Demir Kapija (Демир Капија)

 

Demir Kapija (Iron Porta or Iron Gate in Turkish) - a town in Lower Macedonia just in front of the famous Demir Kapija Gorge on the right side of the river Vardar. Demir Kapija is an important railway station and is located next to the international highway E75. The town is the administrative seat of the municipality of the same name.

 

Geography

The town is located in the southern part of the Tikvesh region, before Vardar enters the Demir Kapija Gorge. The river Boshava flows through Demir Kapija, which flows into Vardar not far from it. Located in altitude 115 meters above sea level. The city is 19 km south of Negotino, 29 km southeast of Kavadarci, 35 km northwest of Valandovo, 45 km north of Gevgelija and 60 km north of Veles.

 

History

The past of Demir Kapija is connected with the famous picturesque Demir Kapija Gorge, a place from which many military campaigns began and ended, a place that at different times was a border of several rulers and a place that was the seat of special feudal lords who occupied the territory and ruled her.

First, a settlement that existed around the fortress is mentioned, under the name of the ancient Roman city of Stene. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the fortress became the site of another city called the Middle Ages. There is more written information about this city, especially those related to the names of the feudal lords Dobromir Hrs and Dobromir Srez. With the arrival of the Ottomans, the settlement in the fortress ceased to live, the local population was displaced to a new location a few kilometers to the north and was called Banja, after the warm water baths that have existed in this area since ancient times. After the catastrophic earthquake on March 7 and 8, 1931, the population from the village of Banja was evacuated to the area near the railway station Demir Kapija. A new life began here, several trade and craft facilities were opened, and later a school was opened, as well as several commercial buildings. Most of the past of Demir Kapija is related to constant wars and traumas experienced by the local population. This city was occupied and ruled by many rulers during very short periods. This did not allow the development of economic life to gain momentum, but what was produced was plundered by the armies. Very little changed during the five centuries of Ottoman rule. At that time, Banja, inhabited by the population who had fled from Prosek, was turned into a large feudal estate of various Turkish beys. At the same time, the population was dependent on the Turkish feudal lords for their lives and freedom. Only after the expulsion of the Turks in 1912-1913. the village got rid of that addiction and started living a freer life. But it did not last long because after a few years a Bulgarian or Serbian occupying power was established. In the First World War, the territory of Demir Kapija was conquered by the Bulgarian-German and Serbian-English military forces. World War I wreaked havoc on the city. The consequences of it were felt for many years after her. During the Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1919-1941 the economic situation was bad because no one invested in this area.

The whole period of the Second World War in Demir Kapija was full of major military events. Due to its good geostrategic position, a significant number of German and Bulgarian armies were concentrated here. Fighting for the settlement became more frequent and especially expanded in 1943 and 1944, which contributed to the importance of Demir Kapija to be vital for the withdrawal of German units from Greece, which turned the settlement into a real fortress. After the withdrawal of the Germans and the strong fighting of the Macedonians in 1944, Demir Kapija was liberated.

After the liberation, Demir Kapija flourished, especially during the time when the settlement was the seat of the municipality of the same name. However, after the abolition of the municipality and the transformation of Demir Kapija into a regular seat of the Local Office, the growth has stagnated, which has left negative traces in the overall life. In 1996, Demir Kapija regained the status of a municipality, with the election of the first mayor and the first multi-party municipal council, the pulse of life returned to this city despite the extremely difficult economic situation created in 1990. The new municipal leadership returned the development to positive starting positions.

After the Second World War, Demir Kapija was inhabited by a large number of inhabitants from the village of Trlis, Dram region in present-day Greece.

 

Cultural and natural sights
Religious buildings
Church "St. Mother of God "
Assumption of the Most Holy Mother of God - Orthodox Church in Demir Kapija. It is a central parish church and was built in 1937.

Archaeological sites
Highway
Highway - archeological site near the town of Demir Kapija. It is a temple from early antiquity and Roman times. It is located northwest of Demir Kapija, next to the railway Skopje-Gevgelija, more precisely at the junction where the highway A1 intersects with the regional roads R29171 and R2137.

Remains of a smaller building were found during the road works. In it, on an area of ​​4 m2 were found reliefs, statues, fragments of ceramics and more. The reliefs and statues are from a composition of dioscuri in the company of goddesses (Artemis). It is believed to be a sanctuary dedicated to the Dioscuri (brothers Castor and Pollux, also represented by the constellation Gemini). According to the findings, the site dates back to the IV century BC. to the II century AD.

Bandera - Boshavica
Bandera - Boshavica - archeological site near the town of Demir Kapija. It is a temple and necropolis from Roman times. Parts of architectural decorative plastic, from a monumental building, were discovered at the confluence of Boshava in Vardar. These are foundations of pillars (ion type), parts of architectural beams with a wreath, one ion capital, as well as several inscriptions from the II and III century. Graves "on two waters" with structures of tegulas in which the dead were buried and cremated were also found.

Banderica
Banderica - an archeological site in the city of Demir Kapija. The site is a necropolis and a masonry aqueduct from Roman times. It is located in Klisursko maalo, about 1 km southeast of the center of Demir Kapija and is a southeastern periphery of the ancient settlement Manastir - Varnici. The rivers Boshava and Vardar are located on the north side. Graves from the II-IV century have been excavated at this place, as well as parts of a Roman water supply system built of stone, brick and lime mortar.

Hospital
The site is a necropolis and coin depot from early antiquity and the Middle Ages. As early as 1938, during the construction of the hospital, a tomb with a stone construction was excavated in which, in a ceramic bowl, 20 coins were found - Serbian medieval dinars from the XIV century. The coins are privately owned by M. Matic. Much later, with the research in 1974/75, in the yard of this hospital were discovered several graves with findings that are kept in the Museum of Macedonia.

Budur Chiflik
The site is a necropolis and a necropolis from late antiquity. In 1947, a tomb made of stone slabs measuring 1.92 × 0.66 × 0.64 m was discovered, placed in a north-south direction. The inside of the tomb was covered with marble slabs, the bottom was lined with a larger marble slab, and it was closed with a plain stone slab. Inside, from tombstones, were rich objects of gold and silver, including a gold bracelet and gag leaves with amethyst in the middle. Much later, in 1964, during the construction of individual houses on this site, foundations of multi-room residential buildings were discovered. Foundations of such buildings have been found on both sides of the river Dosnica.

Garden - a settlement from the Bronze Age and a necropolis from Roman times;
Average - medieval fortress;
Klisura - a settlement from early antiquity;
Polerelec Tower - a fortification from the Hellenistic and Late Antiquity;
Monastery - a settlement from prehistoric to late antique times, early Christian and medieval necropolis
Monastery - Varnici - settlement and necropolis from Roman times, basilica and necropolis from late antiquity and a medieval church with a necropolis;
Necropolis 1 - Necropolis from the Iron Age;
Necropolis 2 - Budur Chiflik - Necropolis from the Iron Age;
Plain - a fortified settlement from the Iron and Hellenistic period;
Roman Road - remnants of a road from Roman times;
Church - an early Christian basilica with a necropolis and a medieval church with a necropolis;