Tukums is a city in Zemgale, the center of Tukums region. The city is located on the banks of the river Slocene. The area of Tukums is 12.9 km2. In 2020, there were 16,896 inhabitants. Railway lines connecting Tukums with Jelgava, Riga and Ventspils pass through the city. There are two railway stations - Tukums I and Tukums II, as well as a bus station. In 2019, half of Latvia's tires were recycled in this city. It is the second largest tire recycling plant in the Baltic States.
The name of the city is derived from the Baltic Finnish languages: either from the Tukku magi (modern Liv: Tukā mō), which can be interpreted as "a row of hills" or "heaps of piles", or, according to another hypothesis, the place name is derived from the Liv words for tiram maa - " end of the earth ".
In historical sources, the name Tukums (Latin: Tuckemen) was first mentioned in the 1253 exchange rate agreement. The Livonian Order built a castle of the Order in Tukums near the ancient traffic road that connected Riga with Kuldiga and further with Prussia through the present-day Jurmala. Due to its strategic importance ("Kurzeme Gate"), Tukums Castle was directly subordinated to the master of the Livonian Order, it was permanently inhabited by a few order brothers and was used as a food and goods warehouse. In 1445, the town of Tukums was first mentioned near the castle.
After the establishment of the Duchy of Kurzeme and Zemgale, Tukums became the residence of the mayor. After the Russian Empire annexed the Duchy of Courland in 1795, Tukums was granted city rights. In 1877, the railway line Riga - Tukums was opened. During the 1905 revolution, an armed uprising took place in the city, killing 120 people.
On May 29, 1990 - during the collapse of the USSR - Tukums became the first place in the territory of Latvia where the Lenin monument was removed. Since 1995, the city has hosted the annual Tukums City Festival.