Kriva Palanka - a town in the northeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia, located in the area of Slavishte, under the slopes of the Osogovo Mountains on both banks of the Kriva Reka. In the immediate vicinity of the city is the border crossing Deve Bair to the Republic of Bulgaria. Kriva Palanka is 62 km away from Kumanovo, and 100 km east of Skopje.
Origin of the term
The name of the city Kriva Palanka comes from the thus shaped valley of Kriva Reka. The former name of the city was Egri Dere, which in Turkish means "crooked river". Later, the word "Palanka" replaced the Turkish word "dere".
The city is one of the younger cities on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. The city was formed by the Turks, more precisely by Bajram Pasha, and the city had importance as a military and defense center. That center aimed to strengthen that region of Macedonia. The founding of the city is recorded in Turkish documents from 1043 according to the Muslim calendar or after the standard Christian count in 1633. That document, or slab, was kept at the entrance to the fortress and was written in the Arabic alphabet. The plaque was later transferred to a mosque in the city center. Today the plaque is kept in the Museum of Macedonia in Skopje.
In his notes on Kriva Palanka from 1661-1662, the Turkish travel writer Evliya Çelebi wrote, among other things: There is a gate that opens to the southeast. It has ammunition depots, grain barns, ten chess-cannons, 200 soldiers, a city commander (disdar). The city gate and the ramparts were very high. There were 50 houses in the fortress, a mosque and a dome for military music. Outside it there was a city (palanka) with about 800 houses, a mosque, a large inn, as well as a caravanserai and a small hammam ... For travelers who passed through this place there was plenty of food ... In the town (town) there were enough shops, especially handicrafts, in which metal objects (nails, etc.) were made. There were also master craftsmen. There were also iron ore workshops ... "
The good position of this small settlement enabled it to grow into a larger settlement. According to 19th century censuses, the city was considered a settlement with a Christian Macedonian and a Turkish Muslim population.
An important Christian layer is being formed in the city, which in the XIX century carried on its shoulders the revival and development of the city, in a Christian and Orthodox manner. During this time, the city layer of rich Macedonian merchants and craftsmen was formed, who traded outside the Ottoman Empire and brought with them to the city the new trends and new ideas of the XIX century.
During this period in Kriva Palanka, one of the first Macedonian revivalists, Joakim Krчоovski, was active, who, with the help of local merchants, in the period 1814-1819, printed his famous five books in Budim, in a lively vernacular. Krчоovski not only developed the need for literacy, but also exerted a decisive influence on the establishment of a church-cell school in 1817. which was located in the house of Enger, near which later with great commitment of the city leaders and the founder David Jerej, in 1833. the city church of St. Demetrius will be built.
As a result of the church-educational activity, in Kriva Palanka, a church-epitropic municipality operated in 1833, which in 1861 was transformed into a church-school municipality, and already in the same year it will govern itself without officially giving up the jurisdiction of the Skopje Patriarchate. Metropolitan.
World War I and World War II
After the First World War, after 1918, Kriva Palanka for the first time received the status of a municipality within the Vardar Banovina of the SCS kingdom, received the first indigenous president (mayor), and received the character that it has largely retained to this day. . In those years, Kriva Palanka received several important buildings: the municipal building, the Officers' Home, the Partizan school, the Old Hospital, and received the first regulation of the Kriva Reka riverbed on the stretch from Osichko maalo to Numulia. The construction of the first power plant in northeastern Macedonia, on the Durachka River, was also started, but it was later stopped.
Geography and climate
The city is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia, in the area of Slavishte, under the slopes of the Osogovo Mountains. It is the only city settlement in Slavishte, where it plays the role of a local center and administrative center of fifty settlements in this region.
Kriva Palanka has a temperate-continental climate with moderately cold winters, moderately hot summers, cool springs and relatively warm autumns, due to the geographical mood and certain influences entering from the Aegean Sea via Kriva Reka. The high parts of Osogovo are influenced by the steppe climate. The average annual temperature is 10.2oC. The warmest month of the year is July with an average temperature of 20.0oC. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of -0.3oC. The average annual temperature fluctuation is 20.3oC. Compared to the surrounding areas, the Kriva Palanka area receives significant rainfall. This is due to the absolutely high altitude which is a natural condenser for water vapor, carried by westerly and southerly winds. The average date of the first snow cover in this area is November 30. The belt above 1700 meters above sea level has very low average annual temperatures, so the peaks Ruen and Carev Vrv are covered with snow from October to early June. The snow cover on Rouen remains in July.