Resen (Ресен)

 

Resen - a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia and the seat of the Municipality of Resen, and is an administrative and economic center of the Prespa area, which is surrounded by high mountains. Baba on the east side, Galicica on the west, Bigla on the north side. Local government, business and important institutions are situated in Resen.

Lake Prespa, the national parks Galicica and Pelister give the region a special beauty. Lake Prespa is the second largest in the Republic of Macedonia. It is located on the south side of the Prespa Valley between the mountains Galicica and Baba 835 m above sea level.

The culture in Prespa dates back to the Neolithic. Via Egnatia passed through the valley during the Roman Empire. There are a number of art monuments in the region. The most popular is the monastery in Kurbinovo built in 1191. Pottery was developed in Prespa in the past and is still present thanks to the Resen ceramic colony. The colony is home to many world-famous potters from everywhere, during the summer, every year.

 

Geography

The town of Resen lies in the northern part of the Prespa Valley, on both sides of Golema Reka, and not far north of Lake Prespa, at an altitude of about 880 m. It covers an area of ​​402 ha. The M-5 highway passes through Resen, which connects it with Ohrid in the west (36 km) and in the east with Bitola (32 km). It has a temperate-continental climate with an average annual air temperature of 9.6 oC and an average annual rainfall of 717 mm.

 

History

Ancient and medieval history
In antiquity, the area of ​​Prespa was inhabited by the Upper Macedonian tribe Oresti. In Philip II of Macedon they were firmly united with the Macedonian state.

During the Roman Empire, the famous ancient Roman road "Via Egnatia" passed through Prespa. Several settlements and road sites were built next to it. One of them was Skiritania, in whose place later grew the Slavic settlement Resen.

In the VI and VII century the Slavic tribe Brsjaci settled in the area.

Resen is first mentioned as a medieval settlement in a charter of Dusan's Code of 1337, under the name Rosne. In a 16th century census the settlement is registered as Resne. During the reign of Stefan Dusan (XIV century) Jankoec, Ljubojno, Nakolec, Nivici and Globocani and the Prespa area itself (fishermen from Prespa) are also mentioned as settlements. In the XVIII century with the development of trade and handicrafts Resen grew into a small town.

Ottoman period
In 1582, the Prespa Nahiya covered the area around the northern shore of Lake Prespa, but Resen is not mentioned in this nahiya. Later in the 17th century, Resen grew into a town, which Evliya Çelebi mentioned, but outside the Prespa district. This travel writer, about the city he visited in the same century, wrote: “Resen has 180 houses covered with tiles, with only two neighborhoods. The settlement is surrounded by gardens, and the population is Christian and Muslim. There are two mosques, one of which is located in the bazaar, and in its yard there is a madrasa. "There is also a dervish aunt, a hammam, and twenty shops."

In Resen only at the end of the 18th century, crafts and trade began to develop, and with that, the economic power of the traders and craftsmen strengthened. Due to that, the formation of a bazaar was inevitable, while the settlement itself grew into an economic center of Prespa. Initially, the settlement received a city physiognomy, and later became the administrative center of the Turkish government. In the same century, more precisely in 1894, the cathedral church "St. Cyril and Methodius ”, which was consecrated by a large number of future and prominent figures from Macedonia. Although there seems to be economic growth in the city, most citizens have struggled for their livelihood. The expansive way of managing did not provide a good standard of living for the population. Due to such conditions, in Resen and its surroundings, many citizens from all over Prespa, go to work abroad. Most of the population left at the beginning of the 20th century, in the period before and during the Balkans and the First World War, mostly in overseas countries.

During the Ilinden Uprising in August 1903, fierce battles were fought in and around Resen. Although several Prespa villages were liberated, the town of Resen was not liberated. In the second half of August, three detachments of the Turkish army and a numbered bashibozuk arrived in Resen, a total of about 600 people, in order to quell the insurgent forces in the area.

The Young Turk Revolution began in the city of Resen on July 3, 1908, when the Turkish officer Ahmed Niyazi-bey organized the first insurgent company consisting of Turkish soldiers and citizens. Macedonians also joined this revolution en masse. The aim of the revolution was modernization, constitutionality and democratization of the country.

Contemporary history
During the fascist occupation, Prespa experienced another fragmentation. The northern part with the city of Resen fell under Bulgarian occupation, and the southern part of Resen under Italian occupation and joined the so-called Greater Albania.

As early as 1941. the Prespa communists began preparations for an armed struggle against the occupiers. In the spring of 1942, the first partisan groups were formed, and on July 6, 1942, over the village. Zlatari The Bitola-Prespa partisan detachment "Dame Gruev" was formed.

On August 2, 1943 in the immediate vicinity of the village. The famous Prespa Conference was held in Otesevo, which was attended by the members of the Central Committee of the CPM, the main headquarters of the National Liberation Army and the POM. Important decisions were made here for the further escalation of the uprising in Macedonia. A large number of sleepers actively participated in several units of the National Liberation War of Macedonia.

 

Prespa definitely received its liberation on September 11, 1944. 1,902 fighters participated in the units of the National Liberation Army and the partisan detachments from Prespa. Of these, 29 fighters were the bearers of the "Partisan Monument 1941". The poet Mite Bogoevski was declared a national hero. 128 fighters died in the battles for the liberation of Macedonia. Prominent commanders and leaders from Prespa are: Naum Veslievski - The Shepherd, Mite Trpovski-Vojvodata, Cvetko Uzunovski and others.


Landmarks
Archaeological sites
St. George - a solitary find from Roman times;

Churches
Church "St. Cyril and Methodius ”- built in 1894;
Church "St. George "- built in 1844;
Church "St. Petar ”- is located in the locality of Dobrovo;
Church "St. Trinity "- was built in 1929, and renovated in 2016;
Church "St. John the Baptist "- a monastery church. It is located in the locality Tatarcheva Korija;

Mosques
Hadjimurat Mosque or Upper Mosque - built in the 17th century;
Hadjiramadanova Mosque or Lower Mosque - built in 1592;