Ludza, until 1920 Lucin (also Lyutsyn, Polish Lucyn) - a city in the east of Latvia, in Latgale. The administrative center of the Ludza region.
The area around Ludza was already inhabited in the
Mesolithic (8th-5th centuries BC), as evidenced by the bone objects
found on the shores of the Great Lake Ludza. In his essay "History
of the Russian State", N. Karamzin expressed the idea that Lucin,
mentioned in the Kiev chronicle (Киевская летопись) in connection
with the events of 1174, could have been modern Ludza. According to
another opinion, Lucina mentioned in the chronicle was in the
Principality of Smolensk, not in Latgale.
In the 13th century, Ludza was located in the land of Lotigola, a disputed territory between the territories ruled by the Livonian Order, the Prince of Polotsk and the Lithuanian dukes. During the reign of Master Vennemar of Brigenea in 1399, instead of the former Latgalian castle, the Livonian Order built a stone Ludza Castle on the land strip between the Big and Small Lakes of Ludza, which was next to the Rezekne Prison, managed by an official appointed by the Prince. In 1481, the Russians invaded Latgale and partially destroyed Ludza, but by 1525 the Order restored the castle again. After the Polish-Swedish War in 1629, Ludza was part of the Inflant Voivodeship. During the Second Northern War in 1654, the troops of the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich surrounded the city, dug under the castle walls and occupied Ludza. During the siege, the castle was blown up so badly that it soon collapsed.
After the first division of Poland and Lithuania in 1777, Ludza became a city in the Pskov Province. In 1802, Ludza district was included in Vitebsk province. In April 1917, at the First Latgale Latvian Congress, it was decided that Latgale should unite with the other regions of the future Latvian state. On the morning of January 26, 1920, during the Latvian Freedom Fights, the 2nd Ventspils Infantry Regiment of the Latvian Army liberated Ludza from the Bolsheviks.
On June 11, 1938, half of Ludza burned down. After the Second World War, several industrial enterprises were built in Ludza. The largest were metal processing, flax, meat and dairy processing plants.
Ludza is located in the Rēzekne depression part of the Latgale
highlands, in a wet place rich in lakes and rivers. Near the city
there is the Big Ludza Lake (846.4 ha), the Small Ludza Lake (36.5
ha), Dunakļu Lake (82.7 ha), Zvirgzdene Lake (134.2 ha), Runtorta
Lake. The Ludza River (the right tributary of the Velikaja) flows
out of the Great Ludza Lake, the Pilda flows with the left tributary
Kivdolica and Istalsna. The hob connects Zvirgzdene and Small Lake
Ludza. Garbarupe flows on the outskirts of the city.
The area around Ludza has been inhabited since the Mesolithic period (8th-5th centuries BC). Neolithic (mid-5th-2nd century BC) settlements on the Budjanka Peninsula and Jurizdika Cape on the Great Ludza Lake, as well as the Ķīšukalns castle mound (also called Šelupinka or Jeršovka castle mound) and the cemetery testify to the continuous population of the Ludza area. Ludza was first mentioned in 1177 in ancient Russian (Kiev and Ipatia) chronicles. There was a Latgalian castle here, which also had a settlement.
A wide view of the city opens from Odukalns, where there are 7-12. gs. Latgalian graveyard. Not far from it is the Church Hill with the Catholic Church. Nearby is a statue of Our Lady, Queen of the Land of Mara, and the Chapel of St. Thaddeus. Ludza castle ruins and St. The Chapel of Thaddeus is an architectural monument of national significance. The Orthodox Cathedral is located at 121 Latgales Street, in the city center. Near it is a synagogue. The most notable of the public buildings is the post office building at 110 Latgales Street (1929, architect D. Zariņš). Nearby is Ludza Lutheran Church (1866). Near the music school in the city park there is a memorial wall (1974) and a sculpture of the Mother (1963) for soldiers who fell in World War II.
Between the Big and Small Ludza lakes in Jurizdika castle mound is a 14th century Ruins of Ludza Castle. On the shore of the large Lake Ludza on the Budjanka peninsula was once the settlement of Budjanka; near Šelupinki there is an ancient Latgalian castle mound - Ķīšukalns, an archeological monument of national significance. Before the Cirma lake is located 18th century. the pub built at the beginning.
Nature reserves - Gulbinka bog, Zvirgzdene islands, Gaiļukalns on the shore of Cirma lake with juniper groves. Not far from the shore of Lake Sedzers architectural monument - Sarkaņi Catholic Church (1830). Nukši Pilda Catholic Church (1926) with the 18th century. altars. Nearby is the nature reserve Pilda lake and Silova castle mound. Istalsna Catholic Church (built in 1800, rebuilt in 1938). In Cibla Eversmuiža Catholic Church (1771, 1871), 1 km further Degteru castle mound (Silene), on the bank of the river Ludza at a height of 32 m Cibla Kapu hill (Kazlava castle mound).