Kruševo (Крушево, Krushevo)


Kruševo or Krushevo (Vlach: Crushuva) is a town in the western part of the Republic of Macedonia, in the bosom of Busheva Mountain. It is the city of the former Krushevo Republic. Above the city is the famous monument Makedonium. At 1,220 meters above sea level, Krushevo is the only mountain town in Macedonia and the tallest city in the Balkans. The city of Krushevo is the administrative seat of the municipality of the same name.



Kruševo is first mentioned in historical sources from 1467, as mezra, ie. a village within the property of Hussein Bey. In the Slepce Codex, which was kept by the monks since 1544, the name Kruševo is mentioned, which refers to the current settlement. During the Turkish rule, Krushevo was a small Slavic village, and at the end of the XVIII century it belonged to Qerim Bey from Ohrid, to whom the population of Krushevo paid taxes until 1847.

Kruševo, as a developed and organized city settlement was formed at the end of the XVIII century and the beginning of the XIX century. For the formation of Kruševo as a city settlement, the migration of the Vlachs from Moscopole and its surroundings from 1769 to 1788 and the founding of the Vlach Maalo is significant. At the beginning of the 19th century, in the period from 1812 to 1821, a second group of Vlachs immigrated, but now not from Moscopole, but from Mount Gramos. They founded a new neighborhood called Strunga. By profession they were mainly cattle breeders and developed animal husbandry. At the same time, a group of Orthodox Albanians came to Kruševo from southern Albania and founded the Arnaut neighborhood in the left and right of the Kruševo River. At the same time, a large number of Macedonian cattle breeders from the surrounding villages moved from the surrounding villages: Galichnik, Lazaropole, Tresonche, Gari and others. who founded the Mijak Maalo.

The Vlachs, known as successful builders, merchants, tenants, craftsmen and migrant workers, well organized their work in the new settlement, and the settlers Mijaci from the Reka region, widely known and successful builders, carvers, painters and icon painters, fit into the process of economic and cultural settlement development.

The economic growth had a positive impact on the urban community, so that in the first half of the XIX century, Kruševo acquired the character of an urban community. Until 1845, Krushevo was a farm run by the heirs of the beys Kerim and Rustem from Bitola, but in the same year several rich and respectable people from Kruševo collected about a thousand Turkish lira and bought the farm. According to the sale document, Muslim families were not allowed to settle in the city.

Due to the weak security before the end of the Turkish rule, the Christian population from the surrounding villages, during the XIX century continuously settled in Kruševo, thus increasing the population in the already formed city. In 1858, Krushevo already had 1,400 houses, ten annas, ten smithies of copper, tin and iron, as well as eight workshops for processing fat and meat. According to the Austrian Hahn, Kruševo for this period had a specific physiognomy with thirteen churches, both in the city and in the surrounding area. At the end of the 19th century, Krushevo was famous for its silversmithing, pottery and leather products. In addition, renting was developed in the city. Caravan connections were established with Prilep, Bitola, Ohrid, Thessaloniki and other cities in Macedonia, which contributed to the intensive development of trade and crafts. Kruševo merchants could be found in: Budapest, Vienna, Leipzig, Athens, Constantinople, Smyrna, Alexandria, Addis Ababa and other cities around the world. Later, the people of Kruševo went to trade even in America and Canada, they also traded with the Asian countries India and Persia (Iran). With this the city became famous almost all over the world. As a craft and trade center, the city developed very quickly and already in 1883 it had about 12,000 inhabitants.

Ilinden Uprising
During the Ilinden Uprising, the city of Kruševo was liberated on August 2, 1903 and the Kruševo Republic was formed here. An interim government of six members and a 60-member National Assembly were elected. The republic existed until August 13. On the morning of August 12, the city was attacked by 15,000 Turkish soldiers led by Bakhtiar Pasha. Significant battles for the defense of the Republic were fought on Meckin Kamen and near Sliva. After the suppression of the Ilinden Uprising, Krushevo was set on fire, and a large part of the population from the city and the surrounding villages moved out.

World War Two
The people of Kruševo actively took part in the National Liberation Struggle of the Macedonian people. On April 16, 1942, in the locality of Grujova Niva on the mountain Osoj near Kruševo, the Kruševo national liberation partisan detachment "Pitu Guli" was formed. The detachment carried out several attacks on the Bulgarian municipality in Pribilci (on August 6), on the mine Cer-Nebojsa, near the villages Kochishta, Rastovica, Gjurce, Divjaci and others. Political rallies were held after the attacks. The city was liberated on September 8, 1944.




Kruševo lies on the western mountain edge of the Pelagonija Valley, in the source shallow valley part of the Krushevska River. This river divides the city into two parts: bigger on the left and smaller on the right. The houses in the city are placed amphitheatrically. Due to the specific morphoplasty, Krushevo is considered a typical mountain town, which has an average altitude of 1350 meters, so it is considered the highest town on the Balkan Peninsula. It is 25 km north of Demir Hisar, 32 km west of Prilep and 52.5 km north of Bitola.

Air conditioning
The average annual temperature in Kruševo is 8.4 ° C, the average January temperature is -1.3 ° C, the February temperature is -0.5 ° C March 2.6 ° C April 7.1 ° C May 12 ° C June 15, 6 ° C in July 17.9 ° C August same 17.9 ° C September 14.6 October 8.3 ° C November 4.7 ° C and December 0.4 ° C. Temperature inversions, which are common in the winter months in this area, are one of the reasons for the relatively high temperatures this season in Kruševo and give a special climatic feature to this place in terms of temperature. The inversions greatly affect the increase of the average monthly temperatures in the winter months, which are lower than Pelagonija, but not as much as they should be in relation to the difference in altitude. The annual temperature amplitude is 19.2 ° C. In Kruševo, autumn is significantly warmer than spring. The average autumn temperature is 9.5 ° C, and the spring 7.2 ° C. September is 2.6 ° C warmer than May, October is 2.2 ° C than April and November is 2.1 ° C warmer than March. The monthly temperature difference between the spring and autumn months is not significantly expressed and the transition from winter to summer and from summer to winter is not abrupt, so that both spring and autumn stand out as transitional annual seasons. The average annual minimum temperature in Kruševo is 4.9 ° C, and the maximum is 12.1 ° C.

On average, 178 icy days occur in Kruševo annually. The average date of autumn frost is October 25 and the earliest autumn frost is observed on September 22. The average date of spring frost is April 21, and the latest spring frost is observed on May 13.

Precipitation in Kruševo is quite unevenly distributed throughout the year and this area falls under the Mediterranean pluviometric regime. Most fall in the cold part of the year, with a maximum in November and the winter months, and a minimum in the summer months. The secondary maximum precipitation is in May, which leads to the conclusion that in this area to some extent the expressed pluviometric regime is disturbed. The average annual rainfall is 798.6 mm, with a maximum in November 97.6 mm and a minimum in August 39.3 mm. By seasons, the rainiest is autumn, 225.2 mm, followed by spring 218.1 mm, winter 213 mm and summer 142.3 mm.

The absolute maximum daily rainfall is 139 mm, recorded on November 19, 1979. Of the total average annual number of rainy days (124), 85% are rainy days with a daily amount equal to or greater than 1.0 mm, 42% with an amount equal to or greater than 5.0 mm, 20% with a daily amount equal to or greater than of 10.0 mm and 7% with a daily amount equal to or greater than 20.0 mm. The precipitation in Krushevo is from rain but to a considerable extent also from snow. Snow occurs from September to May. The maximum height of the snow cover is 135 cm recorded on February 6, 1954. The average annual amount of solar radiation is 2109 hours, with a maximum of 295 hours in July and a minimum of 99 hours in December. The average annual relative humidity is 73% with a maximum of 80% in December and a minimum of 63% in July.



The area of ​​Kruševo is quite windy. Of the total number of measured cases converted to per mille, 739 ‰ are with winds from various directions, and 261 ‰ are quiet without wind, ie. with silences. The highest frequency is the west wind with a frequency of 151 ‰, average wind speed of 2m / sec and a maximum strength of 9 Beaufort. The second most frequent is the northeast wind with a frequency of 98 ‰, which usually blows in late spring and summer months and is more frequent in the winter and autumn months. Its average annual speed is 3.3 m / sec, and the maximum strength in Beaufort is up to 10. The southwest wind is with a high frequency from November to February and in April, and with a slightly reduced frequency is in the summer months. Its annual frequency is 89 ‰, its average annual speed is 3.2 and its maximum is 10 Beaufort. The east wind blows with a frequency of 75. With an average speed of 1.6 m / s and a maximum strength of up to 9 Beaufort. The north wind blows with great frequency throughout the year of 108 ‰. There is a slightly reduced frequency only in April, May and June and it usually blows in January, March and July. Its average annual speed is 2.6 and its maximum strength is 10 Beaufort. The southeast blows with a frequency of 58 ‰, average speed of 2 m / s. and maximum strength up to 8 Beaufort. The southern wind blows most often in November and December, and with a slightly reduced frequency it occurs throughout the year. Its frequency is 64., Its average annual speed is 2.4 and its maximum reaches 10 Beaufort. The northwest wind has a frequency of 33 ‰ with an average annual speed of 3 m / s and a maximum strength of up to 10 Beaufort.