all seasons.

In spring, precisely starting from the last Sunday of April to the first Sunday of June for every weekend in May, the city is colored with a thousand events thanks to the "Maggio dei Monumenti": live concerts (jazz, classical music, tarantella ) on the street, in the square or in historic buildings open for the occasion, themed guided tours often also thanks to the collaboration of lively school groups as expert "guides", theatrical and food and wine events, exhibitions and above all the possibility of visiting all those places of culture that otherwise remain difficult to access. Also in this period, the Vitigno Italia review in the suggestive setting of Castel dell'Ovo gives the opportunity to taste the excellent wines of Campania and other Italian regions. In summer, but not only, it is possible to sunbathe and swim along the entire coast of Posillipo and Mergellina and dive near the magnificent and suggestive Marine Protected Area "Submerged Park of Gaiola".


Culture and traditions

The rich and historic popular tradition of Naples and its millenary culture have determined over time a feeling of Neapolitanness that summarizes the different habits and beliefs of the local people. These elements, some of which are also picturesque, thus determine in the Neapolitan the acquisition of a solid identity and a strong sense of belonging to the city. Pizza, sun, tarantella and mandolin, four symbols of Naples, are in fact recognized as the most classic symbols. Many others, on the other hand, are words or images that summarize and represent the stereotyped Neapolitan identity: like Vesuvius; the horn or the munaciello, testifying to popular superstition; mozzarella, symbol together with pizza of Neapolitan and Italian cuisine; bingo, a typical Christmas game that is accompanied by the grimace, another popular Neapolitan invention, the latter also used for the lottery game, very popular in the city; then there is Pulcinella, one of the most famous Italian masks and often used to represent Italian; finally there is the classic iconography of the Neapolitan alley, dominated by the low and the clothes hanging along the street. Among the religious rites, on the other hand, the historic Neapolitan art of nativity scenes dominate, to represent the scene of the Nativity; the miracle of San Gennaro, which bears witness to all the religious devotion of the people and the love for this saint. The most important festival is the Piedigrotta festival. The Bourbon domination left the city with many significant monuments that can be visited, starting from the hill of Poggioreale up to the seafront: Cemetery of the 366 graves, Albergo dei Poveri, Reggia di Capodimonte, Royal Factory of Capodimonte ceramics, Foro Carolino (currently Piazza Dante ), Teatro San Carlo, Piazza del Plebiscito, renovation and expansion of the Royal Palace, Bourbon Tunnel.


Spoken languages

In the Campania capital, the spoken language is Italian. However, the Neapolitan language is often used in colloquial speech, which has its roots in ancient languages such as Greek and Latin, subsequently undergoing the influences of modern languages such as French and Spanish.


Travel Destinations in Naples


Old Town

The central station of Naples overlooks Piazza Garibaldi. Here begins Corso Umberto I, better known as Rettifilo which crosses the center diagonally to finish after 1.3 km in Piazza Giovanni Bovio dominated by the monumental Palazzo della Borsa.

A little further west is the irregularly shaped Piazza del Municipio dominated by the Maschio Angioino, one of the seven castles of the city of Naples. Via Medina begins from the square. Its continuation, via San Carlo, flows into piazza del Plebiscito dominated by the neoclassical Basilica of San Francesco di Paola between two large colonnades in the shape of a hemicycle

Another important artery in the center is via dei Tribunali corresponding to the ancient Decumano Maggiore. The road starts from Castel Capuano, not far from the central station of Naples and ends in Piazza Bellini, one of the major meeting places in the city thanks to the proximity of the University. Halfway through and in correspondence with the crossroads of via San Gregorio Armeno, famous for its crib shops, piazza San Gaetano opens up on the site of the ancient agora of the Greek era.

Via Toledo (also called via Roma) runs north-south and is just over 1 km long. It was opened in 1536 and today it is the shopping street thanks also to the monumental Umberto I gallery from 1890. Via Toledo, which borders the Spanish quarters to the west, connects piazza Dante to the north with piazza Trieste e Trento to the south until reaching piazza del Plebiscite.


Other neighborhoods

Mergellina — The seafront area consisting of via Caracciolo and via Partenope. Mergellina extends at the foot of the Posillipo hill and in front of the Castel dell'Ovo. It is part of the Chiaia district;
Posillipo - The hill of Posillipo is located north-west of the city and is a residential area with a unique panorama;
Vomero — The Vomero hill is a residential and commercial area, on top of which stands Castel Sant'Elmo and there are also many examples of architecture from various historical periods;
Fuorigrotta - It is the district of the western area of the city, it represents the sports and scientific center of the city. Here is the Stadio San Paolo;
Poggioreale — Currently an industrial area known since ancient times for the presence of cemeteries; there are in fact: the cemetery of the 366 graves built by Ferdinando Fuga under the regency of Ferdinando IV at the behest of Charles III; the choleric cemetery; the avenue of illustrious men; the new and the brand new. It is also the neighborhood where the prison of the same name is located. Within the limits of the Poggioreale district is the Centro Direzionale di Napoli, a complex of modern skyscrapers designed by the Japanese architect Kenzo Tange.
The Golden Mile — The area along the SS18 Tirrena Inferiore which crosses the districts of San Giovanni a Teduccio and Barra and then continues up to Torre del Greco. The Golden Mile is characterized by monumental villas built starting from the eighteenth century by exponents of the Bourbon nobility.


Areas of Naples

Naples is full of places of historical, cultural and environmental interest:
Old Town
Toledo/Spanish Quarters
Caracciolo seafront / Mergellina
Capodimonte Palace
Historical and monumental cemeteries of Poggioreale.
Health District


Old Town

Via Duomo the street of the Museums
Along via Duomo you can admire seven wonders which are now identified by the path "La Via dei Musei". Going up via Duomo to the crossroads with via Foria, the "Via dei Musei" includes: San Severo al Pendino museum complex, Gaetano Filangieri Civic Museum, Pio Monte della Misericordia – Church and picture gallery, San Gennaro Treasure Museum, Girolamini National Monument , Donnaregina Monumental Complex – Diocesan Museum, Madre – Donnaregina Museum of Contemporary Art.

1 San Severo al Pendino Museum Complex (San Severo al Pendino Museum Complex), Via Duomo 286, ☏ +39 081 20 20 53. Mon-Sat 9am-6.30pm.
2 Gaetano Filangieri Civic Museum, Via Duomo 288. Tue-Fri 9.00-18.00.
3 Pio Monte della Misericordia – Church and picture gallery, Via dei Tribunali, 253,
4 Museum of the Treasure of San Gennaro, Via Duomo 149, ☎ +39 338 3361771,
5 Napoli Sotterranea, Piazza San Gaetano, 68 (next to the Basilica of San Paolo Maggiore), ☎ +39 081 29 69 44, +39 081 01 90 933, +39 334 36 62 841, +39 340 46 06 045, +39 334 36 62 841, Mon-Sun 10:00, 11:00, 12:00, 13:00, 14:00, 15:00, 16:00, 17:00, 18:00 (Thursday 21:00 by reservation only, reaching a minimum of 10 people). The tour shows the former stone quarries used for the buildings of the city, later transformed into a water distribution network, waste disposal pits and finally a war shelter. You will visit several increasingly large areas connected by narrow paths: be careful if you are claustrophobic! Also, the tour shows the remains of the nearby Greco-Roman theater.
6 Church of the Girolamini, entrance from via Duomo.
7 Mural of the Madonna with Pistol by Banksy, Piazza Gerolomini, 106/115. This is the only Banksy mural produced in Naples, and represents a Madonna with a gun on her head. The work is now protected by a display case.
8 Donnaregina Monumental Complex – Diocesan Museum, Largo Donna Regina, ☎ +390815571365
9 Donnaregina Contemporary Art Museum, Via Settembrini Luigi, 79 (Closest metro station: Cavour).
10 Naples Cathedral ( Duomo di Napoli, Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta or Cattedrale di San Gennaro) (Naples Cathedral), Via Duomo 147. Free. Access to the Tesono di San Gennaro chapel costs €3. Cathedral of Naples and seat of the archdiocese of Naples. The construction began in the thirteenth century and was completed in the Middle Ages, for this reason it presents an overlapping of several architectural styles starting from the Gothic, up to the neo-Gothic of the nineteenth century. Three times a year the ritual of dissolving the blood of San Gennaro is held, kept in ampoules in the Cathedral. The Cathedral also houses the royal chapel of the Treasure of San Gennaro, which preserves the relics of the city's patron saint.
The current Cathedral stands on a religious complex from the 9th century. Today two buildings of early Christian origin remain of this original complex: the baptistery of San Giovanni in Fonte, the oldest in the West, and the primitive basilica of Santa Restituta.
11 Basilica of Santa Restituta (Santa Restituta), Via Duomo 147. Basilica of early Christian origin, built by order of the emperor Constantine in the 4th century on a site previously occupied by the temple of Apollo. It is the oldest Neapolitan basilica and primitive cathedral of the city. Today it constitutes the third chapel of the left aisle of the cathedral of Naples.
12 Baptistery of San Giovanni in Fonte (Early Christian Baptistery), Via Duomo 147. 2 EUR. Of paleo-Christian origin, the baptistery of San Giovanni in Fonte is located to the right of the apse of the basilica of Santa Restituta and was built by the emperor Constantine together with the basilica. The building consists of two parts: the baptismal hall, with a square plan, in the center of which is the baptismal font, and a rectangular portico. The vault of the room is covered with mosaics from the 5th century, made by local artists, which are now partially preserved.
13 Church of San Gregorio Armeno (Church of Saint Patrizia), Via San Gregorio Armeno, 1, ☎ +39 081 552 0186. free. Mon-Sat 09:00-12:00, Sun 09:00-13:00. The church was completed in 1640, in honor of San Gregorio d'Armenia and represents, together with the adjacent monastery, one of the most important Baroque complexes in Naples. The interior is decorated with 52 frescoes by Luca Giordano and is characterized by a single nave with five side porches and chapels, in an impressive triumph of Baroque decorations.
14 Basilica of San Lorenzo Maggiore, Via Tribunali, 316 (Piazza Cavour metro station).
15 Church of S. Domenico Maggiore, Piazza San Domenico Maggiore, 8, ☎ +39 081 459 188. 10am-7pm. Undoubtedly one of the most important churches in Naples. This Gothic church from 1283 incorporates a smaller, original church built on this site in the 10th century, San Michele Arcangelo a Morfisa. The attached monastery has been home to prominent names in the history of religion and philosophy. It was the original site of the University of Naples, where Thomas Aquinas, a former monk of San Domenico Maggiore, returned to teach theology in 1272. The philosopher monk, Giordano Bruno, also lived here. The sacristy houses a series of 45 sepulchres of members of the Aragonese royal family, including that of King Ferdinand I.
16 Obelisk of San Domenico, Piazza San Domenico Maggiore.
17 Church of Sant'Angelo a Nilo.
18 Statue of the god Nile, Largo Corpo in Naples. It is a marble sculpture from the Roman era that can be dated between the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The history linked to the sculpture dates back to the times of Greco-Roman Naples, when many Egyptians from Alexandria of Egypt settled in the area where the monument still stands. During the second post-war period, two of the three putti that surrounded the deity below as well as the head of the sphinx that characterized the block of marble were detached and stolen, probably to be resold on the black market. The head of the sphinx will be found in 2013. The sculpture depicts the God Nile as a bearded and half-naked old man lying on the waves of the river, with his feet placed near the head (no longer visible) of a crocodile, symbol of Egypt, and which he leans with his left arm on a sphinx, holding a cornucopia in his right hand. Instead, the only surviving putto of the original composition tries to climb to his chest, probably depicting a tributary of the river.
19 Sansevero Chapel Museum, Via Francesco De Sanctis, 19/21. Whole €8. Children aged 10 to 25: €5. Children up to 9: free. Audio guide €3.50 (Jul 2020). Wed–Sun 9:00-19:00. A chapel built in 1590, it contains sculptures and other 18th-century works of art, such as the extraordinary Veiled Christ by Giuseppe Sanmartino. It is also of great scientific interest because it houses the anatomical machines of Raimondo Di Sangro, an eminent scientist and alchemist of the Renaissance. In addition, there are two models of human veins in the basement, which seem to be carved. Due to the small size of the site, the waiting line may be longer than at other attractions in Naples.
20 Church of San Giovanni a Carbonara, Via Cardinale Seripando (Closest metro station Cavour). The church is introduced by the "splendid pincer staircase" by the great 18th century architect Sanfelice who was entrusted with the task of redesigning the access. The church is hidden to its left and can be accessed from a side entrance. Made between 1343 and 1418 through the works of art present in it, it tells, among other things, the story of the last Angevins of the Durazzo branch "Ladislao I" and "Giovanna II" as well as of the Caracciolos, a powerful and noble Neapolitan family .
Unusual and original is the mausoleum that Giovanna II dedicates to her brother Ladislao which is located behind the altar, the result of unknown local workers even if traditionally attributed only to Andrea da Firenze. Through it you enter the Caracciolo del Sole chapel, with frescoes and majolica floor from the 1400s, dedicated to Sergianni Caracciolo, great seneschal and lover of Giovanna II, who had him killed in 1432.
Equally beautiful are the Caracciolo di Vico chapel, a fine example of the Neapolitan Renaissance and the Somma chapel designed by Giovanni Domenico D'Auria and Caccavello with frescoes from the sixteenth century.
In the church you can admire works by the masters Giovan Tommaso Malvito, Diego De Siloe, Bartolomé Ordóñez, Annibale Caccavello, Giovanni Domenico D'Auria, Giorgio Vasari (a Crucifix from 1545), Lorenzo Vaccaro, Michelangelo Naccherino.
21 National Archaeological Museum (Museo Archeologico Nazionale), Piazza Museo, 19 (Metro stop Museum).
22 Church of Santa Maria della Sapienza, Via Santa Maria di Costantinopoli.
23 Church of Santa Maria of Constantinople.
24 Church and cloister of S. Chiara, Via Santa Chiara, 49/c (Less than 10 minutes on foot from the University metro station and Piazza Dante).
25 Church of Sant'Eligio Maggiore, Piazza del Mercato.
26 ilCartastorie (Museum of the Banco di Napoli Historical Archive), Via dei Tribunali, 214 (at Palazzo Ricca), ☎ +39 081 449400, Full: €5, reduced: €3, groups: €4, schools: €2, children under 12: free. Guide +2€. Mon-Tue and Thu-Sat 10am-6pm, Sun 10am-2pm. In 2016 the ilCartastorie Foundation was born, an instrumental body of the Banco di Napoli Foundation, in order to pursue one of the latter's statutory purposes: the care, conservation, management, maintenance and promotion of the archive. The cultural heritage guarded by the Archive is enhanced through the homonymous museum project, ilCartastorie, based in the historic center of Naples, also home to the Banco di Napoli Foundation and formerly the headquarters of the Banco dei Poveri.
The wealth of information in the archive, contained in the detailed payment descriptions of the ancient public banks of the city, is a historical and cultural wealth which, thanks to the quality and quantity of its writings, allows an original dissemination of the economic, social, artistic history of Naples and the South. It is this consideration that generated the ilCartastorie project thanks to which about 80 kilometers of cards can tell the stories contained in bank payments even to a non-specialist audience.
The museum is a museum project that consists of a permanent offer, activity cycles and individual events. The common thread of the offer, permanent or not, is storytelling: the stories contained in the pages of the Archive are adapted and conveyed through all communication channels, as well as available artistic and expressive forms, addressing the different segments of the public in different ways creating for them an experience of wonder and amazement. Thus, the stories contained in the archive folders give rise to theatrical performances, artist residencies, creative writing workshops, comics, traditional and theatrical guided tours, multimedia productions, concerts, historical themed events and much more.
The Kaleidos multimedia itinerary, inaugurated on 30 March 2016, is the heart of the museum and constitutes its permanent offer. It develops on the first floor and consists of a sensory experience made up of images and sounds between pop-ups, touch screens and other interactive tools that tell some stories contained in the folders of the Archive. Seven intervention spaces in which, starting from the writings, the Treasure of San Gennaro, Raimondo di Sangro Prince of Sansevero and the Veiled Christ, the plague of 1656, slavery and many other stories involving well-known names and not of the history of Naples and Southern Italy.
For its enhancement work, the museum was awarded the EU Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards 2017, the most important in the sector at European level.


Spanish Quarters

27 Palazzo Zevallos Stigliano, Via Toledo 185.
28 Church of the Holy Trinity of the Spaniards (Spanish Quarters).
29 Church of San Carlo alle Mortelle (Spanish Quarters), vico San Carlo alle Mortelle 7. The church of San Carlo alle Mortelle is one of the monumental churches of Naples, it owes its name to a grove of myrtle trees present in that place until throughout the sixteenth century.
The church represents one of the main reference points of Baroque art in the city.
30 Palazzo Mastelloni, piazza Carità.
31 Basilica of the Holy Spirit, Piazza Sette Settembre.
32 Church of Santa Maria della Concezione in Montecalvario (Quartieri Spagnoli).
33 Church of Sant'Anna di Palazzo, Piazzetta Rosario di Palazzo (Spanish Quarters).


Health District

34 Church of San Vincenzo de' Paoli, Via Vergini, 51, ☎ +39 081 454811.
35 Augustan Aqueduct of Serino Archaeological Site, Via Arena Sanità, 5, ☎ +39 340 7031630, 5 EUR. Guided tours on Saturday and Sunday at 10.30 and 12.00, closed on Mondays, visits by reservation from Tuesday to Friday. The Augustan aqueduct of Serino is one of the largest infrastructural works of the Roman Empire, born from the need to bring drinking water to the Piscina mirabilis, a cistern for supplying the Roman fleet in the port of Miseno. In its course of about 100 km, the aqueduct also supplied the cities of Nola, Acerra, Atella, Naples, Pozzuoli, Baia, and Cuma.
In 2011 two sections of the ancient aqueduct were discovered in the underground rooms of Palazzo Peschici-Maresca, built in two different periods as demonstrated by the different construction techniques. The archaeological site has a series of pillars and arches built in bricks alternating with tuff and held together by cement.
Over the centuries, the remains of the Augustan aqueduct were first buried due to the raising of the ground level due to the floods to which the place is subject, and then, in about the sixteenth century, with the expansion of the city outside the walls, were used as a base on which to support the foundations on which Palazzo Peschici-Maresca still stands today. The spaces created by the arches of the aqueduct together with the foundations of the building were used over the centuries as storage rooms, and as a refuge from bombing during the Second World War. In the post-war period, the premises were filled, presumably with the remains left by the bombing of the city and then abandoned, until they were rediscovered in recent years.
The highly suggestive site is managed by the Associazione VerginiSanità which takes care of its maintenance, enhancement, study and research. The site can only be visited with a guided tour organized by the association.


Areas of piazza Monteoliveto and Quartiere San Giuseppe

36 Church of Sant'Anna dei Lombardi (Santa Maria di Monteoliveto), Piazza Monteoliveto. The cultural and economic vitality of the Kingdom of Naples between the 15th and 16th centuries is demonstrated by the beauty of this church which represents one of the most surprising examples of Tuscan Renaissance art in Naples. Begun around 1411, thanks to the good relations that the Aragonese had with the Medici and the Estensi, the construction of the church could count on the intervention of prestigious masters. In it you can admire works of absolute artistic value, among others we mention "The Sacristy of Vasari", an ancient refectory frescoed by Giorgio Vasari in 1545; the Lamentation over the Dead Christ from the end of the 15th century, a life-size terracotta work by Guido Mazzoni and the Piccolomini chapel, the most significant example of the figurative culture of the last 15th century in Tuscany in Naples.
The Church took on its current name (Sant'Anna dei Lombardi) during the 19th century when it was occupied by the Archconfraternity of the Lombards who moved there following the unavailability of their place of worship (the Church of Sant'Anna operates in the ' 500 by Domenico Fontana). The Arciconfraternita dei Lombardi, founded at the end of the 15th century, was a point of reference for all those who moved to the capital of the Kingdom of Naples from the territories of Veneto and Lombardy, attracted by the possibility of starting commercial activities or being able to find work.


Areas of piazza Municipio and piazza del Plebiscito

In Piazza del Plebiscito a game between tourists and newcomers is in vogue. You have to go blindfolded through the square starting from the door of Palazzo Reale and pass the two lions. This operation, which seems simple, actually does not succeed easily because as the square is downhill it tends to take a different direction making mistakes easily.

37 Maschio Angioino (New Castle), Piazza Municipio.
38 Basilica of San Francesco di Paola, Piazza del Plebiscito. Free. Built on the model of St. Peter's in the Vatican.
39 Underground Naples, Vico S. Anna di Palazzo 52, ☎ +39 081 400 256, +39 333 9729875, Mon-Fri 10am, 12pm, 4.30pm. Sat 10am, 12pm, 4.30pm, 6pm. Sun and public holidays 10am, 11am, 12pm, 4.30pm, 6pm. With gathering in Piazza Trieste e Trento - (Bar Gambrinus). The excursions last approximately 60 minutes.
40 Galleria Borbonica, Vico del Grottone, 4, ☎ +39 081 764 5808, €10 (Jul 2020). Fri-Sun 09:30-13:00 and 14:30-17:00. A tour of an old tunnel that connects the palace to the military barracks, used as a bomb shelter during WWII. Several paths are possible.
41 Palazzo Reale, piazza del Plebiscito 1, ☎ +39 081 5808255, ☎ +39 848082408, fax: +39 081 40356, Full price €6, reduced price €2 (Jul 2020). Thurs-Tues 9:00-20:00, last admission 19:00. Courtyards and romantic garden 9:00-19:00, last admission 18:00. One of the four residences used by the Bourbon kings of Naples during the reign of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1730-1860). The Royal Palace stands on the site of an earlier building intended to house King Philip III of Spain, who however never made a trip there. The architect chosen for that building was Domenico Fontana. The building was built on the site of an even older Spanish viceroy residence in the early 16th century. The 17th-century palazzo visible today is the result of numerous additions and modifications, including some by Luigi Vanvitelli in the mid-18th century and then by Gaetano Genovese.
42 Pawnshop.
43 Mural of the Madonna with Pistol by Banksy, Piazza Gerolomini, 106/115.
44 Murales della prudicizia, Via Emanuele de Deo, 46. It represents a female statue covered in white fabrics. All around there are other murals on Napoli football and Maradona.


Chiaia district (Mergellina and Posillipo)

45 Castel dell'Ovo (Mergellina).
46 Pignatelli Museum (Inside the villa of the same name).
47 Anton Dohrn Zoological Station.
48 Posillipo archaeological park.
49 Villa Rosebery (Posillipo).
50 Church of Santa Maria di Piedigrotta (Piedigrotta).
51 Parco Vergiliano in Piedigrotta (park of the Tomb of Virgil), ascent of the Grotto, 20 (behind the church of the same name). Wed-Mon: 16 October-15 April 10:00-14:50; April 16-October 15, 9:00-19:00. It is a park in Naples famous because it preserves the sepulcher that popular tradition has it of Virgil, and also the sepulchral monument that contains what is assumed to be the remains of Giacomo Leopardi. In hell there is the Crypta Neapolitana, also called Grotta di Pozzuoli or Grotta di Posillipo, an imposing tunnel from the Roman era that connects Mergellina with Fuorigrotta, but also the conduit of the Augustan aqueduct of Serino.


Out of the centre

52 Certosa di San Martino, Largo San Martino (Vomero hill).
53 Castel Sant'Elmo (Vomero hill). 2.5€. Mon-Sun 9:00-18.00. News relating to the Castle dates back to the second half of the 1200s. At the behest of King Robert of Anjou, the great Sienese sculpture architect of the 1300s Tino di Camaino worked on its expansion. From Piazza d'Armi in Castel Sant'Elmo you can enjoy a breathtaking view of the Gulf of Naples and Pozzuoli. It houses the Museo del'900 (1910-1980) with works of the first (1914-1920) and second Futurism in Naples.
54 Floridiana Villa and Museum, Via Domenico Cimarosa, 77, 80127 Naples (Vomero Hill. Closest metro station Vanvitelli).
55 Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte (National Museum of Capodimonte), Via Milano 2 (Underground line 1 Museum stop then by bus: 168 and 178 (Porta Piccola stop, via Miano); C63 (Porta Grande stop, via Capodimonte); 604 (Viale Colli Aminei stop, about 200 m from Porta Piccola)), ☎ +39 081 7499111, 14 EUR full price, reduced 8 EUR for visitors between the ages of 18 and 25, 6 EUR on free Sundays and on other free admission days, free for under 18s. The ticket also includes access to temporary exhibitions. Thu-Tue 8:30-19:30. Museum located inside the palace of the same name, historical residence of the Bourbons. It houses paintings from the 13th to the 18th century, including important works by Simone Martini, Raphael, Titian, Caravaggio, Masaccio, Sandro Botticelli, Lorenzo Lotto, Giovanni Bellini, Giorgio Vasari, El Greco, Jacob Philipp Hackert. It also houses the works of the most important Neapolitan painters, such as Jusepe de Ribera, Luca Giordano, the Neapolitan Caravaggisti.
56 Capodimonte Park. October and February-March: 7am-6pm, November-January: 7am-5pm, April-September: 7am-7.30pm.
57 Catacombs of San Gennaro, Via Capodimonte, 13 (Take the bus to Capodimonte. Entrance adjacent to the Basilica del Buon Consiglio). Adults €9, Students/Over 65s/Police Forces €6, minors €5. The ticket is valid for the Catacombs of San Gennaro and San Gaudioso (Jul 2020). Mon-Sat 10am-5pm, Sun 10am-2pm. A large area of two-story catacombs restored and maintained by a few dozen local groups. Tombs, frescoes, mosaics, etc. are visible.
58 Catacombs of San Gaudioso, Piazza Sanità, 14 (On the road to the catacombs of San Gennaro, get off at the bridge and take the lift. It is also possible to exit right from the chapel of San Gennaro and walk along the road. At the Basilica Santa Maria della Healthcare). Adults €9, Students/Over 65s/Police Forces €6, minors €5. The ticket is valid for the Catacombs of San Gennaro and San Gaudioso (Jul 2020). Mon-Sun 10am-1pm. An area of catacombs where a gruesome "drain" ritual was performed. Some remains of skulls in the walls, parts of skeletons and wall paintings are shown. The history of the "upstairs" church is also on display.
Church of S. Gaetano.
St Paul's Church.
59 Cemetery of the 366 graves (Cemetery of Santa Maria del Popolo), Via Fontanelle Al Trivio (It is located on a natural terrace located halfway up the slope near the Poggioreale area, more precisely on the hill of Cupa Lautrec. From the central station in Piazza Garibaldi: 27 minutes on foot or by car/taxi: 9 minutes). Testimony of the Bourbon period, the first public cemetery in Europe and perhaps in the world, it was designed and built by the architect Ferdinando Fuga in the mid-18th century, under the regency of Ferdinand IV at the behest of Charles III to house the bodies of the less well-off class of the capital of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Since then it has been owned by the Archconfraternity of Santa Maria degli Incurabili.
An "architectural machine" of a rationalist matrix conceived to house death, therefore complementary to the nearby and mammoth Albergo dei Poveri, it is an open-air quadrilateral with 19x19 pits and the plaster portico which contains 5 more, so as to obtain 366 for a total of 80X80 meters per side.
It has this structure because a different pit was opened each day for each day of the year. They all have the same features: a parallelepiped 4x4 meters and 7 deep, 3 hooks above which allowed the opening and a circle which represented the number of the day and below a large beehive net with a grate. The day pit was opened at dusk after the priest's blessing. Once placed, the corpses were covered with lime and then closed again.
The area behind the cemetery, currently full of vegetation, was then used temporarily during the cholera epidemic as the pits were no longer sufficient. The whole area of Santa Maria del Pianto could be used as an open-air museum "park of memory of the cemetery of the 366 graves".
As soon as you enter the cemetery, on the left there is a machine: a winch with 4 wheels, 4 pylons and a hook in the center with which a metal coffin was held, which, upon contact with the remains of the bodies, opened and dropped gently the body. The winch therefore allowed the deceased to be lowered rather than thrown away. The idea of using this machine was brought by a noblewoman who, when her handmaid died and took her to the cemetery, saw the violent way in which the bodies of the deceased were treated. Some components of the winch are pieces of the lamp post that once stood at the center of the quadrilateral. Currently inside the quadrilateral and under the entrance portico, there are niches owned by the arch-confreres of the Incurables. Below the subsoil there is a whole underground area.
To the right of the entrance portico there is a consecrated chapel, in which there are various niches. At the end of this chapel it is possible, if you stay to the right, to go down into the underground area where two roads branch off: on the right, a modern area which extends for a length equal to that of one side of the quadrilateral and about 6 meters in height , while on the left, a corridor that has preserved the ancient features of similar dimensions, but without niches.
60 Real Hotel of the Poor. Descending from the cemetery with just 15 minutes on foot, you reach Piazza Carlo III where you can admire the Real Albergo de' Poveri (or Palazzo Fuga), also built by Ferdinando Fuga in 1751 under the regency of Ferdinand IV at the behest of Carlo III in order to accommodate the life of the destitute people. It appears to be one of the largest eighteenth-century buildings in Europe which extends over an area of 103,000 m² and has a 400-metre-long façade. It is very interesting to walk inside where there are three courtyards, the central one where we find the cross of Saint Andrew and two lateral courtyards used as gardens. The building is also equipped with 430 rooms of different sizes: the largest measure 40 meters in length on all levels, are 8 meters wide and 8 meters high. It is not always possible to visit it inside but already the walk along the external perimeter that overlooks the square gives an idea of its majesty.
61 Piazza Carlo III (Located between the San Carlo all'Arena, San Lorenzo and Poggioreale districts). It was originally known as the Piazza del Reclusorio because the "Real Albergo dei Poveri" was called this way. In 1891, by decree of the royal commissioner Giuseppe Saredo it was named after the Bourbon King; the square properly understood was born in the 19th century with the urbanization of the area and in particular with the construction of corso Garibaldi The square has a hemicycle shape into which many important arteries of the area converge: via Foria, corso Garibaldi, via Sant'Alfonso Maria de' Liguori, via Sant'Antonio Abate, via Giovanni Gussone, via Alessio Mazzocchi and via Don Bosco. In the center there is an island with flower beds covered with palm trees and with a central avenue, obtained through the reuse of the disused railway site.


Streets and More

The decumani: via S.Biagio dei Librai or Spaccanapoli (Lower Decumanus); via dei Tribunali (Decumano Maggiore); via dell'Anticaglia (Decumano Superiore).
Capodimonte wood
San Carlo Theatre
Borgo Marinari
Largo San Martino
Tomb of Leopardi and Virgil
Plebiscite Square
Stairs of San Martino
Stairs of Petraio
Clear sea
San Gregorio Armeno (famous via dei presepi)
Basilica of Santa Chiara and internal majolica cloister
Vomero district: via Scarlatti, Piazza Vanvitelli, Villa Floridiana, Duke of Martina Museum
Castel Sant'Elmo
62 Church of Santa Maria Francesca (Santa Maria Francesca delle Cinque Piaghe), Vico Tre Re a Toledo, 13, ☎ +39 081 42 50 11, It can be visited on the 6th day of each month, the monthly remembrance day of the Saint after the masses of 7:30, 9:15, 10:30 and 18:00 (on holidays 7:30, 10:30, 12:00, 18: 00). She is the object of a particular devotion in Naples where she is considered the patroness of the Spanish Quarters and of sterile and pregnant women.
63 Murals "Dios Umano" and "Essere Umani", avenue 2 June. In this difficult district of the city two famous murals were created, one with the face of Diego Armando Maradona on the other side the face of the "scugnizzo" Niccolò. The work was created by the artist Jorit who self-financed it by giving it to the city and the neighbourhood. The other mural by the same artist is modesty.


Events and parties

Vitigno Italia, Castel Dell'Ovo, ☎ +39 0814104533, May. Exhibition of Italian Wines and Vineyard Territories.
May of Monuments. Throughout the period of the event (on the weekends from the end of April to the beginning of June) the city is colored by many free cultural events (guided walks in the alleys, classical music concerts in the courtyards of the noble palaces or in the street, exhibitions, theatrical performances, guided tours etc). Many monuments or beauties otherwise inaccessible during the year are made usable thanks to the contribution of special guides - school groups adopt an attraction and guide tourists along the entire route, describing it free of charge and in their own language.


Getting here

By plane
The Naples-Capodichino airport (IATA: NAP), located 4.5 km from the center of Naples, is limited in its development as it is located in a densely populated area; it is connected to the city center with a bus system and taxi service.
The airport is connected to the city via the Alibus bus service. From the airport, make the stops in Piazza Garibaldi (Central Station) - Immacolatella/Porta di Massa (inside the Port) and Molo Angioino/Beverello (Maritime Station terminal), at a cost of €5 (Jul 2020). There is also a taxi and shared taxi service, for more information read here.

By car
For those arriving from the North, the main road leading to Naples is the Autostrada del Sole Milano-Napoli. After the Caserta Sud tollbooth, there is a junction of about 8 km which connects to the Naples ring road which leads to the various exits towards the city. For those who need to reach the centre, it is advisable to follow the signs for Napoli Centro-Porto-Stazione Marittima-Stazione Centrale. Those arriving from the south via the Salerno-Reggio Calabria road reach the same crossroads and must follow the signs for Napoli Centro-Porto-Stazione Marittima-Stazione Centrale or Tangenziale. Even the Bari-Naples reaches the junction from which there are the exits for the Tangenziale or Napoli Centro.

On boat
The Angioino pier is the port of call for cruise ships.
The Beverello pier is the main port of the city from which ships depart for the islands of the gulf, Sardinia, Sicily (Catania and Palermo).
The small port of Mergellina located in via Caracciolo is the stopover for hydrofoils to the island of Ischia with departures several times a day.
The port of Pozzuoli, connected through the Cumana line to the capital of Campania, connects with the islands of the Campania archipelago.

On the train
Stations on regional and national routes
1 Naples Central Station. The main railway station in Naples is Napoli Centrale. It is connected with the most important Italian cities. The station is located in the city centre.
2 Naples Afragola station (north of the city centre). High-speed trains stop at this modern station.
3 Naples Campi Flegrei station (also served by L2 metropolitan trains).

Previously railway underground stations
4 Piazza Garibaldi station, Piazza Garibaldi.
5 Mergellina station.

By bus
There are two main lines that lead to the city center: the 3S line that leads to Piazza Garibaldi (Central Station) from which it is then very easy to take all the buses or the metro that lead to the different parts of the city. The dedicated Alibus line also leaves from the airport and leads to Piazza Garibaldi (Central Station, metro and buses for the whole city) and to Piazza Municipio (City Center) in front of the port and the embarkations for the gulf islands.

Troiolo Bus, Corso Garibaldi, 185 - Siderno, ☎ +39 0964 381325, fax: +39 0964 381325, The company allows the direct connection of Naples with Africo, Ardore, Badolato, Bianco, Bovalino, Brancaleone, Catanzaro, Catanzaro Lido, Caulonia, Davoli, Guardavalle, Isca sull'Ionio, Lamezia Terme, Locri, Marina di Gioiosa Ionica, Monasterace, Montepaone, Polistena, Riace, Roccella Jonica, Rosarno, Sant'Andrea Apostolo dello Jonio, Santa Caterina, Siderno, Soverato, Squillace, Taurianova and Vibo Valentia; not all connections are daily.

With carpooling
The Municipality of Naples, through the establishment of the provision to limit traffic for the purpose of improving environmental conditions, encourages carpooling by establishing an exemption for Euro 2 and Euro 3 cars with at least three people on board. For more information see: Municipality of Naples/Carpooling.


Get around

By public transport
Naples has a metro network consisting of three lines:
line 1 (called "hilly"),
line 2 (the first subway in Italy, managed by Trenitalia)
line 6

To these are added some suburban railway lines operated by the Volturno Autonomous Body:
the Circumflegrea
the Circumvesuviana

Naples also boasts of four funiculars: Centrale, Chiaia, Mergellina and Montesanto.

Then there are the buses and trams managed by the ANM and the EAV buses which offer a wider service connecting Naples with the nearby provinces.

There is also a maritime service called Metrò del Mare which, mainly using hydrofoils, connects the major ports of the Campania coast. It has 6 lines that connect the capital of Campania with Salerno, various towns in Cilento and other important centers in the Gulf of Naples such as Castellammare di Stabia, Vico Equense, Torre Annunziata and Torre del Greco.

To move around the city by public transport, you need to have "Unico Napoli" tickets, which have replaced the historic "Giranapoli" tickets, the first expression of fare integration in the region. Here are the main types of tickets:

Single stroke
ANM: €1.10
Other companies: €1.30
Daily ticket
Corporate: €3.50
Integrated: €4.50
Weekly ticket (€12.50)
Monthly subscription (€35.00)
Annual subscription (€235.20)

All of them are valid for the entire urban transport network: subways, buses, trams, funiculars, Cumana, Circumflegrea and Circumvesuviana (the latter only for the sections included in the territory of the municipality of Naples). The fares and the issue of travel tickets are managed by the Unico Campania Consortium, which then distributes the traffic revenues among the companies (ANM, EAV Circumvesuviana, CTP, Metronapoli, Sepsa and Trenitalia) in proportion to the passages offered.

On the EAV railway lines (Naples-Sorrento and Aversa-Piscinola) and ANM (Metro Line 1 and Funiculars) it is possible to directly access the enabled turnstiles using the contactless payment cards of the American Express, Mastercard, Maestro, Visa and V-Pay circuits. The ticket can also be purchased with the UnicoCampania app.

Out of town
Born in the early years of the new century, and extended on 1 January 2003 to all 160 municipalities of the Campania Region, the single ticket allows you to move freely within the city (with all possible public transport), and to travel between Naples and the municipalities of the chosen band with the lines of numerous affiliated companies, and with Trenitalia trains.

There are 11 territorial bands and different types of tickets, the prices of which depend on the band in question:
Single ride (company only)
Hourly ticket (integrated only)
Daily ticket
Weekly subscription
Monthly subscription
Annual subscription
Annual Student Subscription
For all types of tickets, there are corporate titles and integrated titles, with the exception of those indicated.

Visit the website for more detailed information, for the entire tariff framework of Unico Campania and for the list of municipalities in the individual brackets.

By bike
Map of cycle paths by the Municipality of Naples.



The shopping streets of Naples are: via Calabritto (which joins piazza Vittoria to piazza dei Martiri) and the prestigious via Filangieri with its continuation via dei Mille, where you can find high fashion shops for high budgets; via Chiaia (entirely pedestrian, which leads from piazza dei Martiri to piazza Trieste e Trento) where medium-budget shops are located; and the economic shopping streets, namely, corso Umberto I and via Roma (formerly via Toledo). For the purchase of books of all kinds and types, from school books to fiction books, to used comics, there is the famous Port'Alba, one of the main gates of ancient Naples. Furthermore, in Naples there is a chain of chocolate shops, Gay-Odin. There, you can taste the famous Cioccolato Foresta and many other chocolate delicatessens. San Gregorio Armeno is the street that crosswise connects the decumani and where the characteristic shops of artisans who model the crib statuettes are concentrated, from the most modest to the very valuable ones in imitation of the famous Neapolitan cribs of the eighteenth century. Then there is the area commonly called, in Neapolitan, "a'Stazion". It refers to the Piazza Garibaldi area where the Napoli Centrale railway station is also located. Now considered the Neapolitan Chinatown, you can make purchases of all kinds (from clothing to electronics) at very advantageous prices. But beware of the "package"! For cheap shopping and "bargains", in addition to the Piazza Garibaldi area, there is also the Poggioreale market.



Theaters of Naples
San Carlo Theatre. Opera, ballet, concerts.
Mercadante Theatre. It includes a small room.
San Ferdinando Theater.
Augustan Theater.
Bellini Theatre. It includes a small room.
Diana Theater.

New Theater. It includes a small room.
Toledo Gallery.
Helicanthrope Theater.
New Health Theatre.
North Area Theater.
Theater The First.
Cinema Theater of the Palms.
San Carluccio Theatre.
Politeama Theater.
Toto Theatre.
Trianon Theater. Mostly musical.
Cilea Theatre.
Bracco Theatre.
Acacia Theater.
Troisi Theatre.

Little ones
ARCAS Circle.
Theater De Poche.
Internal Theater 5.


Where to eat

Naples (and Campania in general) is famous all over the world for its gastronomic specialities. In the capital of Campania there is a vast assortment of typical gastronomic products. Naples is, of course, famous all over the world for its pizza. It should be mentioned that "in Naples pizza is good everywhere".

Surely one way to get to know the city is through its cuisine. Many illustrious directors or playwrights have celebrated their "myth" in order to tell this people. The great Eduardo described the ritual of ragù which must be "pippiare" (slow boiling) for a long time to succeed and dedicates an entire scene to coffee tasting with all the details for its correct preparation in his famous theatrical comedy "These Ghosts". Also famous is the scene of spaghetti eaten with his hands by Totò in "Miseria e nobiltà". With a strong identity, it draws its origins from the peasant tradition and at the same time from the creativity of the court chefs of the Bourbon Kingdom. This cuisine balances the "colors" and "flavors" of the fruits of "Campania Felix" and the sea, and reworks with originality the different foreign influences that have followed one another for centuries. The wines of the area are excellent and of high quality.

Refined and elaborate dishes together with poor dishes, street food and excellent desserts are easily found in the city. To taste:

First dishes
Maritata soup (based on meat and vegetables, typical at Christmas or Easter);
Zuppa forte or Zuppa di sauté;
Pasta with beans and mussels;
Potato and scamorza pasta;
Pasta and lentils;
Pasta with green peas;
Macaroni timbale
Sartù Rice;
Seafood risotto;
Tagliatelle with ragu;
Spaghetti with clams;

Second Courses
Cod 'ndurat and fritt (fried)
Tomato cod and olives
Tortiera anchovies (marinated anchovies)
Tracchiulelle (pork rib with meat sauce);
Sasicc e friariell (sausage and friarielli);
Purpitielli affogat (Octopus with sauce);
Buffalo mozzarella;
Eggplant alla scarpone (Aubergines in boat);
Eggplant Parmesan;
Zucchini alla scapece (golden zucchini with white wine vinegar, extra virgin olive oil, garlic, mint and salt);

Single meal
mussel mpepata;
mussel soup;

Snack or whole meal
Tortano and casatiello;
pizza with escarole (eat at Easter and/or on Christmas Eve or New Year's Eve for lunch while waiting for Christmas dinner or dinner)
o' Cuoppo (fried seafood with blue fish, baby squid or seaweed zeppoline),

Sweets and pastries
Curly and shortcrust pastry;
Neapolitan pastry;
Baked Roccocò is based on almonds, flour, sugar, candied fruit and various spices;
Susamielli Christmas sweet made with flour, sugar, almonds and honey, and are flavored with cinnamon, pepper, nutmeg;
Zeppole di san giuseppe is prepared on March 19 for the feast of San Giuseppe;
Cassatine: sweet made with sheep's milk ricotta, candied fruit and witch liqueur;
chiacchiere fried or baked dough covered with icing sugar sometimes also with honey or chocolate;

You come
for the wines: Coda di Volpe, still and sparkling Falanghina, Piedirosso, Falerno

Modest prices
The pizzerias in the historic center are all renowned and the food is really good. The prices are accessible for every pocket, usually, for pizza, drink and covered, it does not go beyond € 10.00.
1 Antica Pizzeria Port'Alba, Via Port'Alba. Opened as a pizzeria in 1830, it is considered the oldest in the world.
2 Casa Infante, Via Toledo, 258, ☎ +39 081 1931 2009. Ice cream shop.
3 Pizzeria De' Figliole, Via Giudecca Vecchia, 39, ☎ +39 081 286721.
4 Pizzeria Di Matteo, Via dei Tribunali, 94, ☎ +39 081 455262.
5 Pizzeria Dal Presidente, Via dei Tribunali, 120, ☎ +39 081 296710.
6 Pizzeria Sorbillo, Via dei Tribunali, 32, ☎ +39 081 446643.

Average prices
7 Perfectoo, Corso Umberto I, 28, ☎ +39 081 410 9100. Bar and restaurant.

High prices
For the medium-high price category, we can mention the restaurants of the Borgo Marinaro, on the slopes of Castel dell'Ovo.
8 Gran Caffè Gambrinus, Via Chiaia, ☎ +39 081 417582. Its name derives from the mythological king of Flanders Joannus Primus, considered the patron saint of beer. The Gran Caffè Gambrinus is one of the top ten cafés in Italy and is part of the Association of Historic Places of Italy. Furnished in Art Nouveau style, it preserves stuccoes, statues and paintings from the end of the 19th century created by Neapolitan artists. Among these there are also works by Gabriele D'Annunzio and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. From the Belle Époque onwards it was frequented by historical figures: Gabriele D'Annunzio, Benedetto Croce, Matilde Serao, Eduardo Scarpetta, Totò and the De Filippos, Ernest Hemingway, Oscar Wilde, Jean Paul Sartre, among others. Even the Empress of Austria Sissi, Elisabetta Amalia Eugenia of Wittelsbach on her trip to Naples in 1890 stopped at the Gambrinus.


Where stay

Modest prices
1 BnB Naples, via Medina, 17 (50 meters from the Municipio stop of Metro 1), ☎ +39 081 5519978, +39 361 56153 (mobile), 35/120€. Check-in: 15.00/19.00, check-out: 12.30. With a classic and functional style, it combines the ancient character of the building in which it is located (the ancient Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini) with the modernity of the services offered.
2 B&B In the Historic Center, Via dei Tribunali 138 (200 meters from the Metro Line 1), ☎ +39 081 18995305, €35/80. Check-in: 12:00, check-out: 23:00. Modern B&B equipped with all comforts in the historic center of the city.
3 Napoli Suite, Corso Umberto I, 284 (near the central station), ☎ +390815543271, Comfortable rooms in a historic building. Located on the first floor, there is curiously a coin-operated lift which is active in certain time slots.

Average prices
Vascio Della Duchess, vico s. margherita a fonseca 45, Typical Neapolitan Vascio, ideal for stays of up to 4 people.

High prices
4 Hotel NH Ambassador, Via Medina, 70 (In the historical center of Naples), ☎ +39 081 4105111, The NH Ambassador hotel is located near many of the city's most famous attractions, such as the Maschio Angioino, Palazzo Reale, Piazza del Plebiscito and the Teatro San Carlo. The hotel is also just 700 meters from the Beverello pier, from where visitors can take a ferry to the beautiful islands of Ischia, Procida or Capri.
5 Hotel Excelsior, Via Partenope 48 (A few steps from the center and a few minutes from Molo Beverello), ☏ +39 081 7640111, from €200 to €600 per night, up to €2000. The Excelsior Hotel overlooks the splendid Gulf of Naples, Castel dell'Ovo and Borgo Marinari.
6 Villa Gervasio, Via Bellavista 176 (In Bacoli), ☎ +39 081 8687892, Modern, comfortable, refined and elegant hotel on the Flegrea peninsula.



Naples is a large metropolitan city and as such, there is a presence of pickpockets and scammers. Be wary of anyone offering you a deal, perhaps at a good price, it could be a scam.

Pay attention to one's possessions, never leave bags and suitcases unattended, do not flaunt riches, such as necklaces and watches, even if in recent times the criminal rate has decreased considerably. They are all excellent precautions to safeguard oneself in every metropolis.

In any case, the Neapolitans are extremely sociable and warm, ready to help in case of need. Some may even show you very suggestive hidden places that you otherwise would not have passed.
Useful numbers and addresses
Municipality, ☎ +39 081 7951111.
Municipal Police, ☎ +39 081 7513177.
Red Cross, ☎ +39 081 7528282.
Medical assistance:
Business Centre, Palazzo Esedra, Is. F9, ☎ +39 081 2541111, +39 081 2544452 (info), +39 081 2544415 (info), +39 081 2544429 (info).
Health District 47, Via S. Gennaro in Antignano (Arenella), ☎ +39 081 2549111, +39 081 2549788 (info).
Health District 51, Via De Gasperi, 55 (Lawyer), ☎ +39 081 2542111, +39 081 2542363 (info).
Health District 45, Via F. Degni, 25 (Fuorigrotta), ☎ +39 081 7686671, +39 081 7686418 (info).
Health District 53, Piazza Nazionale, 95 (Market), ☎ +39 081 2549111, +39 081 2549105 (info).
Health District 50, Via Valente Miano (Miano), ☎ +39 081 2546111, +39 081 2546977 (info).
Health District 49, Via Don Bosco, 4f (S. Carlo all'Arena), ☎ +39 081 2541111, +39 081 2545934 (info).
Health District 52, Via B. Quaranta, 2 bis (S. Giovanni), ☎ +39 081 2542111, +39 081 2543754 (info).
Health District 48, Viale Resistenza, 25 (Scampia), ☎ +39 0812546111, +39 081 7023634 (info), +39 081 2546565 (info).
Health District 46, Via G. Scherillo (Soccavo), ☎ +39 081 2548111, +39 081 2548384.
Health District 44, Via Croce Rossa, 9 (Vomero), ☎ +39 081 2547111, +39 081 2547475.


How to keep in touch

Poste Italiane, Vico Always Viva in Loreto, ☎ +39 081 2440931.
Poste Italiane - Campania Regional Office - Naples Center Branch, Piazzale Stazione Marittima, ☎ +39 081 5523175.



The historic fortune of Naples derives from its happy geographical position. Its surroundings are rich in natural and historical beauties, the latter having developed over a three thousand year history. A little further north of the Neapolitan capital there are cities such as Pozzuoli, Baia and Bacoli, all rich in important archaeological evidence above and below sea level. The first, in particular, is also interesting from a geological-naturalistic point of view due to the presence of the volcanic complex of Campi Flegrei.

From the port of Naples (Molo Beverello) it is also possible to reach the renowned islands of Capri and Ischia, both very rich in natural beauty, or the Sorrento Peninsula, for which we advise against, however, a "hit and run" tourism as you would lose the vast range of activities that these places offer. In summer, the islands and the most well-known tourist centres, such as Amalfi, Positano, the islands and Sorrento, could also be particularly crowded: it is advisable to inquire in advance if you prefer more privacy.

From Naples, the city of Portici can be reached in just over 10 minutes with the underground service, where it is possible to admire the splendid historic residence of the "Reggia di Portici" with the wood and the English garden commissioned by Charles of Bourbon. The covered riding track is undergoing recovery (a conservative restoration and re-functionalization is underway), evidence of the ancient Neapolitan tradition in the art of horse riding. Ideally linked to the riding track is the Reggia di Carditello in the province of Caserta in the land of work, another Bourbon site, built with the aim of studying and breeding valuable breeds of cattle and horses.

From Portici it is possible to follow the route of the 122 Vesuvian Villas of the Golden Mile, built by the Neapolitan nobility in the 18th century in the footsteps of the king. Great architects from Luigi Vanvitelli, to Ferdinando Fuga, Ferdinando Sanfelice, Domenico Antonio Vaccaro, Mario Gioffredo took turns in the construction of these splendid villas embellished with rococo and neoclassical gardens.

Again by the Bourbons, the first railway in Italy was created in 1839, the Naples-Portici, with the creation of the "Pietrarsa workshops" first used for maintenance and then also for the assembly of trains. As evidence of this primacy, the Pietrarsa Museum can be visited which is located in the factories of the "Royal Mechanical, Pyrotechnic and Locomotive Opificio", founded by Ferdinand II of Bourbon in 1840, which today represents one of the most fascinating examples of Italian industrial archaeology, and one of the most important railway museums in Europe.

About half an hour from Naples with the regional line of the State Railways you can reach the Royal Palace of Caserta which in 1997 was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, together with the Vanvitelli aqueduct and the San Leucio complex . The Reggia is probably one of the last examples of Italian Baroque, it is the largest royal residence in the world. In addition to the countless works of art in the rooms, the Italian and English-style gardens are magnificent. Extraordinary from a historical point of view is the village of San Leucio, a real example of the application of the ideas of the Neapolitan Enlightenment.


Origins of the name

«Neapolis got this name following an act of re-foundation, which, as we know, was not unique and was not limited only to the initial phase of its life, but experienced other similar experiences in the following years, so that we can almost say that Neapolis , in the end, turned out to be a sort of name-program of a city protagonist of processes such as to make it worth the title of city of refoundations, destined to experience frequent renewals.

(In Naples before Naples, by Daniela Giampaola, Emanuele Greco)
The etymology of the name "Naples" derives from the Greek term Neapolis (Νεάπολις) which means "new city", while its root refers to the arrival of new settlers, therefore to an epoikia. In fact, it was a real hallmark of the Greek era. The city absorbed new components and was reborn each time as Neapolis, the "New City", in fact: after its refoundation, the settlement reaffirmed its name with the overlapping of the Athenian, Pithecusan, Cumanan components (the escaped refugees, around 421 BC. , to the capture of the city by the Campani) and osca.



Ancient age

The exact site where the city developed, i.e. the hill of Pizzofalcone and the surrounding areas, has been frequented and occupied almost continuously since the Middle Neolithic.

Parthènope was founded as a Cuman epineion (landing point and stronghold) at the end of the 8th century BC. (although the oldest archaeological documentation is dated to the II-III quarter of the VIII century, i.e. between 750 and 720 BC), guarding the southern access to the gulf.

In the 6th century BC. the city was refounded as Neapolis (new city), progressively becoming one of the most important cities of Magna Graecia and constituting the main source through which the "Greekness" fed the nascent Roman culture.

The New City, in fact, was able immediately both to replace the mother city in maritime trade, and to assume control over the gulf which from Cumanus became the Neapolitan Gulf, while with the arrival of the Athenian navarca Diotimo inaugurated its increasingly hegemonic role over the entire coast Campania and "international" in the Mediterranean.

In 326 BC. it was conquered by the Romans, while retaining the civil legacy of its founders until the Middle Ages, so much so that it can be defined as "the metropolis of Western Hellenism". Destroyed in 82 BC. by the partisans of Silla, during the last century of the Republic and during the Empire Neapolis gradually transformed from a mercantile city to a city of otia for Roman high society and emperors. It was the site of important schools, such as that of Philodemus of Gadara and Sirone where Virgil and Horace studied, and of the Isolimpic games which took place every four years in conjunction with the Olympia games. Between 161 and 180 AD. C., the city obtained, perhaps by decision of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, with the name of Colonia Aurelia Augusta Antoniniana Felix Neapolis, the recognition of the status of colony.


Medieval age

The Duchy of Naples
In 536 Naples was conquered by the Byzantines during the Gothic war and remained firmly in the hands of the empire even during the subsequent Lombard invasion, later becoming an autonomous duchy. The first duke, according to tradition, would have been Basilio, appointed in 660-61 by the Byzantine Emperor Constans II, even if it is probable that he had been preceded by other people with the same duties, who were in any case an expression of the so-called "magnatic families " citizens. The life of the duchy was characterized by continuous wars, mainly defensive, against the powerful neighboring Lombard principalities and the Muslim conquerors (generally defined as Saracens), coming mostly from North Africa or Sicily, which had been conquered by the Arab-Aghlabids starting from 827. In this regard, the naval battle of Ostia in 849 is famous, while Abu l-'Abbas Muhammad I attempted to take possession of the city in 846.

The aversion between Christianity and Islam, however, already saw ample space for convergence in Naples in view of a more Mediterranean than continental projection of the duchy. The common commercial interests in fact determined a substantial friendship between Naples and the Arab world, so much so that there was the nonchalant employment by the Neapolitan side (but Campania in general, having to include Amalfi in this speech) of mercenaries, mostly hired in the settlement of Traetto (ribāṭ in Arabic). Prolonged architect of this policy was the bishop of Naples and duke Attanasio II, in spite of the excommunication inflicted on him by Pope John VIII.

The tenth century was characterized by a policy of neutrality, which aimed to keep Naples out of the games that were taking place around it. Both the economy and culture benefited from this, allowing on the one hand the development of the textile and iron working industries; on the other, a profitable exchange of literary and historical material - both religious and profane, both Greek and Latin - between the city and Constantinople, from which, for example, the Greek Romance of Alexander came.

The development of the iconoclastic movement by Leo III the Isaurian, and the consequent theological dispute between the latter and Pope Gregory II, resulted in the formal passage of the dioceses of Byzantine Italy under the authority of the patriarchate of Constantinople. In practice, however, Leo III's provision remained unenforced, and Naples remained faithful to the Pope's authority. As a reward for its position in the dispute, the city was elevated to the rank of ecclesiastical province around 990, and Sergius II was the first archbishop.

In 1030 Duke Sergio IV donated the county of Aversa to the band of Norman mercenaries of Rainulfo Drengot, who had joined him in the umpteenth war against the principality of Capua. From the base of Aversa, the Normans acquired their own social and organizational structure and within a century they were able to subjugate all of southern Italy, giving life to the Kingdom of Sicily.


The Norman-Swabian period

In 1139 the Normans of Roger II of Altavilla conquered the city, putting an end to the duchy: Naples thus became part of the territory of the Principality of Capua, in the newborn Kingdom of Sicily, with Palermo as its capital; nevertheless the city, already a center of thickness since the seventh century (its function of vice-capital of the Exarchate of Italy under Constans II is connected to this last period), established itself as a notable commercial square (the most important of the coast Southern Tyrrhenian Sea).

Once the Kingdom of Sicily passed into the hands of the Swabians under the Hohenstaufen, Naples was included in the execution of Terra di Lavoro. Emperor Frederick II of Swabia always preferred Palermo as his residence as well as the Capitanata in Puglia, but in Naples he decided to establish the University from which to draw a class of faithful officials educated within the borders. It, the oldest European institute of its kind, was conceived as a school independent of papal power.

The city rebelled more than once against the sons of the deceased emperor, Conrad IV and Manfredi, so much so that Conrad decided to demolish part of the walls and move the university headquarters to Salerno. Loyalty to the papacy was rewarded with Innocent IV's last stay in 1254, from October to December, before his death.


The Angevin period

Naples became part of the Angevin kingdom following the victories of Charles I of Anjou over Manfredi of Swabia in 1266 in Benevento; and on Corradino di Svevia in Tagliacozzo in 1268. Under the reign of Charles II of Anjou, the Seats were formally established, administrative bodies divided into areas of the city. They originated from the phratries of the Greek era and from the Magna cura Regis and would remain standing until the 19th century.

Following the revolt that broke out in Sicily in 1282 (Sicilian Vespers, also caused by the official promotion of the city to the capital of the Kingdom of Sicily in 1266) and the passage of the island to Aragonese rule, Naples became the capital of the Kingdom of Naples. Charles of Anjou was succeeded by his son Charles II and later by his nephew, Robert of Anjou, known as "the Wise", which further makes Naples one of the most influential cultural centers of Europe and the Mediterranean. The stays in the city of Francesco Petrarca, Simone Martini, Giotto (who will found one of the most important Giotto painting schools in Italy) and Boccaccio, who in the basilica of San Lorenzo Maggiore will meet Fiammetta, or Maria d' Aquino and later regret the pleasant years spent at the Neapolitan court. King Robert will be succeeded by his niece Giovanna I of Naples in 1343 and then it will be the moment of the d'Angiò of Durazzo in 1382 with Carlo di Durazzo, Ladislao I of Naples and Giovanna II of Naples.

Among the famous events that occurred in the period of the Angevin dynasty: the beheading of the young Corradino di Svevia in 1268, the tidal wave of 1343 (the same one that gave the coup de grace to Amalfi), the first attempt at political reunification of Italy under Ladislao di Durazzo and the sieges of the city in the struggles for the succession of Giovanna II of Anjou between Renato d'Angiò and Alfonso V of Aragon until the latter, after having penetrated the city through an aqueduct, in 1442 was able to occupy Naples definitively.


Modern age

The Aragonese Kingdom Utriusque Siciliae

The sovereign Alfonso the Magnanimous, despite the internal conflict between the monarchy and the barons, which manifested itself in dramatic episodes such as the conspiracy of the barons under the reign of his son Ferdinand I of Naples, privileged the city, making it the capital of his Mediterranean Empire. The Alfonsine period and that of his successors was characterized by the expansion of the perimeter of the city and the construction of a mighty wall with twenty-two cylindrical towers. Important city monuments were also built in this period, such as the Maschio Angioino arch (an initiative that gave rise to the so-called climate of the Arch), Palazzo Diomede Carafa, Palazzo Filomarino, Porta Capuana, Palazzo Como and the disappeared villa of Poggioreale, which it will become a paradigm for numerous villas, even beyond the Italian borders.

The cultural climate also experienced a notable increase, thanks to the great impetus given by Alfonso to the city library and the foundation of the Pontaniana Academy. The large sums lavished on the promotion of culture gave impetus to a flourishing of activities, which made Naples the protagonist of Humanism.


The Spanish Viceroyalty

Starting from 1501, as a result of the Italian Wars which upset European geopolitics, Naples lost its independence. After the march on Naples by Charles VIII of France and the new French occupation, in May 1503 it passed under Spanish domination, and for over two centuries the kingdom was governed by a viceroy on behalf of Madrid. The long Spanish domination is generally considered by historiography, especially in the Crocean style, as a dark and regressive period. In fact, however, the city in this period will never fall into a provincial condition (the monstrous dimensions, the intercultural liveliness and the anti-Curialism of Spanish Naples), becoming one of the greatest centers of the Empire; among other things called to counter the expansionism of the Ottoman Empire in the central-western Mediterranean and even more importantly to act as a rear line for the Spanish action in the Po Valley.

From the aforementioned period it is possible to find lexical loans of adstrato in the Neapolitan language, as well as expansions relating to the urban layout of the city, which doubled its perimeter and witnessed the opening of via Toledo and the construction of the so-called Spanish quarters, by the architects Giovanni Benincasa and Ferdinando Manlio, at the request of the then viceroy Pedro de Toledo.

During the war of the Spanish succession, Austria conquered Naples (1707), but held it for a few years, until 1734, the year in which the kingdom was occupied by Charles of Bourbon, who reconstituted an independent state which included all of the south Italy and Sicily.


The Bourbon period and the French parenthesis

Under Charles III of Bourbon, the city definitively sanctioned its role as a great European capital, above all with a series of important urban planning and architectural initiatives; it also established itself as a great center of the Enlightenment.

With the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars, Naples saw the birth of a Jacobin republic drowned in blood by the subsequent Bourbon restoration. In 1806 it was conquered by French troops led by Napoleon Bonaparte who entrusted the kingdom to his brother Giuseppe and later to Gioacchino Murat, who failed to prematurely unify the peninsula but reawakened national sentiment through the Proclamation of Rimini. In 1815 with the definitive defeat of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, Naples returned again to the Bourbons. During the French period, there were numerous Napoleonic plunders of works of art in Naples.

1820 in Europe was the year of agitations against monarchical absolutism, and in Naples these manifested themselves in the revolt led by General Guglielmo Pepe. Intimidated by this, Ferdinand I acquired an ambiguous behavior, first bestowing the Constitution, and then asking for Austrian help, in order to be able to withdraw it and repress the opposition. This attitude was repeated in the uprisings of 1848 when, after the umpteenth insurrection, Ferdinand II granted a constitutional charter, to then dissolve Parliament and repress the revolt bloodily, restoring absolutism. Also, in this period the city saw numerous impulses in many sectors.

The city was struck, like the rest of Europe, by cholera epidemics which decimated the population in 1835-37 and in 1854-55; also causing riots and riots.

In 1860 the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the object of Giuseppe Garibaldi's expedition of the Thousand and subsequently invaded by the Kingdom of Sardinia. Francis II of Bourbon abandoned Naples, falling back to Gaeta together with part of the Bourbon army to «guarantee it from ruins and war... to spare this dearest homeland from the horrors of internal unrest and the disasters of civil war», and a first defense was attempted with the battle of the Volturno and then with the siege of Gaeta. Following the defeat of the Bourbon troops, Naples was annexed to the nascent Kingdom of Italy.


Contemporary age

In 1864 the Kingdom of Italy was forced, by the September Convention with the Second French Empire of Napoleon III, to move the capital from Turin. Among the reasons for the move were the military ones: Naples was considered the favorite together with Florence (the first was "protected" by the Apennines and the second by the Tyrrhenian Sea). The Neapolitan city, for political reasons, was considered by the majority of the cabinet as a particularly suitable candidate, but did not obtain the support of the king, who considered Florence a city more suited to a role of temporary capital, a choice confirmed by the committee of five generals called to decide, as Naples would not have been sufficiently defensible with the Italian fleet which was not at the levels of the French or English ones.

Above all, the dismantling of the previous government structures following the unification of the peninsula, combined with the new national tax and customs system inherited from the Piedmontese one, led to a profound social and industrial crisis (also denounced by the writer Matilde Serao in Il ventre di Napoli and The Land of Cockaigne).

The critical conditions of post-unification Naples were at the origin, at the end of the 19th century, of a profound urban transformation that will give it vague similarities with Haussman's Paris. In this period numerous buildings and monuments were demolished, new districts and buildings were built and the arteries of via Duomo, del Rettifilo, via Francesco Caracciolo and viale Gramsci were opened. This historical juncture coincided extremely well with the birth of numerous café-chantants and a dynamic cultural and social environment which saw exponents of the caliber of Benedetto Croce.

On 11 March 1918, during the First World War, despite being very far from the conflict zone, the city was bombed by the German airship L.58 or LZ 104, which departed from a Bulgarian base, causing sixteen victims among the civilian population.

In the early twenties of the twentieth century, Naples was the seat of one of the most important Italian Combat Fasci headed by Aurelio Padovani; on 24 October 1922 the city was the scene of the great meeting of black shirts which was the general rehearsal of the March on Rome.

With the shift of the political and economic center of gravity of the country towards the South, Mussolini reserved for Naples the role of port city of the Italian colonial Empire, which is why it once again saw a profound urban renewal. Emblematic cases are the construction of the Mostra d'Oltremare and of the first underground railway link for urban penetration in Italy, known as the "FS metro", with the Naples-Pozzuoli section.

Precisely because of its role Naples was, during the Second World War, the Italian city that suffered the greatest number of bombings, about two hundred. After the surrender of the Kingdom of Italy to the Allies on 8 September 1943, Naples was the scene of a historic popular uprising known as the Four Days (27-30 September 1943) which, crowned with success, gave impetus to the Italian Resistance of the partisans against the Nazi-fascists.

During the second post-war period, there was a referendum to decide between a monarchy and a republic, and in the constituency of Naples as many as 904,000 were in favor of the former. A few days later, it was Enrico De Nicola, a Neapolitan, who was elected the first president of the Republic.

In the 1950s, in the midst of that political-social phenomenon known as laurism, the great building speculation was born which was symbolically described in the film Le mani sulla città by Francesco Rosi. In this period the city expanded in all directions, creating what are now its endless suburbs that gravitate towards the small central "district". In the same period the city, which was slowly recovering from the devastation of the second conflict, saw the birth of a very intense cinematographic activity, both nationally and internationally.

The Irpinia earthquake of 1980 also had its effects felt in Naples: in the eastern area a poorly built building collapsed, causing the death of fifty-two people, and the tourism sector suffered a further decline. From such a difficult economic and social situation, it was the Camorra that proliferated.

In 1994 the city hosted the G7 and the UN World Conference on the Fight against Organized Crime, thus beginning a period of relative renaissance. In 1995, after about ten years of building sites, the Centro Direzionale in Naples was completed, the first cluster of skyscrapers in southern Europe.

The following years will see the city become the headquarters of the Apple Developer Academy (2016), of the XXX Universiade (inaugurated on July 3, 2019), after the renunciation of the Brazilian capital, and host the G20 summit on the environment, energy and climate (2021).

Historical capital of the South, contemporary Naples is the center of a vast metropolitan area and has retained considerable cultural prestige, as the seat of museums and theatres, an ancient university and other institutions.



The coat of arms consists of a Samnite shield divided into two horizontal parts of equal height, the upper one colored gold and the other red ("troncato d'oro e di rosso"), surmounted by a turreted crown with five crenellated bastions visible, of which only one, the central one, equipped with an entrance door. According to a hypothesis, already declared unfounded by the historian Bartolomeo Capasso, gold symbolizes the sun, while red the moon.

The gonfalon takes up the two colors of the coat of arms, gold and red, which respectively occupy the upper half and the lower half of the entire cloth ("truncated"), symmetrically taking up the arrangement of the colors of the city's heraldic shield.


Physical geography


Naples rises almost in the center of the gulf of the same name "dominated" by the Vesuvius volcano and bordered to the east by the Sorrento peninsula with Punta Campanella, to the west by the Campi Flegrei with Monte di Procida, to the north-west-east by the southern slope of the Campania plain which extends from Lake Patria to Nolano.

The territory of Naples is made up of many hills (the Camaldoli hill, the highest, reaches 457 m), but also of islands and peninsulas overlooking the Tyrrhenian Sea.

The urban territory, limited to the west by the Campi Flegrei volcano and to the east by the Somma-Vesuvius, has a geologically complex history. The substrate on which the city rests has an eminently volcanic origin and is the product of a series of eruptions of the two complexes.

According to the national seismic classification, Naples is located in zone 2 (medium seismicity).



Naples enjoys a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, but still refreshed by the sea breeze that is rarely absent from its gulf. According to the Köppen classification, Naples, in its coastal strip, belongs to the Cfa and Csa zone, because a summer month receives a quantity of rainfall exceeding 40 millimeters. The sun shines on average for 250 days a year. The particular morphological conformation of the territory of the capital, however, is such as to ensure that the city has different microclimates within it, with the possibility therefore of encountering even significant climatic variations by moving a few kilometers.

According to the Italian climate classification, Naples is located in zone C.