Ermak Travel Guide

 

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Malta

 

Malta Destinations Travel Guide

 

 

 

Language: Maltese, English

Currency: Euro (EUR)

Calling Code: 356

 

 

 

Description of Malta

The Republic of Malta (in Maltese: Repubblika ta 'Malta, in English: Republic of Malta) is an island country that is a member of the European Union, densely populated, composed of an archipelago and located in the center of the Mediterranean, in the south of Italy, to the east of Tunisia and north of Libya. Due to its strategic location, it has been governed and contested by various powers over the centuries. Since 1964 he is independent and in 2004 he joined the European Union. In 2011 it had a population of 452 215 inhabitants with a distribution of 1431 inhabitants / km², the highest population density among the countries of the European Union.

 

The origin of the word Malta is uncertain. The most accepted etymology is that according to which comes from the Greek word μέλι (meli, 'honey'). The Greeks called the island Μελίτη (Melite), which meant 'sweet as honey', probably due to the quality of the honey produced by the bees of the archipelago. In fact, in Malta there are endemic species of these insects, which is why it is called "land of honey." The Romans continued calling it Melita, latinization of Μελίτη. Another etymology has as reference the word Phoenician Maleth, which means 'refuge', due to the large number of bays and inlets on the island's coastline.

 

Travel Destinations in Malta

 

 

Ġgantija Temple

 

Ggantija Temple Complex is one of the oldest man made structures in the World and certainly one of the oldest megalithic religious temples.

Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni

 

Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni located on the island of Malta is the only known underground prehistoric temple.

 

 

 

 

 

Malta, located in the center of the sea routes from Europe to Asia and Africa, has long attracted conquerors. In the VIII century BC. e. Malta began to colonize the Phoenicians and almost simultaneously - the Greeks. From the 4th century BC e. according to the 13th century e. it was alternately captured by the Carthaginians, Romans, Byzantium, Arabs, Normans, Spaniards.
In 1530, Emperor Charles V granted Malta the ecclesiastical order of St. John, which has since received the name of the Order of Malta.
In 1798, Malta was captured by the French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte, heading to Egypt. Napoleon abolished the power of the order on the island. On December 16 (27), 1798, the Russian Emperor Paul I was elected the Grand Master of the Order of Malta. The emperor issued a decree on the adoption of the island of Malta under the protection of Russia. In the calendar of the Academy of Sciences, at the direction of the emperor, the island of Malta was to be designated "The Province of the Russian Empire." Paul I wanted to make the title of grandmaster hereditary, and Malta to annex to Russia. On the island, the emperor planned to create a naval base to ensure the interests of the Russian Empire in the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Europe. On September 5, 1800, the British, in turn, occupied Valletta, the capital of Malta, with their troops and raised the British flag there. The military governor of the island was Alexander Ball. After the assassination of Paul I, his son refused claims to the island. Under the terms of the Paris world of 1814, Malta withdrew to Great Britain. The British turned it into their colony and naval base.
The defense of Malta from June 1940 to December 1942, thanks to the important strategic location of the island, became one of the significant episodes in the victory of the Allied forces over the Axis powers in the Mediterranean theater of operations. On April 15, 1942, King George VI awarded the St. George Cross (the highest civilian award for valor) "Malta's fortress island - its people and defenders."
On September 21, 1964, Great Britain granted Malta independence within the framework of the British Commonwealth. The British Queen was still considered the head of state, the British Governor General remained in the country, British laws were in force. The UK has concluded an agreement with Malta on "mutual defense of Malta", which secured the deployment of British troops on the archipelago for a period of 10 years. The naval and air bases of Great Britain, which were used by the NATO command, continued to function in Malta. July 19, 1967 established diplomatic relations with the USSR. In 1971, the Labor government came to power in Malta, which denounced the Anglo-Maltese agreement of 1964 and limited the presence of foreign troops in the country. December 31, 1974 in Malta proclaimed a republic led by the president and unicameral parliament. In March 1979, the Anglo-Maltese treaty expired on the use by Britain and NATO of military bases on the archipelago. The Government of Malta refused to renew this agreement for a new term. On March 31, 1979, the last British naval base was liquidated in Malta and the last British troops were withdrawn.